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Agenda: Warm-up: Properties of Groups Trends in properties How do we use the Periodic Table to predict properties of elements? Reactivity: Atomic size.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda: Warm-up: Properties of Groups Trends in properties How do we use the Periodic Table to predict properties of elements? Reactivity: Atomic size."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agenda: Warm-up: Properties of Groups Trends in properties How do we use the Periodic Table to predict properties of elements? Reactivity: Atomic size Ionization Energy Electronegativity Return Test Homework: Objective: To understand the physical and chemical properties of atoms based on their position on the Periodic Table Next Unit is forming bonds and compounds based on reactivity

2 Warm-up: Properties of Groups Alkali Metals, Halogens, Noble Gases Which group is the least reactive? In Group 1, which elements are most reactive? Why? In Group 17, which elements are most reactive? Why? Which Group contains all gases? Which group always forms ionic compounds? What other properties change in a Group when going down the PT?

3 Predicting how easily an element reacts What characteristics of an element impact how easily it reacts with other elements to form a chemical compound? The electron arrangement of each atom determines its chemical behavior (how it reacts and bonds). 1. Forming ions based on number of valence electrons 2. Atomic size 3. Ionization energy 4. Electronegativity

4 Atoms lose, gain or share valence electrons in order to be stable like the Noble Gases. Metals will: Non-metals will:

5 Forming Compounds Ions come together to form a ______________ ______________. Many formula units are held together to make an _______ compound.

6 PERIODIC TRENDS USING THE PERIODIC TABLE TO PREDICT PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS AND GROUPS Focus on Reactivity Atomic size Ionization Energy Electronegativity

7 Atomic Radii Atomic Radius – measurement of the size (volume) of the atom Defined by the edge of its orbital but since the edges are fuzzy, difficult to determine Atomic Radii – half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together

8 Ionization Energy Ionization energy – the energy required to remove one electron X + energy  X + + e - An electron can be removed from an atom if enough energy is absorbed (+) by the atom Note: measurements of this are made on individual atoms in gas phase to avoid interactions with nearby atoms Adding energy = Endothermic

9 How do metal atoms lose electrons? Ionization energy Ground State, Excited State, Ionization energy Lithium

10 Electronegativty Electonegativity: An atoms’ ability to attract electrons from another atom Electron Affinity: The energy released when an electron is added to an atom X + e -  X - + energy Releasing energy = Exothermic

11 How do non-metal atoms gain electrons? Electronegativity Large non-metal Small non-metal atomatom

12 Examining properties & trends Use Interactive Periodic Table –http://www.ptable.com/http://www.ptable.com/ Click on Properties Work in pairs Each person completes the table When completed, investigate the properties of the transition metals Homework: Summary on a separate paper Define the property Summarize its trends: across periods and down groups Summarize the characteristics of the property in each of the 3 groups studies

13 Linking Electron Arrangement to the PT Use Interactive Periodic Table –http://www.ptable.com/http://www.ptable.com/ Click on Orbitals S P D F blocks Which are being filled?

14 Noble Gas Notation – using the PT

15 Rules for Group 1 & Group 2 Periods ?

16 Rules for Groups 13-18 Periods?

17 Rules for Transition Metals Period ?

18 7. Reactivity Group 18 (called the _______________) are ____________ (also called ________ or _____________), because: Group 1 (called ____________) are the most reactive metals because: Group 17 (called ___________) are the most reactive nonmetals because:

19 1 18 2 13 14 15 16 17 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Trends for Ionization Energy & Electronegativity Arrows to show trends for metals & non-metals Reactivity: trends for metals and non-metals

20 Predicting Properties of Elements - based on the position on the Periodic Table : Size; IE; EN Property: which element has the largest value? Ca vs. BrC vs. Sn F vs. I Si vs. Cl Na vs. P Li vs. K Be vs. OS vs. Ar Al vs. SNe vs. Kr B vs. Al B vs. Ne

21 Periodic Trend Animation http://faculty.ucc.edu/chemistry-pankuch/Amin.html Atomic size Ionic size Interactive animationsInteractive animations Ionization Electronegativity For later used: bond formation

22 Periodic Table Objective: To understand the physical and chemical properties of atoms based on their position on the Periodic Table NC Essential Standards 1.3 Physical properties: Chemical properties:

23 Periodic Tables Groups Http://www.ptable.com/Images/periodic%20table.png Interactive Periodic Table – useful for trends of properties http://www.ptable.com/

24 PERIODIC TRENDS USING THE PERIODIC TABLE TO PREDICT PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS AND GROUPS Focus on Reactivity Atomic size Ionization Energy Electronegativity Electron Affinity

25 Atomic Radii Atomic Radius – measurement of the size (volume) of the atom Defined by the edge of its orbital but since the edges are fuzzy, difficult to determine Atomic Radii – half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together

26 Atomic Radii Across Period: atoms get smaller because of the increased number of protons attracting the electrons the electrons added in the same energy level do not shield electrons from nuclear charge Down Group: atoms get larger increases because the energy levels being added to the atom

27

28

29 Atomic/Ionic Radii

30 Ionization Energy Ionization energy – the energy required to remove one electron X + energy  X + + e - An electron can be removed from an atom if enough energy is absorbed (+) by the atom Note: measurements of this are made on individual atoms in gas phase to avoid interactions with nearby atoms

31 Ionization Energy

32 Across Period: requires more energy to remove an electron so increases because electrons added in the same energy level do not shield electrons from nuclear charge Down Group: requires less energy to remove electron so decreases because the valence electrons are farther away from protons attracting them

33 Ionization Energy

34

35 Electronegativty Ability to attract electrons Non-metals (excluding Noble Gases) High electronegativity

36 Electronegativity Across Period: Increases Non-metals attract electrons Smaller atoms Down Group: Decreases Protons in the nucleus are shielded by inner energy levels Harder to attract electrons

37 Electronegativity

38 Periodic Trend Animation http://faculty.ucc.edu/chemistry-pankuch/Amin.html Atomic size Ionic size Interactive animationsInteractive animations Ionization Electronegativity For later used: bond formation

39 1 18 2 13 14 15 16 17 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Trends for Ionization Energy & Electronegativity Arrows to show trends for metals & non-metals Reactivity: trends for metals and non-metals

40 6. Octet Rule Atoms tend to ______, ______, or _______ electrons in order to have _____ valence electrons. _______ valence electrons gives stability. Exception: Duet rule: Hydrogen

41 7. Reactivity Group 18 (called the _______________) are ____________ (also called ________ or _____________), because: Group 1 (called ____________) are the most reactive metals because: Group 17 (called ___________) are the most reactive nonmetals because:

42 1 18 2 13 14 15 16 17 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Trends for Ionization Energy & Electronegativity Arrows to show trends for metals & non-metals Reactivity: trends for metals and non-metals

43 Predicting Properties of Elements - based on the position on the Periodic Table : Size; IE; EN Property: which element has the largest value? Ca vs. BrC vs. Sn F vs. I Si vs. Cl Na vs. P Li vs. K Be vs. OS vs. Ar Al vs. SNe vs. Kr B vs. Al B vs. Ne

44 Periodic Table videos New Periodic Table Song http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IsBZx0tv6dQ Prism website http://www.gk12.ilstu.edu/chemistry/index.asp?page=perio dicTable http://www.gk12.ilstu.edu/chemistry/index.asp?page=perio dicTable


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