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Warm-Up April 25, 2013 Write down the date and objective. Objective: SWBAT classify and calculate the concentration of substances by completing an Acids and Bases Lab. Complete the following warm-up: 1.What is an Arrhenius acid? 2.What is an Arrhenius base? 3.What is a Bronsted-Lowry acid? 4.What is a Bronsted-Lowry base?

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Objective & Agenda Objective: SWBAT classify and calculate the concentration of substances by completing an Acids and Bases Lab. Agenda 1.Current Event 2.pH 3.Acid and Base Lab 4.Practice Problems 5.Homework 6.Exit Slip

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Current Event

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The pH scale is a way of expressing the strength of acids and bases. pH= potential of hydrogen Under 7 = acid 7 = neutral Over 7 = base

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pH of Common Substances

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Calculating the pH pH = - log [H+] (Remember that the [ ] mean Molarity) Example: If [H + ] = 1 X 10 -10 pH = - log (1 X 10 -10 ) pH = - (- 10) pH = 10 Example: If [H + ] = 1.8 X 10 -5 pH = - log 1.8 X 10 -5 pH = - (- 4.74) pH = 4.74

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Try These! Find the pH of these: 1) A 0.15 M solution of hydrochloric acid 2) A 3.00 X 10 -7 M solution of nitric acid

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pH calculations – Solving for H+ If the pH of Coke is 3.12, [H + ] = ??? Because pH = - log [H + ] then - pH = log [H + ] - pH = log [H + ] Take antilog (10 x ) of both sides and get 10 -pH = [H + ] [H + ] = 10 -3.12 = 7.6 x 10 -4 M *** to find antilog on your calculator, look for “Shift” or “2 nd function” and then the log button *** to find antilog on your calculator, look for “Shift” or “2 nd function” and then the log button

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pH calculations – Solving for H+ A solution has a pH of 8.5. What is the Molarity of hydrogen ions in the solution?A solution has a pH of 8.5. What is the Molarity of hydrogen ions in the solution? 10 -8.5 = [H + ] 3.16 X 10 -9 = [H + ] 10 -8.5 = [H + ] 3.16 X 10 -9 = [H + ]

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pOH Since acids and bases are opposites, pH and pOH are opposites!Since acids and bases are opposites, pH and pOH are opposites! pOH looks at the perspective of a basepOH looks at the perspective of a base pOH = - log [OH - ] Since pH and pOH are on opposite ends, pH + pOH = 14

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pH [H + ] [OH - ] pOH

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[H 3 O + ], [OH - ] and pH What is the pH of the 0.0010 M NaOH solution? [OH-] = 0.0010 (or 1.0 X 10 -3 M) pOH = - log 0.0010 pOH = - log 0.0010 pOH = 3 pOH = 3 pH = 14 – 3 = 11

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Important Formulas pH = -log[H + ] pOH = -log[OH - ] pH + pOH = 14 [H + ] = 10 -pH [OH - ] = 10 -pOH

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Problem 1: A chemist dilutes concentrated hydrochloric acid to make two solutions: (a) 0.9 M and (b) 0.0024 M. Calculate the [H 3 O + ], pH, [OH - ], and pOH of the two solutions at 25°C. Problem 2: What is the [H 3 O + ], [OH - ], and pOH of a solution with pH = 3.67? Is this an acid, base, or neutral?

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Neutralization Reaction NaCl + H2O Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + 2 H 2 O Li 2 SO 4 + 2 H 2 O Ca(ClO 4 ) 2 + 2 H 2 O

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pH testing (review) There are several ways to test pHThere are several ways to test pH –Blue litmus paper (red = acid) –Red litmus paper (blue = basic) –pH paper (multi-colored) –pH meter (7 is neutral, 7 base) –Indicators like phenolphthalein –Natural indicators like red cabbage, radishes

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pH meter Tests the voltage of the electrolyteTests the voltage of the electrolyte Converts the voltage to pHConverts the voltage to pH Very cheap, accurateVery cheap, accurate Must be calibrated with a buffer solutionMust be calibrated with a buffer solution

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pH indicators Indicators are dyes that can be added that will change color in the presence of an acid or base. Some indicators only work in a specific range of pH Once the drops are added, the sample is ruined Some dyes are natural, like radish skin or red cabbage

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Acids and Bases Lab Follow all directions carefully!! Ask if you are unsure of how to do something. Let me know if you run out of materials.

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Homework 24 Acid/Base Practice Problems due Friday

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1. The pH of rainwater collected in a certain region of the northeastern United States on a particular day was 4.82. What is the H + ion concentration of the rainwater? 2.The OH - ion concentration of a blood sample is 2.5 x 10 -7 M. What is the pH of the blood?

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Strength of Acids and Bases The strength of an acid (or base) is determined by the amount of IONIZATION This is not the concentration If the acid (or base)

Strength of Acids and Bases The strength of an acid (or base) is determined by the amount of IONIZATION This is not the concentration If the acid (or base)

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