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Solutions, Acids, Bases & pH. Solute –substance whose particles are dissolved in a solution ie. salt, sugar Solvent – the substance in which the solute.

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Presentation on theme: "Solutions, Acids, Bases & pH. Solute –substance whose particles are dissolved in a solution ie. salt, sugar Solvent – the substance in which the solute."— Presentation transcript:

1 Solutions, Acids, Bases & pH

2 Solute –substance whose particles are dissolved in a solution ie. salt, sugar Solvent – the substance in which the solute dissolves ie. water “universal solvent”

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4 Dispersion of Sugar in Water

5 Conductivity – ability to conduct electricity Freezing point – decreases Boiling point – increases Heat of solution – energy is absorbed or released during the formation of a solution  Energy released = exothermic  Energy absorbed = endothermic Properties of Liquid Substances

6 Surface area – ↑ surface area = ↑ rate Stirring – moves dissolved particles away from the solid Temperature – ↑ temperature = ↑ rate Factors Affecting Dissolving Rate

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8 One of the most important aspects of a living system is the degree of acidity or alkalinity

9 Ionization of water -breaking apart water molecules into ions of opposite charge HOH + HOH  H 3 O + + OH - (water) (water) (hydronium) (hydroxide)

10 Acid – ionic compound that produces hydronium ions (H 3 O + ) when dissolved in water Stronger acid = more hydronium ions Number of hydronium ions in solution is greater than the number of hydroxide ions

11 AcidsAcids Characteristics of Acids Tastes sour Reacts strongly with metals Conducts electricity in water Turns blue litmus paper red Generally clear solutions Proton donors (give H + ) Examples of Acids VinegarH 2 SO 4 Citrus fruitsHNO 3 Stomach acid (HCl)

12 Acetic acidCH 3 COOHVinegar Carbonic acidH 2 CO 3 Carbonated beverages Hydrochloric acidHCIDigestive juices in stomach Nitric acidHNO 3 Fertilizer production Phosphoric acidH 3 PO 4 Fertilizer production Sulfuric acidH 2 SO 4 Car batteries

13 Add Base to Water OH - Na+ NaOH  Na + + OH - Base – ionic compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH - ) when dissolved in water Stronger base = more hydroxide ions Number of hydroxide ions in solution is greater than the number of hydronium ions

14 BasesBases Characteristics of Bases Tastes bitter Reacts strongly with metals Conducts electricity in water Turns red litmus paper blue Generally slippery feel Proton acceptors (take H + ) Examples of Bases Lye (NaOH)Ca(OH) 2 Ammonia (NH 3 )KOH

15 Aluminum hydroxideAl(OH) 3 Deodorant, antacid Calcium hydroxideCa(OH) 2 Concrete, plaster Magnesium hydroxideMg(OH) 2 Antacid, laxative Sodium hydroxideNaOH Drain cleaner, soap production

16 Neutralization Reaction between an Acid & Base that forms salt & water HCl + NaOH  HOH + NaCl (Hydrochloric Acid) + (Sodium Hydroxide)  (Water) + (Salt)

17 Sodium chlorideNaClFood flavoring, preservative Sodium carbonateNa 2 CO 3 Used to make glass Potassium chlorideKClUsed as a salt substitute to reduce dietary intake of sodium Potassium iodideKlAdded to table salt to prevent iodine deficiency Magnesium chlorideMgCl 2 De-icer for roads Calcium carbonateCaCO 3 Chalk, marble floors, and tables Ammonium nitrateNH 4 NO 3 Fertilizer, cold packs

18 Remember!! During a chemical reaction:  Bonds are broken  Elements are rearranged  New compounds are formed Balanced Equation - # of atoms of each element are equal on both sides of a chemical equation Reactants are shown on the left Products are shown on the right HCl + NaOH  H 2 O + NaCl ReactantsProducts

19 pH Scale Measure of hydronium (H 3 O + ) ion concentration  pH affects the physical & chemical properties of a substance

20 Acid – pH = 0-6 Neutral – pH = 7 Base – pH = 8-14

21 A change of one pH unit changes the H+ concentration by a factor of 10. A change of 1 pH unit changes the H 3 O + concentration by a factor of 10 ie. pH 1 has 10x more hydronium ions than pH 2; 100x more than pH 3, etc.

22 Why do we need to know pH?

23 IndicatorIndicator Changes color as the pH changes Indicates the pH of the solution

24 www.chem4kids.com www.pasco.com faculty.fmcc.suny.edu creekconnections.allegheny.edu www.lcesc.k12.oh.us www.tennislifemagazine.com Physical Science Concepts In Action Textbook Works Cited


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