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Quantum Numbers Schrödinger’s equation requires 3 quantum numbers (although there are a total of 4 quantum numbers)

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**Quantum Numbers Principal Quantum Number, n.**

This number is related to the size and energy of the orbital.

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**Quantum Numbers Principal Quantum Number, n, cont.**

This is the same as Bohr’s n. As n becomes larger, the atom becomes larger and the electron is further from the nucleus. An increase in n also means higher energy.

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**Quantum Numbers Azimuthal or Angular Momentum Quantum Number, l.**

This number is related to the shape of the atomic orbitals.

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**Quantum Numbers Azimuthal or Angular Momentum Quantum Number, l, cont.**

This quantum number depends on the value of n. The values of l begin at 0 and increase to (n - 1).

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**Quantum Numbers Azimuthal Quantum Number, l, cont.**

Usually we refer to the s, p, d and f orbitals. orbital l = s p 1 d 2 f 3

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**Quantum Numbers Magnetic Quantum Number, ml.**

This quantum number is related to the orientation of the orbital in space relative to other orbitals in the atom.

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**Quantum Numbers Magnetic Quantum Number, ml.**

This quantum number depends on l. The magnetic quantum number has integral values between -l and +l.

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**Quantum Numbers Magnetic Quantum Number, ml, cont. orbital ml = s p**

p 1, 0, -1 d 2, 1, 0, -1, -2 f 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3

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**Quantum Numbers Spin Quantum Number, ms.**

This quantum number relates to the spin of an electron and can take on two possible values: ms = +½ or ms = -½.

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Quantum Numbers Note electrons don’t actually spin, but the magnetic properties of electrons are just what we would see if the electron were a spinning charged particle, and it is useful to picture the electron as spinning.

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Quantum Numbers Orbitals and Quantum Numbers

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**Quantum Numbers Application of Quantum Numbers**

Write a set of quantum numbers for the electron in a 4s orbital. For the s orbital, l = 0 This is the energy level number (n)

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**Quantum Numbers Application of Quantum Numbers**

Write a set of quantum numbers for the electron in a 4s orbital. If the 2nd quantum number is 0, the 3rd quantum number must also be zero.

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**Quantum Numbers Application of Quantum Numbers**

Write a set of quantum numbers for the electron in a 4s orbital. The spin can either be +½ or -½.

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**Quantum Numbers Application of Quantum Numbers**

Write a set of quantum numbers for the electron in a 4s orbital. ANSWER POSSIBILITIES: (4, 0, 0, +½) or (4, 0, 0, -½)

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**Quantum Numbers Application of Quantum Numbers**

Write a set of quantum numbers for the electron in a 3p orbital. For the p orbital, l = 1 This is the energy level number (n)

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**Quantum Numbers Application of Quantum Numbers**

Write a set of quantum numbers for the electron in a 3p orbital. If the 2nd quantum number is 1, the 3rd quantum number may be either 1, 0 or -1.

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**Quantum Numbers Application of Quantum Numbers**

Write a set of quantum numbers for the electron in a 3p orbital. The spin can either be +½ or -½.

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**Quantum Numbers Application of Quantum Numbers**

Write a set of quantum numbers for the electron in a 3p orbital. ANSWER POSSIBILITIES: (3, 1, 1, +½), (3, 1, 1, -½), (3, 1, 0, +½), (3, 1, 0, -½), (3, 1, -1, +½), (3, 1, -1, -½),

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What is meant by the term “ground state”? It is the lowest energy state that an electron can occupy.

What is meant by the term “ground state”? It is the lowest energy state that an electron can occupy.

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