2EX-SITU and IN-SITU In – situ Ex – situ Examples insideoutsidesitesiteExamplesCaptive breeding – zoosBotanic gardensSeed banksExampleNature reservesNational ParksMarine ParksBiosphere Reserves
3SEED BANKS Seeds collected and stored -10ºC to -20ºC Remain viable for many years but not forever!!So … will need to be germinated and grown to produce replacement seeds
4BOTANIC GARDENS e.g. Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew Many different species of plants are grownGardens and greenhouses
5CAPTIVE BREEDING PROGRAMS i.e. zoosAnimals are caught and put in a zooEncouraged to breedWhen numbers are high enough, can be released back into the wilde.g. Prezwalski horse
6NATURE RESERVES Species is conserved in its natural habitat May be terrestrial or marineDisadvantagesMay not be safe to leave very rare species in the wildHabitat loss forces removal of threatened speciesEx-situ measuresAdvantagesSpecies remain adapted to habitatGreater genetic diversity conservedNatural behavior patterns maintainedInteractions between species help whole ecosystem
7MANAGEMENT ISSUESElimination of alien species (particularly predators and invasive plants)Restoration of degraded areasImplementation of measures to encourage threatened species (e.g. supplementary feeding)Controlling human exploitation e.g. hunting
8DESIGNING and MANAGING NATURE RESERVES The Thai government has purchased a piece of land to turn into a nature reserve for the education and enjoyment of the public.Your organisation has been given the task of designing and managing the reserve.You must consider how to address the management issues covered in the previous slide as well as how to incorporate the needs of vistors to the reserve.
10INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES and MEASURES Research one of the following agencies or conservation measures and report back to the class on the role it plays in international conservation efforts.CITES – Convention on International Trade in Endangered SpeciesWWF – World Wildlife FundIUCN – World Conservation UnionConvention on Biological DiversityUNEP – United Nations Environment Programme