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 Jonathon Swift & British Society in 18 th Century.

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1  Jonathon Swift & British Society in 18 th Century

2 Jonathon Swift  Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin, Ireland, on November 30, 1667  He was raised by his uncle then attended Trinity College at the age of fourteen, and graduated in 1688  Also in 1688 he became the secretary of Sir William Temple, an English politician and member of the Whig party  Then in 1694 Returned to Ireland to be an Anglican priest

3 Jonathon Swift Con’t  During this time is when swift begun to write satires on the political and religious corruption surrounding him.  Some of which being, Tale of a Tub, which supports the position of the Anglican Church against its critics on the left and the right, and the Battle of the Books, which argues for the supremacy of the classics against modern thought and literature.

4 Jonathan Swift Con’t  When he returned to Ireland he was a big supporter of the Irish attempts to weaken English economy and political power.  Which Is when he wrote a Modest proposal (we read in class)  When Swift be came more frustrated and bitter is when he wrote Gulliver’s Travels

5 England During Restoration  birth of the Whig and Tory parties,  manifestations of anti-Catholicism.  reopening of the theaters, which had been closed since 1642  Advances in colonization and overseas trade

6 Whigs  opposition of absolute rule  In favor of constitutional Monarchism  Constitutional Monarchism: in which an absolute monarch serves as the source of power in the state and is not legally bound by any constitution and has the powers to regulate his or her respective government.  supported moral reforms, especially the abolition of slavery and emancipation of the Catholics

7 Whigs Con’t  supported the patriots and the need for self government.  The Whig position was that Englishmen in the colonies should have the same rights as Englishmen at home  took offence at the taxes and other abuses of these rights for the colonists.

8 Tories  God, King, and Country  Advocate monarchism  believed that the King and Parliament had the right to treat the colonies as they chose.  did not believe that the colonists should have the same rights as English citizens did in England.

9 Tories Con’t  Tories were mostly loyal to the English throne and against the War for Independence.  Tories were in favor the Church of England  Tories remained a powerful political party during the reigns of the next two monarchs, particularly that of Queen Anne.

10 Religion In England  The Protestant reformation of the early 16 th was an attempt to reform catholic church  The view of the catholic church is that the protestant denominations can no be considered “churches”  England had been a Catholic country; but a series of reforms in the 1530s under King Henry VII converted most of the country to Protestantism

11 Religion Con’t  At the same time, revolution and reform in Scotland (1560) had also converted that country to Presbyterian Protestantism, which led to problems with England and Scotland  Some of the conflicts were between Protestants and Catholics; others were between different branches of Protestantism

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