Presentation on theme: "Differentiating Instruction: Beginning the Journey"— Presentation transcript:
1 Differentiating Instruction: Beginning the Journey "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences, we fail many learners." ** Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
2 Differentiated Instruction Defined “Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students’ varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to ‘get at’ and express learning.”Carol Ann Tomlinson
3 Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter.The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences.Assessment and instruction are inseparable.The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning profile.All students participate in respectful work.Students and teachers are collaborators in learning.Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success.Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.Source: Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiating Instruction for Academic Diversity. San Antonio, TX: ASCD
4 Differentiation of Instruction Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs guided by general principles of differentiationRespectful tasksFlexible groupingContinual assessmentTeachers Can Differentiate Through:ContentProcessProductAccording to Students’ReadinessInterestLearning Profile
6 Teacher and whole class begin exploration of a topic or concept FLEXIBLE GROUPINGStudents are part of many different groups – and also work alone – based on thematch of the task to student readiness, interest, or learning style. Teachers may createskills-based or interest-based groups that are heterogeneous or homogeneousin readiness level. Sometimes students select work groups, and sometimes teachersselect them. Sometimes student group assignments are purposeful and sometimes random.13579Teacher and whole class begin exploration of a topic or conceptStudents and teacher come together to share information and pose questionsThe whole class reviews key ideas and extends their study through sharingThe whole class is introduced to a skill needed later to make a presentationThe whole class listens to individual study plans and establishes baseline criteria for successStudents engage in further study using varied materials based on readiness and learning styleStudents work on varied assigned tasks designed to help them make sense of key ideas at varied levels of complexity and varied pacingIn small groups selected by students, they apply key principles to solve teacher-generated problems related to their studyStudents self-select interest areas through which they will apply and extend their understandings2468A differentiated classroom is marked by a repeated rhythm of whole-class preparation, review, and sharing, followed by opportunity for individual or small-group exploration, sense-making, extension, and production
7 Flexible GroupingStudents are part of many different groups (and also work alone) based on the match of the task to student readiness, interest, or learning style. Teachers may create skills – based or interest – based groups that are heterogeneous or homogeneous in readiness level. Sometimes students select work groups, and sometimes teachers select them. Sometimes student group assignments are purposeful and sometimes random.
8 A Differentiated Classroom in Balance Teacher-StudentPartnershipsFLEXIBSolid CurriculumSharedVisionSharedgoalsInvitingSharedresponsibilityFocusedConcept-basedA GrowthOrientationProductOrientedSenseOfCommunityResourceOn-goingassessmentto determineneedFeedbackandgradingTimeGroupsRespectForGroupZPDTargetApproachesto teachingand learningSafeRespect forindividualAffirmingSharedChallengeTomlinson-oo
9 How Does Research Support DI? Differentiated Instruction is the result of a synthesis of a number of educational theories and practices.Brain research indicates that learning occurs when the learner experiences moderate challenge and relaxed alertness –readinessPsychological research reveals that when interest is tapped, learners are more likely to find learning rewarding and become more autonomous as a learner.when the learner experiences neither boredom or anxiety and when the learner is neither over- nor underchallenged.
10 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms Brain organization andBuilding safe environments:Do students feel safe to risk and experiment with ideas?Do students feel included in the class and supported by others?Are tasks challenging enough without “undo distress?”Is there an emotional “hook” for the learners?Are there novel, unique and engaging activities to capture and sustain attention?
11 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms Recognizing and honoring diversity:Does the learning experience appeal to the learners’ varied multiple intelligences and learning styles?May the students work collaboratively and independently?May they “show what they know” in a variety of ways?Does the cultural background of the learners influence instruction?
12 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms Assessment:Is there enough time to explore, understand and transfer the learning to long term memory (grow dendrites)?Is there time to accomplish mastery?So they have opportunities for ongoing, “just in time” feedback?Do they have time to revisit ideas and concepts to connect or extend them?Is metacognitive time built into the learning process?Do students use logs and journals for reflection and goal setting?
13 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms Instructional Strategies:Are the expectations clearly stated and understood by the learner?Will the learning be relevant and useful to the learner?Does the learning build on past experience or create a new experience?Does the learning relate to their real world?Is it developmentally appropriate and hands on?Are the strategies varied to engage and sustain attention?Are there opportunities for projects, creativity, problems and challenges?
14 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms New Models:Do students work alone, in pairs and in small groups?Do students work in learning centers based on interest, need or choice?Are some activities tiered to provide appropriate levels of challenge?Is compacting used to provide enrichment and challenge?Is integrated curriculum, problem based and service learning considered?Are contracts negotiated to provide appropriate learning activities for students?
15 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Student Voice and InvolvementBalanced with teacher-chosen and teacher-directed activities:Students often select inquiry topics, books, writing topics, etc.Students maintain their own records, set goals, and self-assessSome themes / inquiries are built from students’own questionsStudents assume responsibility and take rolesin decision making
16 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Activities and AssignmentsFrom:Teacher presentationWhole-class instructionUniform curriculumShort-term lessonsMemorization and recallShort responses, fill-in-the-blankSame assignmentsTo:Students experiencing conceptsCenters, groups, varietyTopics by students’ needs or choiceExtended activitiesApplication and problem solvingComplex responses, evaluations and writingMultiple intelligences, cognitive styles
17 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Language and CommunicationFrom:Forced constant silenceShort responsesTeacher talkFocus on factsTo:Noise, conversation alternates with quietElaborated discussionsStudent-teacher, student-studentSkills, concepts, synthesis, evaluation
18 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Student Work and AssessmentFrom:Products for teacher / gradingNo student work displayedIdentical, imitative productsFeedback = scores or gradesSeen / scored only by teacherTeacher grade bookStandards set during gradingTo:Products for real events / audienceHigh quality / all studentsVaried and original productsSubstantive, varied, formative feedbackPublic displays and performancesStudent-maintained portfolios, assessmentsStandards co-developed with students
19 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Teacher Attitude and Initiative Toward Self:From Helpless victim To Risk taker, experimenter, creative agentFrom Solitary adult To Member of team within school and network beyond schoolFrom Staff development recipient To Directingown professional growthFrom Role of expert or presenter To Coach,mentor, model and guide
20 to Differentiate Content Waysto Differentiate ContentReading Partners / Reading BuddiesRead/SummarizeRead/Question/AnswerVisual Organizer/SummarizerParallel Reading with Teacher PromptChoral Reading/Antiphonal ReadingFlip BooksSplit Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry)Books on TapeHighlights on TapeDigests/ “Cliff Notes”Notetaking OrganizersVaried TextsVaried Supplementary MaterialsHighlighted TextsThink-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-PostviewTomlinson – ‘00
21 TO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESS WAYSTO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESSFun & GamesRAFTsCubing, Think DotsChoices (Intelligences)CentersTiered lessonsContracts
22 USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES. The following findings related to instructional strategies are supported by the existing research:Techniques and instructional strategies have nearly as much influence on student learning as student aptitude.Lecturing, a common teaching strategy, is an effort to quickly cover the material: however, it often overloads and over-whelms students with data, making it likely that they will confuse the facts presentedHands-on learning, especially in science, has a positive effect on student achievement.Teachers who use hands-on learning strategies have students who out-perform their peers on the National Assessment of Educational progress (NAEP) in the areas of science and mathematics.Despite the research supporting hands-on activity, it is a fairly uncommon instructional approach.Students have higher achievement rates when the focus of instruction is on meaningful conceptualization, especially when it emphasizes their own knowledge of the world.
23 to Differentiate Product Waysto Differentiate ProductChoices based on readiness, interest, and learning profileClear expectationsTimelinesAgreementsProduct GuidesRubricsEvaluation
24 Begin Slowly – Just Begin! Low-Prep DifferentiationChoices of booksHomework optionsUse of reading buddiesVaried journal PromptsOrbitalsVaried pacing with anchor optionsStudent-teaching goal settingWork alone / togetherWhole-to-part and part-to-whole explorationsFlexible seatingVaried computer programsDesign-A-DayVaried Supplementary materialsOptions for varied modes of expressionVarying scaffolding on same organizerLet’s Make a Deal projectsComputer mentorsThink-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profileUse of collaboration, independence, and cooperationOpen-ended activitiesMini-workshops to reteach or extend skillsJigsawNegotiated CriteriaExplorations by interestsGames to practice mastery of informationMultiple levels of questionsHigh-Prep DifferentiationTiered activities and labsTiered productsIndependent studiesMultiple textsAlternative assessmentsLearning contracts4-MATMultiple-intelligence optionsCompactingSpelling by readinessEntry PointsVarying organizersLectures coupled with graphic organizersCommunity mentorshipsInterest groupsTiered centersInterest centersPersonal agendasLiterature CirclesStationsComplex InstructionGroup InvestigationTape-recorded materialsTeams, Games, and TournamentsChoice BoardsThink-Tac-ToeSimulationsProblem-Based LearningGraduated RubricsFlexible reading formatsStudent-centered writing formats
25 OPTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION To Differentiate Instruction By ReadinessTo Differentiate Instruction By InterestTo Differentiate Instruction by Learning Profileequalizer adjustments (complexity, open-endedness, etc.add or remove scaffoldingvary difficulty level of text & supplementary materialsadjust task familiarityvary direct instruction by small groupadjust proximity of ideas to student experienceencourage application of broad concepts & principles to student interest areasgive choice of mode of expressing learninguse interest-based mentoring of adults or more expert-like peersgive choice of tasks and products (including student designed options)give broad access to varied materials & technologiescreate an environment with flexible learning spaces and optionsallow working alone or working with peersuse part-to-whole and whole-to-part approachesVary teacher mode of presentation (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, concrete, abstract)adjust for gender, culture, language differences.useful instructional strategies:- tiered activitiesTiered productscompactinglearning contractstiered tasks/alternative forms of assessmentinterest centersinterest groupsenrichment clustersgroup investigationchoice boardsMI optionsinternet mentorsmulti-ability cooperative tasksTriarchic options4-MATCA Tomlinson, UVa ‘97
26 Thinking About the Role of Instructional Strategies in Differentiation Strategy for DifferentiationPrimarily Used to DifferentiatePositivesCautionsTiered AssignmentsReadinessMeat & Potatoes differentiationMust use as only part of a flexible grouping patternTiered ProductsReadiness, Interest, Learning ProfileCan be passion-producingMust provide coaching for qualityLearning ContractsEncourage student autonomyBe sure to blend skill and contentDrill-Focused Cooperative TasksLow End ReadinessDeals with coverage and mastery issuesMay aggravate have/have not statusThought/Production Focused Cooperative TasksInterest, Learning ProfileInvolves all students with high level tasksBe sure tasks call for varied intellectual skillsAlternative AssessmentsReadiness, Learning ProfileMore of a real-world way of measuring student learningBe sure assessment focus on essential understandings and skillsGraduated RubricsClear coaching for quality and successTake care to stress ideas and process more than mechanicsChoice BoardsReadiness, InterestBalances teacher choice and student choiceTeacher choice should target readinessLearning CentersCan target varied skills levels in a classDon’t send all students to all centers
27 Strategy for Differentiation Thinking About the Role of Instructional Strategies in Differentiation, cont’dStrategy for DifferentiationPrimarily Used to DifferentiatePositivesCautionsInterest CentersInterestCan link classroom topics to areas of student talent and interestBe sure centers provide depth or breadth (vs cute)Enrichment clustersInterest, Learning profilesStresses student choice and students as producers of useful productsLose their punch without teachers skilled in the cluster domainCompactingHigh End ReadinessCan reduce unnecessary redundancy for advanced or eager learnersLoses its punch unless Column 3 is rich and challengingPeer TutoringLow End ReadinessGives struggling learners additional explanation opportunitiesCan over-use high end learner in teacher role and may short change struggling learner if tutor is weakMulti Ability Options (MI, Triarchic Theory)Interest, Learning ProfileEncourages teachers to be flexible in planning routes to learningCan easily become just a learning style vs. intelligence approach4-MATLearning ProfileHelps teachers be more conscious of student learning style/modeCan become formula-like – does not address readinessIndependent StudyEncourages student autonomy in planning and problem-solvingStudents need an amount of independence suited to their readiness for itSmall Group Direct InstructionReadinessCuts down size of class and increases student participationStudents not being taught must be well anchored
28 LOOK-FORS in the Classroom Learning experiences are based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile.Assessment of student needs is ongoing, and tasks are adjusted based on assessment data.All students participate in respectful work.The teacher is primarily a coordinator of time, space, and activities rather than primarily a provider of group information.Students work in a variety of groups configurations. Flexible grouping is evident.Time use is flexible in response to student needs.The teacher uses a variety of instructional strategies to help target instruction to student needs.Clearly established criteria are used to help support student success.Student strengths are emphasized.