Presentation on theme: "0 Sexual and Gender-based Violence in Conflict: International Advocacy for Local Impact Many Voices, One Movement November 2008 For More Information Contact."— Presentation transcript:
0 Sexual and Gender-based Violence in Conflict: International Advocacy for Local Impact Many Voices, One Movement November 2008 For More Information Contact the CI-UN Office at
1 Sexual and Gender-based Violence and War Civilians account for the vast majority of victims in contemporary “wars among the people;” those least empowered suffer most.* Women/girls targeted as a tactic of war to humiliate, dominate, instill fear in, punish, disperse and/or forcibly relocate members of a community/ethnic group. Sexual violence holds entire communities hostage: economic, social, cultural, inter-generational impact – women cannot access water-points/markets; children cannot safely get to school; fuels cycles of reprisal; ‘war babies’ ostracized. * Much of the content herein is excerpted from an excellent, detailed PowerPoint on SC Resolution 1820 by UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict.
2 Sexual and Gender-based Violence and War, 2 Sexual violence as an international security threat: Challenges conventional notions of “a security threat;” side-lined as a “gender/women’s issue;” invisible; under- reported; a “random, private, inevitable by-product of war.” Impunity: Historical absence of formal accountability – communities blame/shame victims. International Justice: Spectrum of sexual violence offences included in Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court; International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), Rwanda (ICTR).
Historical Overview 20,000 – 50,000 women raped during war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, early 1990s. 250,000 – 500,000 women raped during 1994 Rwandan genocide. 50,000 – 64,000 internally displaced women in Sierra Leone sexually attacked by combatants. An average of 40 women raped every day in South Kivu, DRC. Increasing scale and brutality of SGBV. Dr. Denis Mukwege of Panzi Hospital in DR Congo: “the monstrosity of our century.”
4 Three Distinct SGBV Environments Widespread & Systematic Widespread & Opportunistic Isolated & random/relational Deployed as a method of warfare by armed groups. Armed groups and ordinary civilians exploit conflict and chaos to attack women. Domestic criminal matter, unrelated to political strategy or to international peace and security. Requires disciplinary measures by belligerents and peacekeeping efforts to prevent, deter, respond to attacks, attuned to violence in unconventional physical space/ time. Requires integrated mission response; efforts to encourage domestic judicial/ security system to prioritize prevention, protection, prosecution. Requires a national law and order response; public information campaigns to raise awareness of women’s rights, etc.
5 The Global Challenge Jean-Marie Guehenno, former Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, 2007: “If we look at the range of interventions necessary to address sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict situations, it becomes clear how pressing is the need for a concerted and integrated approach.” Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary-General, 2007: “In no other area is our collective failure to ensure effective protection for civilians more apparent…than in terms of the masses of women and girls, but also boys and men, whose lives are destroyed each year by sexual violence perpetrated in conflict.” Maj. Gen. Patrick Cammaert, 2008, former UN Peacekeeping Operation commander in DR Congo: “It is now more dangerous to be a woman than to be a soldier in modern conflict”.
6 Rights-based Approach to Protection of Civilians against SGBV International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law Four Geneva Conventions (1949 ) and Two Additional Protocols (1977) UN Convention on Ending Discrimination Against Women (1979) Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995) UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998) covers the spectrum of sexual and gender-based violence and establishes rape as a war crime. UN SC Resolution 1325 (2000) UN SC Resolution 1820 (2008)
7 UN SC Resolution 1820 – Four Main Points Explicitly links sexual violence as a tactic of war with the maintenance of international peace and security. It will no longer be possible to portray rape in war as an issue that does not warrant the Security Council’s attention. To recognize sexual violence as a security issue is to justify a security response. The Council now has a clear mandate to intervene, including through sanctions and empowering field staff. Requesting a comprehensive report from the UN S-G on implementation and strategies for improving information flow to the Council by June 2009, means better data to inform better prevention, response and justice on the ground. Demands parties to armed conflict to adopt concrete protection/ prevention measures to end sexual violence, including training troops, enforcing military discipline, upholding command responsibility, vetting past perpetrators. Asserts the importance of women’s participation in all processes related to ending sexual violence in conflict, including peace talks.
8 Resolution 1820 – further key protection points Calls for effective guidelines to help peacekeepers respond more effectively [Operative Paragraph 9] S-G to strengthen efforts to implement “zero tolerance” policy on sexual exploitation and abuse [OP 7]; include protection of women/girls in country- specific reports [OP 9]; increase percentage of women peacekeepers [OP 8] Calls for States to strengthen their judicial and health-care systems to better support survivors/ capacity-building for sustainable assistance [OP 13] UN Secretary-General and UN agencies, through consultation with women, to develop protection mechanisms in/around camps; during DDR; in justice/SSR processes [OP 10] UN Peacebuilding Commission to include strategies for addressing sexual violence in advice and recommendations [OP 11]
9 Reasons for CARE to engage in Advocacy Central to our mission and vision: Addressing the underlying causes of poverty, social injustice and humanitarian suffering in order to achieve a significant and lasting impact Central to our program framework: Complementing work at community level with advocacy for accountable systems and institutions at all levels
10 Why “global” advocacy? Decisions taken at multi-lateral level (UN, EU) = coordinated advocacy at multiple levels to achieve impact Potential for CARE to become a “global force” – leveraging massive field presence, international confederation much more effectively CI Strategic Plan , SD #2 “Advocacy conducted in a coordinated fashion by multiple parts of CI (joint advocacy) around issues and related policies that must be accessed at the international level.”
11 Examples of CI advocacy on SGBV to date Monitoring -- UN Res Collaboration between several National Members and CARE COs to monitor its implementation. Legal Norm-building -- UN Res Collaboration among CARE DRC, GLAG, ECARMU, several National Members and CI Secretariat-UN Ofc to lobby national capitals and UN officials to adopt Res 1820 (tools: letter, talking points, meetings). Implementation of Norms. Regular expert consultations with UN PKO, UNIFEM, OCAH, States to initiate effective implementation of Res Expert Advisory Role. Briefing by CARE-DRC SGBV advisor to UN officials, member states and NGOs in NY on challenges to implementing Res Enabling CI To Do Timely Advocacy. Regular consultations among theme group of CARE field, National Members, Centre of Expertise on Conflict and Secretariat to develop further policy and advocacy strategy. CI Advocacy Process. Formation of a CARE “Task Force” on SGBV to further global advocacy based on field evidence and expertise (in progress).
12 Exciting Opportunities for CARE Potential Advocacy Priorities from December 2008-June 2009: Input CARE’s field-based expertise and policy experience with UNSC into ‘blueprint’ being drafted by the UN S-G for improving the UN’s response to SGBV in conflict. S-G report will include proposals for systematic prevention, response, recovery services and ending impunity enjoyed by perpetrators of sexual violence. (Report to be reviewed and adopted by UNSC in June 2009.) Consolidation of CARE’s field experience and recommendations through systematic mapping research and analysis. Join with civil society and government allies in UN campaign “Stop Rape in Armed Conflict.” Presentation of CI positions on this “blueprint” at high-level session of Annual UN Commission on the Status of Women, March Media and popular outreach. Lobbying in CI capitals, EU and UN-NY to marshal political support for CI positions on the S-G’s report. Media products and popular outreach. Explore partnerships with documentary-makers and allies to join high-profile push in June 2009 for adoption of UN S-G report. Follow-up pressure, with partners, to ensure immediate work begins to implement action points adopted by UNSC in June. Build internal advocacy capacity and synergy from field level to national capitals and multilateral centres.