4Why Do We Need to Differentiate? When a teacher tries to teach something to the whole entire class at the same time, chances are, one-third of the kids already know it; one-third will get it; and the remaining third won’t.Lillian KatzLillian Katz is an internationally known expert on young children's intellectual and academic development.Think of the students in your classroom right now. If this quote is true, could you put your students into each one of these three categories?Willis, S (November 1993). “Teaching Young Children: Educators Seek ‘Developmental Appropriateness.” Curriculum Update, 1-8.
7“If students don't learn the way we teach them, we must teach them the way they learn.” - Marcia Tate, Developing Minds Inc., Conyers, GAIn a differentiated classroom it is the teacher who does the adapting.
8Differentiation IS NOT . . . The same as an IEP for every studentJust another way to group kidsExpecting less of struggling learners than of typical learnersA substitute for specialized servicesChaoticNew
9Good Differentiation IS . . . Varied avenues to content, process, productRespectful of all learnersProactiveStudent-centeredA blend of whole class, small group, and individual instructionBased on students’ readiness, interests, and/or learning profile
11“At its most basic level, differentiation means ‘shaking up’ what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.”Tomlinson, C.A. (2001) How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms
12Teachers Can Differentiate: ContentProcessProductAccording to Students’Content- is what students should know, understand, and be able to do as a result of the segment of study. “it’s the stuff we want students to learn, therefore it is the stuff we teach”…..content standards, curriculum provide guidance for this.Process- a purposeful activity that is unambiguously focused on essential learning goals. It requires students to work directly with a subset of the key knowledge, understanding, and skills specified as content goals. It requires students to think about ideas, grapple with problems and use information.Products – refers to the major or culminating demonstration of students learning. Products can take many forms and this is what makes them potentially powerful in classrooms that are sensitive to learner variance. Tests are a form of products and when the only form many students find themselves restricted in the ability to show what they have learned.ReadinessInterestLearningProfile
133 Keys to Differentiated Instruction ContentWhat we teach studentsMaterials and methods usedProcessHow we teach studentsCalls on students to use key skillsProductEvidence of student learningShould also allow students to extend what they learnedIn a differentiated classroom it is the teacher who does the adapting – not necessarily the student.
14We know that students learn better IF… Tasks are a close match for the skills and understanding of a topic (readiness)Tasks ignite curiosity or passion in a student (interest)The assignment encourages students to work in a preferred manner (learning profile)
15Do You Know Your Students? Getting to know your students is the key to making DI workVariationsInterest Surveys (students & parents)Graphing How I’m SmartProfile PosterMystery BagHand out the multiple intelligence surveys.*interest surveys
16BzzzzzzAt your table, turn to the person next to you and tell him/her how you get to know your students’ interests, likes & dislikes, etc.
17How well do YOU know the people around you? 3 Facts & a FibWrite 3 facts about yourselfWrite 1 fib about yourselfCirculate & talk to 5 peopleIf they do not correctly identify the fib, they must sign your paper3 Facts & a Fib Activity:Participants will use an index card and write 3 facts about themselves and 1 fib – in random order.Then they will make the rounds to introduce themselves with each other.Each person they talk to will have the opportunity to identify the FIB. If they are wrong, then they must sign the back of the person’s index card.This activity works great with students as a review of content/knowledge. It does require some follow-up with the teacher to make sure the fibs are all clearly identified.
18BzzzzzzTurn to your neighbor and relate a time when you saw a student more actively engaged because his/her interest level was peaked.
19Overview of Learning Styles Modality Preferences InstrumentTriarchic Theory of Intelligences (Sternberg)Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner)
20Learning Profile Inventories The Modality Preferences InstrumentAuditoryVisualKinesthetic/Tactile
21Strategies Used by Visual Learners Auditory Learners Kinesthetic LearnersRead the informationListen to someone speak the informationDo an activity or lab to experience the informationSee a film that explains informationListen to the information on tapeRole play the informationMemorize by using flashcardsMemorize by repeating information to self or partnerMemorize by remembering and experiencing the informationFind a quiet place to studyFind a place to study out loudFind a place to move around while studyingDoodle while learningHave music on while learningGet a chance to try different ideas while learningSee pictures when readingHear the writer’s words when readingNeed lots of breaks when reading2121
22Learning Profile Inventories Triarchic Theory of Intelligences (Sternberg)CreativeAnalyticalPractical
23Thinking About the Sternberg Intelligences ANALYTICALLinear – Schoolhouse Smart - SequentialShow the parts of _________ and how they work.Explain why _______ works the way it does.Diagram how __________ affects __________________.Identify the key parts of _____________________.Present a step-by-step approach to _________________.PRACTICALStreetsmart – Contextual – Focus on UseDemonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work.Show how we could apply _____ to solve this real life problem ____.Based on your own experience, explain how _____ can be used.Here’s a problem at school, ________. Using your knowledge of ______________, develop a plan to address the problem.CREATIVEInnovator – Outside the Box – What If - ImproverHand out: Use this as a guide for planning based on Sternberg’s intelligencesFind a new way to show _____________.Use unusual materials to explain ________________.Use humor to show ____________________.Explain (show) a new and better way to ____________.Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________.Become a ____ and use your “new” perspectives to help us think about ______.2323
24Learning Profile Inventories The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner)Verbal/LinguisticLogical/MathematicalVisual/SpacialBodily/KinestheticMusicalInterpersonalIntrapersonalNaturalistComplete Multiple Intelligences inventory24
25EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING TYPECHARACTERISTICSLIKES TOIS GOOD ATLEARNS BEST BYLINGUISTICLEARNER“The Word Player”Learns through the manipulation of words. Loves to read and write in order to explain themselves. They also tend to enjoy talkingReadWriteTell storiesMemorizing names, places, dates and triviaSaying, hearing and seeing wordsLOGICAL/MathematicalLearner“The Questioner”Looks for patterns when solving problems. Creates a set of standards and follows them when researching in a sequential manner.Do experimentsFigure things outWork with numbersAsk questionsExplore patterns and relationshipsMathReasoningLogicProblem solvingCategorizingClassifyingWorking with abstract patterns/relationshipsSPATIAL LEARNER“The Visualizer”Learns through pictures, charts, graphs, diagrams, and art.Draw, build, design and create thingsDaydreamLook at pictures/slidesWatch moviesPlay with machinesImagining thingsSensing changesMazes/puzzlesReading maps, chartsVisualizingDreamingUsing the mind’s eyeWorking with colors/picturesMUSICAL LEARNER“The Music Lover”Learning is often easier for these students when set to music or rhythmSing, hum tunesListen to musicPlay an instrumentRespond to musicPicking up soundsRemembering melodiesNoticing pitches/ rhythmsKeeping timeRhythmMelodyMusicFTI hand outs2525
26EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING, Cont’d TYPECHARACTERISTICSLIKES TOIS GOOD ATLEARNS BEST BYBODILY/KinestheticLearner“The Mover”Eager to solve problems physically. Often doesn’t read directions but just starts on a projectMove aroundTouch and talkUse body languagePhysical activities(Sports/dance/acting)craftsTouchingMovingInteracting with spaceProcessing knowledge through bodily sensationsINTERpersonal“The Socializer”Likes group work and working cooperatively to solve problems. Has an interest in their community.Have lots of friendsTalk to peopleJoin groupsUnderstanding peopleLeading othersOrganizingCommunicatingManipulatingMediating conflictsSharingComparingRelatingCooperatinginterviewingINTRApersonal“The Individual”Enjoys the opportunity to reflect and work independently. Often quiet and would rather work on his/her own than in a group.Work alonePursue owninterestsUnderstanding selfFocusing inward on feelings/dreamsPursuing interests/goalsBeing originalWorking alongIndividualized projectsSelf-paced instructionHaving own spaceNATURALIST“The Nature Lover”Enjoys relating things to their environment. Have a strong connection to nature.Physically experience natureDo observationsResponds to patterning natureExploring natural phenomenonSeeing connectionsSeeing patternsReflective ThinkingDoing observationsRecording events in NatureWorking in pairsDoing long term projects2626
27Learning Styles Inventories Paper/pencil surveysWeb-based surveysOr use Google & Find your own learning styles inventory/assessment
28Pre-assessment How do you use pre-assessments to guide your teaching? What quick assessments can I use to help me understand my students’ readiness?Questions, concerns, observationsWatch the video clip:The Common Sense of Differentiation – Section 1 – pre-assessment
29Strategies to use FOR learning (formative assessment) Use student friendly targets from the beginningModel what needs to be done and provide evidence of strong and weak workGive descriptive feedback for improvementTeach students self-assessment-compare work with the targetEvaluate strengths and weaknesses-prescribe action for improvementTake action for improvement: study, practice, review, rewrite
30Assessing for Differentiation Formative Assessment SHOULDHappen frequentlyDrive instructionWho needs differentiationThe struggling student?The gifted student?What needs to be differentiatedSummative Assessment CANBe used formatively!
31Primary Consideration: What is your learning target?What must ALL students:KnowUnderstandbe able to Do
32Learning TargetStudents may have different paths to the target.
33Considerations for Planning a Differentiated Lesson Identify the student learning target/s that ALL students must reachDecide WHAT you will differentiateDecide HOW you will differentiate and the assessment method you will useDetermine what assessment method/s you will use
3421st Century Skills Creativity and Innovation Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving SkillsCommunication and Collaboration SkillsThrough integrating learning skills and 21st century tools, students are able to do such things as access and communicate information, manage complexity, solve problems and think critically and creatively.Creativity/Innovation:Demonstrating originality and inventiveness in workDeveloping, implementing and communicating new ideas to othersBeing open and responsive to new and diverse perspectivesActing on creative ideas to make a tangible and useful contribution to the domain in which the innovation occursCritical Thinking/Problem Solving:Exercising sound reasoning in understandingMaking complex choices and decisionsUnderstanding the interconnections among systemsIdentifying and asking significant questions that clarify various points of view and lead to better solutionsFraming, analyzing and synthesizing information in order to solve problems and answer questions Communication/Collaboration:Articulating thoughts and ideas clearly and effectively through speaking and writingDemonstrating ability to work effectively with diverse teamsExercising flexibility and willingness to be helpful in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goalAssuming shared responsibility for collaborative workSource:
3521st Century Assessment Learner centered Balance of formative and summative assessmentContext-specific, technology enhancedOngoing and rooted in teaching strategiesUsed as evidence of student performance -portfoliosStudents, parents and teachers collaborate to monitor student progressFrom Partnership for 21st Century Skills – 21st Century AssessmenntSupports a balance of assessments, including high-quality standardized testing along with effective classroom formative and summative assessmentsEmphasizes useful feedback on student performance that is embedded into everyday learningRequires a balance of technology-enhanced, formative and summative assessments that measure student mastery of 21st century skillsEnables development of portfolios of student work that demonstrate mastery of 21st century skills to educators and prospective employersEnables a balanced portfolio of measures to assess the educational system’s effectiveness at reaching high levels of student competency in 21st century skillsSources:Milestones for Improving Learning and Education (MILE) Guide for 21st Century Skills
37Minute PaperIn one minute, students identify the most significant (useful, meaningful, disturbing, etc.) things they learned during a particular session.
38Pass the BallThe teacher asks a question and then throws a ball to the student who is to answer the question. If the student answers the question correctly, he/she gets to shoot a basket. If the student answers incorrectly, he/she needs to pass the ball to a teammate for assistance.
39RSQC2In two minutes, students recall and list in rank order the most important ideas from a previous day's class;In two more minutes, they summarize those points in a single sentence,then write one major question they want answered,then identify a thread or theme to connect this material to the course's major goal.
40Squaring Off Whole Group Assessment Place a card in each corner of the room with one of the following words or phrases that are effective ways to group according to learner knowledge.Rarely ever Sometimes Often I have it!Dirt road Paved road Highway Yellow brick roadTell the students to go to the corner of the room that matches their place in the learning journey.Participants go to the corner that most closely matches their own learning status and discuss what they know about the topic and why they chose to go there.Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
41Yes/No CardsYESNOUsing a 4x6 index card the student writes YES on one side and NO on the other.When a question is asked the students hold up YES or NO.Ask the students if they know the following vocabulary words and what they mean.Call out a word. If a student is holding a YES they may be called on to give the correct answer.Remind them that if they don’t know the words it is OK because they will be learning them.You can do the same thing with conceptual ideas, etc.Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
42Thumb It! Up Sideways Down Have students respond with the position of their thumb to get an assessment of what their current understanding of a topic being studied.Where I am now in my understanding of ______?Up Sideways DownI know a lot I know some I know very littleGregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
43Fist of FiveShow the number of fingers on a scale, with 1 being lowest and 5 the highest.Ask, How well do you feel you know this information?I know it so well I could explain it to anyone.I can do it alone.I need some help.I could use more practice.I am only beginning.Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
44Ticket out the Door We have begun a study of author’s craft. List and identify three examples of figurative language used in the novel Morning Girl by Michael Dorris.
45Exit Cards On your Exit Card--- Explain the difference between prime andcomposite numbers.You may wish to givesome examples of eachas part of yourexplanation.
46Questions to AnswerHow do you have the courage to do what works, not just what is easiest?How are you open to critique?How do you ceaselessly self-analyze and reflect on your lessons-including your assessments-searching for ways to improve?How do you keep up-to-date on the latest research about learning, students’ developmental growth, and your content specialty areas?(Share with Inner/Outer Circle or Genre Partners)
47Principles to Guide Differentiated Classrooms Focus on essentialsAttend to student differencesAssess often and use it to make adjustments/modificationsMutual respectBe flexibleDoesn’t happen 100% of the time!!!!
48Simple Ways to StartAdd an interdisciplinary element to a favorite unitCollaborate with other teachersAdd movement/touch/visual aids to existing lessons & activitiesApply Multiple Intelligence thinking to group/individual projectsOffer students choices of product/ presentation
52Tiered AssignmentsIn a differentiated classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of tasks to ensure that students explore ideas and use skills at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth.While students work at varied degrees of difficulty on their tasks, they all explore the essential ideas and work at high levels of thought.Assessment-based tiering allows students to work in their “Zone of Proximal Development” or in a state of “moderate challenge.”
53The What and the Why of Tiering responds to differences in students’ readiness levels (skills and/or knowledge)gives students an opportunity to be successful at assigned tasksattempts to fit students’ learning into a zone of proximal development, providing a moderate level of challengeTiering an assignment configures a skill to allow some students to move more quickly, with more sophisticated texts, using multiple step problem-solving, while other students use more basic level materials and/or fewer complicated steps to learn and practice a skill.
54Adding Fractions Blue Group Green GroupUse Cuisinaire rods or fraction circles to model simple fraction addition problems. Begin with common denominators and work up to denominators with common factors such as 3 and 6.Explain the pitfalls and hurrahs of adding fractions by making a picture book.Red GroupUse Venn diagrams to model LCMs. Explain how this process can be used to find common denominators. Use the method on more challenging addition problems.Write a manual on how to add fractions. It must include why a common denominator is needed, and at least three different ways to find it.Blue GroupManipulatives such as Cuisinaire rods and fraction circles will be available as a resource for the group. Students use factor trees and lists of multiples to find common denominators. Using this approach, pairs and triplets of fractions are rewritten using common denominators. End by adding several different problem of increasing challenge and length.Suzie says that adding fractions is like a game: you just need to know the rules. Write game instructions explaining the rules of adding fractions.
55A Planet Show & Tell An example of differentiated summative assessment Select one from the top row and one from the bottom row.Sixth Grade Top Row: Show Me Bottom Row: Tell MeUse a computer to make a drawing showing how the Earth’s structure was formed.Paint a picture showing how the Earth’s structure was formed.Construct a model that shows how the Earth’s structure was formed.Create a book or a puppet show that shows how the Earth’s structure was formed.Make labels for the Earth’s structures and attach to your creation. Be ready to explain orally.Write sentences that identify and explain each part of your drawing or model and show how each part works.Write a paragraph that explains how the earth’s structure was formed.Write a poem that explains how the earth’s structure was formed (plate tectonics, volcanoes, earthquakes).
57THINK-TAC-TOE Book Report Draw a picture of the main character. Perform a play that shows the conclusion of a story.Write a song about one of the main events.Write a poem about two main events in the story.Make a poster that shows the order of events in the story.Dress up as your favorite character and perform a speech telling who you are.Create a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the introduction to the closing.Write two paragraphs about the main character.Write two paragraphs about the setting.
59FRIENDSHIPS Shape up! Reading Contract Choose an activity from each shape group. Cut out your three choices and glue themBelow. You are responsible for finishing these activities by _________. Have fun!This contract belongs to _____________________________________59
60Make a poster advertising yourself as a good friend. Use words and pictures to help makepeople want to be yourfriend. Make sure yourname is an importantpart of the posterMake a two sidedcircle-rama. Use it to tellpeople what makes you agood friend. Use picturesand words and makesure your name is animportant part of thedisplayMake a mobile thatshows what makes youa good friend. Usepictures and wordsto hang on your mobile.Write your name on thetop of the mobile inbeautiful letters.Get with afriend and makea puppet showabout a problem andthe solution in your bookGet with afriend and act outa problem and itssolution from yourbookMeet with meand tell me about aproblem and its solutionfrom the story. Then tellme about a problem you havehad and how you solved itDraw a picture of a problemin the story. Then use wordsto tell about the problem andhow the characters solvedtheir problemWrite a letter to one of thecharacters in your book. Tellthem about a problem you have.Then have them write back witha solution to your problem.Think about anotherproblem one of thecharacters in your bookmight have. Write a newstory for the book about theproblem and tell how itwas solved.60
62Another OptionKnowledgeAnalysisApplicationComprehensi onSynthesisEvaluationFoldInstead of having students choose their assignment, write the activities on the cube and have the students “roll” to determine their assignment.The cube can contain activities related to Bloom or Multiple Intelligences.Use the Cube template (Word Document) to type the activities. Students can then cut out and assemble the cube to determine their assignment.62
63DifferentiationIt means that you think proactively from the beginning, and the “normal” lesson includes more than one avenue for success.It means that you think about the diversity of your learners when you are planning and don’t ever again fall into the trap of thinking that “One size fits all.”
64ResourcesThe Common Sense of Differentiation [DVD] (2005). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum DevelopmentTomlinson, C.A. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Wormeli, R.(2006). Fair Isn’t Always Equal Assessing & Grading in the Differentiated Classroom. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.Kaufeldt, M. (2005). Teachers, Change Your Bait! Norwalk, CT: Crown House Publishing, Ltd.Direct them to the website for additional resources