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Differentiated Instruction

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1 Differentiated Instruction
Summer Symposium June 10, 2009 Presenter: Becky Mohr Introduce myself

2 Learning Targets for June 10, 2009
I will know what differentiated instruction is and what it is not. I will choose three or more differentiation tools I will incorporate in my classroom next year.


4 Why Do We Need to Differentiate?
When a teacher tries to teach something to the whole entire class at the same time, chances are, one-third of the kids already know it; one-third will get it; and the remaining third won’t. Lillian Katz Lillian Katz is an internationally known expert on young children's intellectual and academic development. Think of the students in your classroom right now. If this quote is true, could you put your students into each one of these three categories? Willis, S (November 1993). “Teaching Young Children: Educators Seek ‘Developmental Appropriateness.” Curriculum Update, 1-8.



7 “If students don't learn the way we teach them, we must teach them the way they learn.”
- Marcia Tate, Developing Minds Inc., Conyers, GA In a differentiated classroom it is the teacher who does the adapting.

8 Differentiation IS NOT . . .
The same as an IEP for every student Just another way to group kids Expecting less of struggling learners than of typical learners A substitute for specialized services Chaotic New

9 Good Differentiation IS . . .
Varied avenues to content, process, product Respectful of all learners Proactive Student-centered A blend of whole class, small group, and individual instruction Based on students’ readiness, interests, and/or learning profile


11 “At its most basic level, differentiation means ‘shaking up’ what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.” Tomlinson, C.A. (2001) How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms

12 Teachers Can Differentiate:
Content Process Product According to Students’ Content- is what students should know, understand, and be able to do as a result of the segment of study. “it’s the stuff we want students to learn, therefore it is the stuff we teach”…..content standards, curriculum provide guidance for this. Process- a purposeful activity that is unambiguously focused on essential learning goals. It requires students to work directly with a subset of the key knowledge, understanding, and skills specified as content goals. It requires students to think about ideas, grapple with problems and use information. Products – refers to the major or culminating demonstration of students learning. Products can take many forms and this is what makes them potentially powerful in classrooms that are sensitive to learner variance. Tests are a form of products and when the only form many students find themselves restricted in the ability to show what they have learned. Readiness Interest Learning Profile

13 3 Keys to Differentiated Instruction
Content What we teach students Materials and methods used Process How we teach students Calls on students to use key skills Product Evidence of student learning Should also allow students to extend what they learned In a differentiated classroom it is the teacher who does the adapting – not necessarily the student.

14 We know that students learn better IF…
Tasks are a close match for the skills and understanding of a topic (readiness) Tasks ignite curiosity or passion in a student (interest) The assignment encourages students to work in a preferred manner (learning profile)

15 Do You Know Your Students?
Getting to know your students is the key to making DI work Variations Interest Surveys (students & parents) Graphing How I’m Smart Profile Poster Mystery Bag Hand out the multiple intelligence surveys. *interest surveys

16 Bzzzzzz At your table, turn to the person next to you and tell him/her how you get to know your students’ interests, likes & dislikes, etc.

17 How well do YOU know the people around you?
3 Facts & a Fib Write 3 facts about yourself Write 1 fib about yourself Circulate & talk to 5 people If they do not correctly identify the fib, they must sign your paper 3 Facts & a Fib Activity: Participants will use an index card and write 3 facts about themselves and 1 fib – in random order. Then they will make the rounds to introduce themselves with each other. Each person they talk to will have the opportunity to identify the FIB. If they are wrong, then they must sign the back of the person’s index card. This activity works great with students as a review of content/knowledge. It does require some follow-up with the teacher to make sure the fibs are all clearly identified.

18 Bzzzzzz Turn to your neighbor and relate a time when you saw a student more actively engaged because his/her interest level was peaked.

19 Overview of Learning Styles
Modality Preferences Instrument Triarchic Theory of Intelligences (Sternberg) Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner)

20 Learning Profile Inventories
The Modality Preferences Instrument Auditory Visual Kinesthetic/Tactile

21 Strategies Used by Visual Learners Auditory Learners
Kinesthetic Learners Read the information Listen to someone speak the information Do an activity or lab to experience the information See a film that explains information Listen to the information on tape Role play the information Memorize by using flashcards Memorize by repeating information to self or partner Memorize by remembering and experiencing the information Find a quiet place to study Find a place to study out loud Find a place to move around while studying Doodle while learning Have music on while learning Get a chance to try different ideas while learning See pictures when reading Hear the writer’s words when reading Need lots of breaks when reading 21 21

22 Learning Profile Inventories
Triarchic Theory of Intelligences (Sternberg) Creative Analytical Practical

23 Thinking About the Sternberg Intelligences
ANALYTICAL Linear – Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential Show the parts of _________ and how they work. Explain why _______ works the way it does. Diagram how __________ affects __________________. Identify the key parts of _____________________. Present a step-by-step approach to _________________. PRACTICAL Streetsmart – Contextual – Focus on Use Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work. Show how we could apply _____ to solve this real life problem ____. Based on your own experience, explain how _____ can be used. Here’s a problem at school, ________. Using your knowledge of ______________, develop a plan to address the problem. CREATIVE Innovator – Outside the Box – What If - Improver Hand out: Use this as a guide for planning based on Sternberg’s intelligences Find a new way to show _____________. Use unusual materials to explain ________________. Use humor to show ____________________. Explain (show) a new and better way to ____________. Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________. Become a ____ and use your “new” perspectives to help us think about ______. 23 23

24 Learning Profile Inventories
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner) Verbal/Linguistic Logical/Mathematical Visual/Spacial Bodily/Kinesthetic Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Complete Multiple Intelligences inventory 24

TYPE CHARACTERISTICS LIKES TO IS GOOD AT LEARNS BEST BY LINGUISTIC LEARNER “The Word Player” Learns through the manipulation of words. Loves to read and write in order to explain themselves. They also tend to enjoy talking Read Write Tell stories Memorizing names, places, dates and trivia Saying, hearing and seeing words LOGICAL/ Mathematical Learner “The Questioner” Looks for patterns when solving problems. Creates a set of standards and follows them when researching in a sequential manner. Do experiments Figure things out Work with numbers Ask questions Explore patterns and relationships Math Reasoning Logic Problem solving Categorizing Classifying Working with abstract patterns/relationships SPATIAL LEARNER “The Visualizer” Learns through pictures, charts, graphs, diagrams, and art. Draw, build, design and create things Daydream Look at pictures/slides Watch movies Play with machines Imagining things Sensing changes Mazes/puzzles Reading maps, charts Visualizing Dreaming Using the mind’s eye Working with colors/pictures MUSICAL LEARNER “The Music Lover” Learning is often easier for these students when set to music or rhythm Sing, hum tunes Listen to music Play an instrument Respond to music Picking up sounds Remembering melodies Noticing pitches/ rhythms Keeping time Rhythm Melody Music FTI hand outs 25 25

TYPE CHARACTERISTICS LIKES TO IS GOOD AT LEARNS BEST BY BODILY/ Kinesthetic Learner “The Mover” Eager to solve problems physically. Often doesn’t read directions but just starts on a project Move around Touch and talk Use body language Physical activities (Sports/dance/ acting) crafts Touching Moving Interacting with space Processing knowledge through bodily sensations INTERpersonal “The Socializer” Likes group work and working cooperatively to solve problems. Has an interest in their community. Have lots of friends Talk to people Join groups Understanding people Leading others Organizing Communicating Manipulating Mediating conflicts Sharing Comparing Relating Cooperating interviewing INTRApersonal “The Individual” Enjoys the opportunity to reflect and work independently. Often quiet and would rather work on his/her own than in a group. Work alone Pursue own interests Understanding self Focusing inward on feelings/dreams Pursuing interests/ goals Being original Working along Individualized projects Self-paced instruction Having own space NATURALIST “The Nature Lover” Enjoys relating things to their environment. Have a strong connection to nature. Physically experience nature Do observations Responds to patterning nature Exploring natural phenomenon Seeing connections Seeing patterns Reflective Thinking Doing observations Recording events in Nature Working in pairs Doing long term projects 26 26

27 Learning Styles Inventories
Paper/pencil surveys Web-based surveys Or use Google & Find your own learning styles inventory/assessment

28 Pre-assessment How do you use pre-assessments to guide your teaching?
What quick assessments can I use to help me understand my students’ readiness? Questions, concerns, observations Watch the video clip: The Common Sense of Differentiation – Section 1 – pre-assessment

29 Strategies to use FOR learning (formative assessment)
Use student friendly targets from the beginning Model what needs to be done and provide evidence of strong and weak work Give descriptive feedback for improvement Teach students self-assessment-compare work with the target Evaluate strengths and weaknesses-prescribe action for improvement Take action for improvement: study, practice, review, rewrite

30 Assessing for Differentiation
Formative Assessment SHOULD Happen frequently Drive instruction Who needs differentiation The struggling student? The gifted student? What needs to be differentiated Summative Assessment CAN Be used formatively!

31 Primary Consideration:
What is your learning target? What must ALL students: Know Understand be able to Do

32 Learning Target Students may have different paths to the target.

33 Considerations for Planning a Differentiated Lesson
Identify the student learning target/s that ALL students must reach Decide WHAT you will differentiate Decide HOW you will differentiate and the assessment method you will use Determine what assessment method/s you will use

34 21st Century Skills Creativity and Innovation Skills
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills Through integrating learning skills and 21st century tools, students are able to do such things as access and communicate information, manage complexity, solve problems and think critically and creatively. Creativity/Innovation: Demonstrating originality and inventiveness in work Developing, implementing and communicating new ideas to others Being open and responsive to new and diverse perspectives Acting on creative ideas to make a tangible and useful contribution to the domain in which the innovation occurs Critical Thinking/Problem Solving: Exercising sound reasoning in understanding Making complex choices and decisions Understanding the interconnections among systems Identifying and asking significant questions that clarify various points of view and lead to better solutions Framing, analyzing and synthesizing information in order to solve problems and answer questions Communication/Collaboration: Articulating thoughts and ideas clearly and effectively through speaking and writing Demonstrating ability to work effectively with diverse teams Exercising flexibility and willingness to be helpful in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal Assuming shared responsibility for collaborative work Source:

35 21st Century Assessment Learner centered
Balance of formative and summative assessment Context-specific, technology enhanced Ongoing and rooted in teaching strategies Used as evidence of student performance -portfolios Students, parents and teachers collaborate to monitor student progress From Partnership for 21st Century Skills – 21st Century Assessmennt Supports a balance of assessments, including high-quality standardized testing along with effective classroom formative and summative assessments Emphasizes useful feedback on student performance that is embedded into everyday learning Requires a balance of technology-enhanced, formative and summative assessments that measure student mastery of 21st century skills Enables development of portfolios of student work that demonstrate mastery of 21st century skills to educators and prospective employers Enables a balanced portfolio of measures to assess the educational system’s effectiveness at reaching high levels of student competency in 21st century skills Sources: Milestones for Improving Learning and Education (MILE) Guide for 21st Century Skills

36 Formative Assessment Examples
Additional examples:

37 Minute Paper In one minute, students identify the most significant (useful, meaningful, disturbing, etc.) things they learned during a particular session.

38 Pass the Ball The teacher asks a question and then throws a ball to the student who is to answer the question. If the student answers the question correctly, he/she gets to shoot a basket. If the student answers incorrectly, he/she needs to pass the ball to a teammate for assistance.

39 RSQC2 In two minutes, students recall and list in rank order the most important ideas from a previous day's class; In two more minutes, they summarize those points in a single sentence, then write one major question they want answered, then identify a thread or theme to connect this material to the course's major goal.

40 Squaring Off Whole Group Assessment
Place a card in each corner of the room with one of the following words or phrases that are effective ways to group according to learner knowledge. Rarely ever Sometimes Often I have it! Dirt road Paved road Highway Yellow brick road Tell the students to go to the corner of the room that matches their place in the learning journey. Participants go to the corner that most closely matches their own learning status and discuss what they know about the topic and why they chose to go there. Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

41 Yes/No Cards YES NO Using a 4x6 index card the student writes YES on one side and NO on the other. When a question is asked the students hold up YES or NO. Ask the students if they know the following vocabulary words and what they mean. Call out a word. If a student is holding a YES they may be called on to give the correct answer. Remind them that if they don’t know the words it is OK because they will be learning them. You can do the same thing with conceptual ideas, etc. Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

42 Thumb It! Up Sideways Down
Have students respond with the position of their thumb to get an assessment of what their current understanding of a topic being studied. Where I am now in my understanding of ______? Up Sideways Down I know a lot I know some I know very little Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

43 Fist of Five Show the number of fingers on a scale, with 1 being lowest and 5 the highest. Ask, How well do you feel you know this information? I know it so well I could explain it to anyone. I can do it alone. I need some help. I could use more practice. I am only beginning. Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

44 Ticket out the Door We have begun a study of author’s craft.
List and identify three examples of figurative language used in the novel Morning Girl by Michael Dorris.

45 Exit Cards On your Exit Card--- Explain the difference
between prime and composite numbers. You may wish to give some examples of each as part of your explanation.

46 Questions to Answer How do you have the courage to do what works, not just what is easiest? How are you open to critique? How do you ceaselessly self-analyze and reflect on your lessons-including your assessments-searching for ways to improve? How do you keep up-to-date on the latest research about learning, students’ developmental growth, and your content specialty areas? (Share with Inner/Outer Circle or Genre Partners)

47 Principles to Guide Differentiated Classrooms
Focus on essentials Attend to student differences Assess often and use it to make adjustments/modifications Mutual respect Be flexible Doesn’t happen 100% of the time!!!!

48 Simple Ways to Start Add an interdisciplinary element to a favorite unit Collaborate with other teachers Add movement/touch/visual aids to existing lessons & activities Apply Multiple Intelligence thinking to group/individual projects Offer students choices of product/ presentation

49 Bloom’s New Taxonomy OLD NEW

50 Multiple Levels of Questions


52 Tiered Assignments In a differentiated classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of tasks to ensure that students explore ideas and use skills at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth. While students work at varied degrees of difficulty on their tasks, they all explore the essential ideas and work at high levels of thought. Assessment-based tiering allows students to work in their “Zone of Proximal Development” or in a state of “moderate challenge.”

53 The What and the Why of Tiering
responds to differences in students’ readiness levels (skills and/or knowledge) gives students an opportunity to be successful at assigned tasks attempts to fit students’ learning into a zone of proximal development, providing a moderate level of challenge Tiering an assignment configures a skill to allow some students to move more quickly, with more sophisticated texts, using multiple step problem-solving, while other students use more basic level materials and/or fewer complicated steps to learn and practice a skill.

54 Adding Fractions Blue Group
Green Group Use Cuisinaire rods or fraction circles to model simple fraction addition problems. Begin with common denominators and work up to denominators with common factors such as 3 and 6. Explain the pitfalls and hurrahs of adding fractions by making a picture book. Red Group Use Venn diagrams to model LCMs. Explain how this process can be used to find common denominators. Use the method on more challenging addition problems. Write a manual on how to add fractions. It must include why a common denominator is needed, and at least three different ways to find it. Blue Group Manipulatives such as Cuisinaire rods and fraction circles will be available as a resource for the group. Students use factor trees and lists of multiples to find common denominators. Using this approach, pairs and triplets of fractions are rewritten using common denominators. End by adding several different problem of increasing challenge and length. Suzie says that adding fractions is like a game: you just need to know the rules. Write game instructions explaining the rules of adding fractions.

55 A Planet Show & Tell An example of differentiated summative assessment Select one from the top row and one from the bottom row. Sixth Grade Top Row: Show Me Bottom Row: Tell Me Use a computer to make a drawing showing how the Earth’s structure was formed. Paint a picture showing how the Earth’s structure was formed. Construct a model that shows how the Earth’s structure was formed. Create a book or a puppet show that shows how the Earth’s structure was formed. Make labels for the Earth’s structures and attach to your creation. Be ready to explain orally. Write sentences that identify and explain each part of your drawing or model and show how each part works. Write a paragraph that explains how the earth’s structure was formed. Write a poem that explains how the earth’s structure was formed (plate tectonics, volcanoes, earthquakes).


57 THINK-TAC-TOE Book Report Draw a picture of the main character.
Perform a play that shows the conclusion of a story. Write a song about one of the main events. Write a poem about two main events in the story. Make a poster that shows the order of events in the story. Dress up as your favorite character and perform a speech telling who you are. Create a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the introduction to the closing. Write two paragraphs about the main character. Write two paragraphs about the setting.


59 FRIENDSHIPS Shape up! Reading Contract
Choose an activity from each shape group. Cut out your three choices and glue them Below. You are responsible for finishing these activities by _________. Have fun! This contract belongs to _____________________________________ 59

60 Make a poster advertising yourself as a good friend. Use words and
pictures to help make people want to be your friend. Make sure your name is an important part of the poster Make a two sided circle-rama. Use it to tell people what makes you a good friend. Use pictures and words and make sure your name is an important part of the display Make a mobile that shows what makes you a good friend. Use pictures and words to hang on your mobile. Write your name on the top of the mobile in beautiful letters. Get with a friend and make a puppet show about a problem and the solution in your book Get with a friend and act out a problem and its solution from your book Meet with me and tell me about a problem and its solution from the story. Then tell me about a problem you have had and how you solved it Draw a picture of a problem in the story. Then use words to tell about the problem and how the characters solved their problem Write a letter to one of the characters in your book. Tell them about a problem you have. Then have them write back with a solution to your problem. Think about another problem one of the characters in your book might have. Write a new story for the book about the problem and tell how it was solved. 60

61 Example of a completed matrix

62 Another Option Knowledge Analysis Application Comprehensi on Synthesis Evaluation Fold Instead of having students choose their assignment, write the activities on the cube and have the students “roll” to determine their assignment. The cube can contain activities related to Bloom or Multiple Intelligences. Use the Cube template (Word Document) to type the activities. Students can then cut out and assemble the cube to determine their assignment. 62

63 Differentiation It means that you think proactively from the beginning, and the “normal” lesson includes more than one avenue for success. It means that you think about the diversity of your learners when you are planning and don’t ever again fall into the trap of thinking that “One size fits all.”

64 Resources The Common Sense of Differentiation [DVD] (2005). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Tomlinson, C.A. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Wormeli, R.(2006). Fair Isn’t Always Equal Assessing & Grading in the Differentiated Classroom. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. Kaufeldt, M. (2005). Teachers, Change Your Bait! Norwalk, CT: Crown House Publishing, Ltd. Direct them to the website for additional resources

65 Contact Information More information:

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