BRIEF HISTORY: Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. (1955-1972) Anyanya I -APA A second Sudanese civil war started in 1983 and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. (1983-2005) SPLA/M- CPA Under peace deal known as CPA, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following a referendum that passed with 98.83% of the vote on January 9 th 2011.
REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL MEMBERSHIP It is a United Nations member state, Member state of the African Union, and Member state of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development In July 2012, South Sudan signed the Geneva Conventions
Ethnicity: Dinka, Nuer,Kakwa, Bari, Azande, Shilluk, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Lotuko. Taposa, Boya, Anyuak, Bongo, Lango, Luo, Acholi to mention but a few among so many others. Population: 8 Million- 2008 National Census ( Disputed result by South Sudan). Language: English (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Classical Arabic, and local Languages. Largest Cities: (by population) Juba, Malakal, Wau Name: Self-descriptive from it's location; Sudan translates to "Land of the Blacks" from the Arabic Bilad as-Sudan. Religion: animist/ traditional religion, Christianity and Islam. Other details of necessity:
ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT : South Sudan is a decentralized system of Governance. It is divided into three Regions namely Greater Equatoria with 3 States, Greater Upper Nile with 3 States and Greater Bahr El Ghazal with 4 States. 1. National level- Juba 2. State level- South Sudan has 10 States. 3. Local Government: a) County level- County headquarters b) Payam level c) Boma level
CARE-SOUTH SUDAN: Has been in South Sudan since 1997 Became an independent Country Office in July 2011 from CARE Somalia. Operates in three States out of 10 States- namely: Unity, Upper Nile and Jonglei. Member of ECARMU ( East and Central Africa Regional Management Unit based in Nairobi). Has good working relations with the Government and Communities. Works with Local partners, community leaders and LGAs. Work with relevant Government Institutions.
CARE-SOUTH SUDAN PROJECTS: CARE’s Strategic Plan 2010-2014 has an overall goal targeting rural women and girls of reproductive age and male youth at the community level. With this, Care aims to facilitate the target groups contribute to peaceful, socially cohesive and resilient communities. In its approach CARE plans to use conflict sensitive approaches to fulfill its strategy. Its focus on improving social cohesion on an on-going process which is relevant to the context under which the conflict analysis was conducted.
Background cont. Engaging the target groups identified interventions on inclusive and effective participation in decision making improved access to economic opportunities, quality basic services, mechanisms for participatory governance, conflict mitigation prevention at community level within the context are relevant to bringing lasting and sustainable Peace in South Sudan.
CURRENT PROJECTS: Peace building and conflict Mitigation/ transformation. Emergency response WASH Health Livelihoods
HOW WE APPROACH PEACE BUILDING: Local community peace committees ( County and Payam levels). Local community Leaders ( Chiefs, Youth, Women leaders and King) Local Authorities (County, Payam and Boma levels) Peace Actors’ forum ( State level) South Sudan and Reconciliation Commission both at National, States and Counties levels.
Group photo with Reith after Peace consultation Meeting
WHAT IS BEING DONE : ACTIVITIES: VSLA activities for Women groups in the rural communities : Enabling Women to save Money and support their Families. Livelihoods projects Supporting Peace Committees to identify and resolve conflicts in their Communities. Peace Committees sensitize their communities on Peace Building and conflict resolution. Capacity building for the local authorities- through :
CAPACITIES OF GOVERNMENT/ AUTHORTIES: 1. Leadership skills :be able to implement their community’s vision, providing democratic leadership and mobilize relevant stakeholders. 2. Network: Be able to link to several lower level institutions, cooperate and communicate better with actors. 3. Ability to build trust and Legitimacy: Be able to engage with their communities, regularly and openly- this trust is confidence born of two dimensions- that is character and competence. 4. Linking Peace Committees with SSHRC and SSPRC.
CAPACITY BUILDING FOR CSOS Strengthening local capacities for Peace (LCPs). To be able to promote peace, human rights and prevent conflicts in their communities.
KEY LEARNING POINTS: There is high need for peace building activities in South Sudan. There are deep societal gaps created by the civil war. The Peace building and conflict mitigation and Human rights Institutions in South Sudan are still weak in terms of capacities to deal with the Peace building and Conflict and Human rights issues in South Sudan. Communities are ready to support peace and support CARE Peace building activities. There is high level of politicization of local issues based on tribal classes.
CHALLENGES: Inadequate availability of basic social services- people still have little access to these very important services. The Country is new and thus, relevant Peace building Institutions are still with extremely weak capacity to deal with Peace building. Inter-tribal conflicts rooted in broken social relationship during the civil war. Local/ traditional peace building and conflict resolution/ Mitigation Mechanisms are weakened by the civil war. Unclear Administrative and communal borders.
INTERVENTIONS/ RECOMMENDATIONS: Building the capacities of Traditional systems / mechanisms for peace building and conflict resolution. Building the capacities of relevant Government institutions that deal with peace building and conflict mitigation and resolution ( Police, CDPCS, Courts e.g.). Building the capacity of CSOs to be able better prevent conflict and promote peace in their respective communities. Initiate income generating activities- VSLA and vocational skills for Youth.
Intervention cont. Supporting WASH and health activities in the Communities. Supporting livelihood and food security activities in the communities ( Seeds and farming tools…..) Community based driven peace building and conflict resolution and Mitigation through local community Peace Committees. Supporting inter-communal peace dialogues. Organizing Peace events