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© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides Prepared by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College C H A P T E R 1 The.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides Prepared by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College C H A P T E R 1 The."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides Prepared by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College C H A P T E R 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

2 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. The Human Body—An Orientation Anatomy Study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts Physiology Study of how the body and its parts work or function

3 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Anatomy—Levels of Study Gross anatomy Large structures Easily observable

4 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.1 Mouth (oral cavity) Tongue Esophagus Liver Gallbladder Small intestine Duodenum Jejunum lleum Anus Parotid gland Salivary glands Sublingual gland Submandibular gland Pharynx Stomach Pancreas (Spleen) Large intestine Descending colon Cecum Sigmoid colon Rectum Appendix Anal canal Transverse colon Ascending colon

5 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Anatomy—Levels of Study Microscopic anatomy Structures cannot be seen with the naked eye Structures can only be viewed with a microscope

6 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.4c Pyloric sphincter Gastric pits Surface epithelium Mucous neck cells Parietal cells Gastric glands Chief cells Gastric pit Gastric gland (c)

7 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.4d PepsinogenPepsin HCl Parietal cells Chief cells Enteroendocrine cell (d)

8 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1 Organismal level Human organisms are made up of many organ systems. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Smooth muscle cell Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Molecules 2 Atoms 1 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. 3 Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) 4 5 Cardio– vascular system 6 Blood vessels Heart

9 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 1

10 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 2

11 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 3

12 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 4

13 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 5

14 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 6

15 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ System Overview Integumentary Forms the external body covering Protects deeper tissue from injury Helps regulate body temperature Location of cutaneous nerve receptors

16 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2a Skin (a) Integumentary System Forms the external body covering; protects deeper tissue from injury; synthesizes vitamin D; location of cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.

17 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ System Overview Skeletal Protects and supports body organs Provides muscle attachment for movement Site of blood cell formation Stores minerals

18 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2b (b) Skeletal System Protects and supports body organs; provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement; blood cells are formed within bones; stores minerals. Cartilages Joint Bones

19 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ System Overview Muscular Produces movement Maintains posture Produces heat

20 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2c (c) Muscular System Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression; maintains posture; produces heat. Skeletal muscles

21 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ System Overview Nervous Fast-acting control system Responds to internal and external change Activates muscles and glands

22 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2d (d) Nervous System Fast-acting control system of the body; responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands. Brain Sensory receptor Spinal cord Nerves

23 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ System Overview Endocrine Secretes regulatory hormones Growth Reproduction Metabolism

24 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2e (e) Endocrine System Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells. Ovary (female) Testis (male) Pancreas Adrenal glands Thymus gland Thyroid gland (parathyroid glands on posterior aspect) Pituitary gland Pineal gland

25 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ System Overview Cardiovascular Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart Oxygen Carbon dioxide Nutrients Wastes

26 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2f (f) Cardiovascular System Heart Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc.; the heart pumps blood. Blood vessels

27 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ System Overview Lymphatic Returns fluids to blood vessels Cleanses the blood Involved in immunity

28 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2g Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood; disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream; houses white blood cells involved in immunity. Lymph nodes (g) Lymphatic System Lymphatic vessels Thoracic duct

29 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ System Overview Respiratory Keeps blood supplied with oxygen Removes carbon dioxide

30 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2h Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide; the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs. Pharynx (h) Respiratory System Nasal cavity Larynx Trachea Bronchus Left lung

31 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ System Overview Digestive Breaks down food Allows for nutrient absorption into blood Eliminates indigestible material as feces

32 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2i Breaks food down into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells; indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces. Oral cavity (i) Digestive System Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Anus Rectum Large intestine

33 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ System Overview Urinary Eliminates nitrogenous wastes Maintains acid-base balance Regulates water and electrolytes

34 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2j Eliminates nitrogen-containing wastes from the body; regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of the blood. (j) Urinary System Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra

35 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Reproductive Produces offspring Testes produce sperm and male hormone Ovaries produce eggs and female hormones Organ System Overview

36 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Overall function of the reproductive system is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone; ducts and glands aid in delivery of viable sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones; remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breast produce milk to nourish the newborn. (k) Male Reproductive System (l) Female Reproductive System Prostate gland Penis Seminal vesicles Vas deferens Testis Scrotum Vagina Ovary Uterine tube Mammary glands (in breasts) Uterus Figure 1.2k–l

37 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Necessary Life Functions Maintain boundaries Movement Locomotion Movement of substances Responsiveness Ability to sense changes and react Digestion Breakdown and absorption of nutrients

38 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Necessary Life Functions Metabolism—chemical reactions within the body Break down complex molecules into smaller ones Build larger molecules from smaller ones Produces energy Regulated by hormones Excretion Eliminates waste from metabolic reactions Wastes may be removed in urine or feces

39 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Necessary Life Functions Reproduction Occurs on cellular level or organismal level Produces future generation Growth Increases cell size and number of cells

40 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Survival Needs Nutrients Chemicals for energy and cell building Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals Oxygen Required for chemical reactions

41 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Survival Needs Water 60 to 80 percent of body weight Most abundant chemical in the human body Provides for metabolic reaction Stable body temperature 37°C (98°F) Atmospheric pressure Must be appropriate for gas exchange

42 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrients Heart Interstitial fluid Blood Food Digestive system Takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and eliminates unabsorbed matter (feces) Respiratory system Takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide Cardiovascular system Via the blood, distributes oxygen and nutrients to all body cells and delivers wastes and carbon dioxide to disposal organs Urinary system Eliminates nitrogen- containing wastes and excess ions FecesUrine Nutrients and wastes pass between blood and cells via the interstitial fluid O2O2 CO 2 Integumentary system Protects the body as a whole from the external environment CO 2 O2O2 Figure 1.3

43 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Homeostasis Homeostasis—maintenance of a stable internal environment A dynamic state of equilibrium Necessary for normal body functioning and to sustain life Homeostatic imbalance A disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease

44 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.4 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Receptor Control Center Effector Receptor detects change. Afferent pathway Efferent pathway IMBALANCE VARIABLE (in homeostasis) Stimulus produces change in variable. Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level IMBALANCE

45 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.4, step 1 IMBALANCE VARIABLE (in homeostasis) Stimulus produces change in variable. 1 IMBALANCE

46 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.4, step 2 Receptor Receptor detects change. IMBALANCE Stimulus produces change in variable. 1 IMBALANCE 2 VARIABLE (in homeostasis)

47 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.4, step 3 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Receptor Control Center Receptor detects change. Afferent pathway IMBALANCE VARIABLE (in homeostasis) Stimulus produces change in variable. 1 3 IMBALANCE 2

48 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.4, step 4 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Receptor Control Center Effector Receptor detects change. Afferent pathway Efferent pathway IMBALANCE VARIABLE (in homeostasis) Stimulus produces change in variable. Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector IMBALANCE 2

49 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.4, step 5 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Receptor Control Center Effector Receptor detects change. Afferent pathway Efferent pathway IMBALANCE VARIABLE (in homeostasis) Stimulus produces change in variable. Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level IMBALANCE 2

50 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Maintaining Homeostasis The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems Receptor Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli) Sends information to control center

51 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Maintaining Homeostasis Control center Determines set point Analyzes information Determines appropriate response Effector Provides a means for response to the stimulus

52 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Feedback Mechanisms Negative feedback Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its intensity Works like a household thermostat

53 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Feedback Mechanisms Positive feedback Increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther In the body this only occurs in blood clotting and during the birth of a baby

54 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding Exact terms are used for Position Direction Regions Structures

55 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Regional Terms Anterior body landmarks

56 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Cervical Umbilical Pubic (genital) Pelvic Inguinal (groin) (a) Anterior/Ventral KEY: Deltoid Digital Lower limb Coxal (hip) Patellar Fibular Pedal (foot) Digital Upper limb Acromial Brachial (arm) Antecubital Antebrachial Carpal (wrist) Manus (hand) Crural (leg) Tarsal (ankle) Femoral (thigh) Cephalic Frontal Orbital Nasal Buccal Oral Mental Thorax Abdomen Back (Dorsum) Thoracic Sternal Axillary Abdominal (forearm) Figure 1.5a

57 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Regional Terms Posterior body landmarks

58 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.5b (b) Posterior/Dorsal Gluteal Sacral Lumbar Vertebral Back (dorsal) Scapular Cervical Cephalic Occipital (back of head) Acromial Brachial (arm) Olecranal Antebrachial Manus (hand) Digital Femoral (thigh) Popliteal Sural (calf) Fibular Pedal (foot) Calcaneal Plantar Upper limb KEY: Thorax Abdomen Back (Dorsum) (forearm)

59 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Directional Terms Superior (cranial or cephalad): toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above Inferior (caudal): away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below

60 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1

61 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Directional Terms Ventral (anterior): toward or at the front of the body; in front of Dorsal (posterior): toward or at the backside of the body; behind

62 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1

63 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Directional Terms Medial: toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of Lateral: away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of Intermediate: between a more medial and a more lateral structure

64 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1

65 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Directional Terms Proximal: close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment to a limb to the body trunk Distal: farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

66 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1

67 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Directional Terms Superficial: toward or at the body surface Deep: away from the body surface; more internal

68 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1

69 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Planes and Sections A sagittal section divides the body (or organ) into left and right parts. A median, or midsagittal, section divides the body (or organ) into equal left and right parts. A frontal, or coronal, section divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior parts. A transverse, or cross, section divides the body (or organ) into superior and inferior parts.

70 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. (a) Median (midsagittal) Vertebral column (b) Frontal (coronal) plane Right lung Heart Left lung (c) Transverse plane LiverAortaSpleen Spinal cord RectumIntestinesLiverStomachSpleen Subcutaneous fat layer Stomach Figure 1.6

71 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Cavities Dorsal body cavity Cranial cavity houses the brain Spinal cavity houses the spinal cord Ventral body cavity Thoracic cavity houses heart, lungs, and others Abdominopelvic cavity houses digestive system and most urinary system organs

72 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Cranial cavity Spinal cavity Thoracic cavity Diaphragm Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity KEY: Dorsal body cavityVentral body cavity Figure 1.7

73 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) Figure 1.8

74 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.9a-b Right hypo- chondriac region Epigastric region Right lumbar region Umbilical region Right iliac (inguinal) region Hypogastric (pubic) region Left iliac (inguinal) region Left lumbar region Left hypo- chondriac region (a) Nine regions delineated by four planes (b) Anterior view of the nine regions showing the superficial organs Liver Gallbladder Ascending colon of large intestine Small intestine Cecum Appendix Diaphragm Stomach Transverse colon of large intestine Descending colon of large intestine Initial part of sigmoid colon Urinary bladder


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