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THE NATION AT WAR America Past and Present Eighth Edition Divine  Breen  Fredrickson  Williams  Gross  Brand Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc.,

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Presentation on theme: "THE NATION AT WAR America Past and Present Eighth Edition Divine  Breen  Fredrickson  Williams  Gross  Brand Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc.,"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE NATION AT WAR America Past and Present Eighth Edition Divine  Breen  Fredrickson  Williams  Gross  Brand Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman

2 A New World Power F American foreign policy aggressive, nationalistic since late 19th century F Colonialism drew U.S. into international affairs

3 "I Took the Canal Zone" F 1903: Colombian senate refused to allow U.S. to build Panama Canal F Roosevelt abetted revolution to separate Panama from Colombia F Independent Panama permitted construction F 1914: Panama Canal opened

4 The Panama Canal Zone

5 The Roosevelt Corollary F U.S. treated Latin America as a protectorate F “Roosevelt Corollary”: U.S. would ensure stability of Latin American finance F Roosevelt Corollary spurred intervention in – Dominican Republic – Panama – Cuba

6 Ventures in the Far East F 1905: Roosevelt mediated the Russo- Japanese War F Taft-Katsura Agreement – Korea under Japanese influence – Japan to respect U.S. control of Philippines F 1907: ”Gentleman’s Agreement” Japan promises to stop immigration F 1908: Root-Takahira Agreement –Maintain status quo in Far East –Accept Open Door and Chinese independence F 1915: Japan seized German colonies in China and claimed authority over China

7 Taft and Dollar Diplomacy F Taft substituted economic force for military F American bankers replaced Europeans in Caribbean F Taft's support for U.S. economic influence in Manchuria alienated China, Japan, Russia

8 Foreign Policy Under Wilson F Wilson inexperienced in diplomacy F Tried to base foreign policy on moral force

9 Conducting Moral Diplomacy F Wilson negotiated “cooling-off” treaties to try and settle disputes without war F Resorted to military force in Latin America –Intervened there more than Roosevelt or Taft

10 Troubles Across the Border F 1913: Huerta led coup in Mexico F Wilson denied Huerta recognition – Revolutionary regimes must reflect “a just government based upon law” F Wilson blocked arms shipments to Mexico F 1914: U.S. seized Vera Cruz F 1916: U.S. Army pursued “Pancho” Villa across U.S., Mexican border

11 Activities of the United States in the Caribbean, 1898–1930

12 Toward War F 1914: War in Europe – Central Powers headed by Germany – Allied Powers headed by England, France F Wilson sympathized with England, sought U.S. neutrality

13 The Neutrality Policy F Progressives saw war as wasteful, irrational F Suspicion that business sought war for profit F Immigrants prefered U.S. neutrality F A long tradition of U.S. neutrality F Americans saw little national stake in war

14 Freedom of the Seas F England blockade of Germany F U.S. ships to Germany seized F Wilson accepted English promise of reimbursement at war’s end F Germans used U-boats to interrupt trade with Allies F U.S. trade with Allies boomed, but was increasingly financed by loans from American banks F Allies owed U.S. banks $2 billion by 1917

15 The U-Boat Threat F German submarines violated international law by shooting without warning F Bryan advised Wilson to ban travel, Wilson refused F 1915: Lusitania sunk by U-Boat –Wilson demanded Germans protect passenger ships and pay for losses –Bryan resigned, replaced by Robert Lansing, who favored Allies F April, 1916: Wilson issued ultimatum: call off attacks on cargo and passenger ships or U.S.- German relations would be severed F May, 1916: Sussex Pledge—Germany pledges to honor U.S. neutrality

16 "He Kept Us Out of War" F 1916: Wilson campaigned on record of neutrality F Republican Charles Evans Hughes campaigned on tougher line against Germany F Wilson won close election – Won large labor, progressive vote – Won majority of women’s vote


18 The Final Months of Peace F Feb., 1917: Germany renewed U-Boat attacks F Zimmerman Telegram F Wilson’s response – Ordered U.S. merchant vessels armed – Ordered U.S. Navy to fire on German U- Boats F April 6, 1917: War declared on Germany

19 Over There F U.S. allies were in danger of losing war –Germans sunk 881,000 tons of Allied shipping during April, 1917 –Mutinies in French army –British drive in Flanders stalled –Bolsheviks signed separate peace with Germany; German troops to West –Italian army routed F Allies braced for spring, 1918 offensive

20 U.S. Losses to the German Submarine Campaign, 1916–1918

21 Mobilization F No U.S. contingency plans for war F 200,000 troops at war’s beginning F Selective Service Act created draft – Conscripted 2.8 million by war’s end –African Americans drafted as well

22 European Alliances and Battlefronts, 1914–1917

23 War in the Trenches F Teaming of U.S., English navies halved Allied losses to submarines F June, 1917: U.S. troops arrived in France F Spring, 1918: U.S. forces helped halt final German offensive – Battle of Chateau Thierry – Battle of Belleau Wood F September: Germans out of St. Mihiel

24 The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918

25 Over Here F Victory on front depends on mobilization at home F Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize war production and distribution F Wilson begins campaign for American emotions

26 The Conquest of Convictions F Wartime laws to repress dissent – Espionage Act: Outlawed acts to aid the enemy, even encouraging disloyalty – Trading with the Enemy Act: Government can censor foreign language press – Sedition Act: Criticism of the war made a crime – 1500 dissenters imprisoned, including Eugene Debs F Summer, 1918: Anticommunism prompts deployment of U.S. troops to Russia F 1918–1919: “Red Scare” resulted in domestic suppression of “radicals”

27 A Bureaucratic War F War Industries Board and other agencies supervised production, distribution to maximize war effort F Government seized some businesses to keep them running F Cooperation between government and business the norm F Business profits from wartime industry

28 Labor in the War F Union membership swells F Labor shortage prompts – Wage increase – Entry of Mexican Americans, women, African Americans to war-related industrial work force

29 African American Migration Northward, 1910–1920

30 Labor in the War F 200,000 blacks served in France – 42,000 combat troops F Great Migration to northern factories – Blacks must adjust industrial work pace – Encounter Northern racism F 1917–1919: Race riots in urban North F Wartime experience prompted new surge of black resistance

31 The Treaty of Versailles F Common concern about Bolshevik revolution F Wilson’s Fourteen Points call for non- punitive settlement F England and France balk at Fourteen Points –Want Germany disarmed and crippled –Want Germany’s colonies –Skeptical of principle of self-determination

32 A Peace at Paris F Wilson failed to deflect Allied punishment of Germany in treaty F Treaty created Wilson’s League of Nations – Article X of League charter required members to protect each others’ territorial integrity F League's jurisdiction excluded member nations’ domestic affairs


34 Europe after The Treaty Versailles, 1919

35 Rejection in the Senate F William Borah (R-ID) led “irreconcibles” who opposed treaty on any ground F Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (R-MA) led “strong reservationists” that demanded major changes, including to Article X F October, 1919: Stroke disables Wilson F November: Treaty fails in Senate F January, 1920: Final defeat of Treaty F July, 1921: U.S. peace declared by joint Congressional resolution

36 Rejection in the Senate F Wilson hopes democratic victory in 1920 election would provide mandate for League of Nations F Landslide for Republican Warren Harding F Defeat of League of Nations brought defeat of Progressive spirit

37 The Election of 1920

38 Postwar Disillusionment F To the next generation the war seemed futile, wasteful F The progressive spirit survived but without enthusiasm or broad based support F Americans welcomed Harding’s return to “normalcy”

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