Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Long Horticulture I Fall 2013. Soil is the unconsolidated cover on the surface of the earth. Soil is the unconsolidated cover on the surface of the."— Presentation transcript:
Mrs. Long Horticulture I Fall 2013
Soil is the unconsolidated cover on the surface of the earth. Soil is the unconsolidated cover on the surface of the earth. Soil is made up of mineral particles, organic particles, air and water. Soil is made up of mineral particles, organic particles, air and water. Soil is capable of supporting plant growth. Soil is capable of supporting plant growth.
About ½ of the soil volume is solid particles About ½ of the soil volume is pore space
Anchor plant roots Supply water to plant roots Provide air for plant roots Furnish nutrients for plant growth Release water with low levels of nutrients Anchor plant roots Supply water to plant roots Provide air for plant roots Furnish nutrients for plant growth Release water with low levels of nutrients
Organic matter is the glue that holds the aggregates together Large pores (spaces) between aggregates are filled with air in a moist soil. Small pores are filled with water in a moist soil. Even smaller pores inside the aggregates (not shown) are also filled with water. 1/10 inch
Sand Loose Silty Granular Clayey Platy or Blocky
The mineral part of soil consists of sand, silt, and clay particles Sand – Largest particles – low moisture holding capacity Silt – Medium particles – good moisture holding Clay – Smallest particles – Hold a lot of water Loam – equal parts sand, silt, clay – ideal texture! Sand 0.1 – in 2 – 0.05 mm Silt – in mm Clay Less than in Less than mm 1/100 in
Parent Material Mechanical weathering – breaks down rock into smaller pieces without changing soil chemistry Chemical weathering – breaks down rocks into smaller pieces by chemical reaction Biological weathering – results from activities of living organisms
Bring a small soil sample from your yard at home. Make sure its clean. Bring in a full quart-sized ziploc bag full of soil YOUR NAME has to be on it!!
5.02 Discuss the soil profile and soil sampling for surface and subsurface layers. 10/31/12
Soil Particle Size Lab (Part I) Take your soil sample (1 per group) Place a cup full of soil into a jar Fill the jar to the top with water and tighten the lid. Shake for 3 minutes. Set to side (labeled) until tomorrow!
Soil layers are called horizons. Layers parallel to earth’s surface Defined usually by color, texture and physical features.
The O horizon contain Organic matter Uppermost dark Colored Most fertile Made of leaves, twigs, waste, decaying matter
Topsoil Porous mix of humus Just below the O Home to earthworms and microorganisms Brown in color
Subsoil Clayey with high mineral content Brownish red Receives a lot of leached material
Parent material Clumps of unweathered rocks
Bedrock Cannot be dug by hand Very few roots can penetrate
Determines levels of fertility in soil Use this information to make accurate fertilizer recommendations for growing plants A soil test shows deficiencies, excesses and imbalances can be avoided.
Kits are available at local garden centers Submit samples to NC Dept of Agriculture and Consumer Service Agronomic Division https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=vb5wtgaKGU s https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=vb5wtgaKGU s
Information from a soil test will help you select the proper liming and fertilization program to obtain optimal growth of lawn, garden and ornamental plants.
Create a visual grid of the area to be planted subsamples from the site Sample before the growing season
Use a stainless steel soil- sampling probe Take the surface sample to tillage depth 4 inches for lawns 6-8 inches for crops
Mix soil samples together.
Remove any: Grass Rocks Any other material SOIL ONLY!!
Place soil samples in a box Get one from County Extension Also need Soil Sample Information Sheet
Send soil tests to Raleigh Free for residents NCDA&CS Agronomic Services Division Mailing Address: 1040 Mail Service Center, Raleigh NC Physical Address: 4300 Reedy Creek Road, Raleigh NC Phone: (919) ; FAX: (919)
Perform the: Soil Testing Webquest (Activity )
Making “Dirt” Bedrock at bottom - R Parent material - C Subsoil - B Topsoil - A Organic matter – O
Types of Horticulture Soils
Organic Partially decomposed material from Swamps Holds moisture
Inorganic Natural volcanic material Helps with soil aeration and water holding capacity
Organic Matter Dead plant or animal tissue Contains Carbon! Decayed organic matter Used for soil conditioning Fertilizer Compost
Organic Larger matter Promotes drainage Mainly for trees and shrubs
Organic Dehydrated bog plants Holds moisture Very acidic Hanging baskets
Advantages Sterile pH is neutral Disease and weed free Good for starting plants Easy to mix Improves plant uniformity Expensive Light weight Disadvantages
The process of growing plants without soil.
No soil & problems associated with soil. Easy to control nutrient content of plants.
Plant support must be provided with strings, wires, or stakes. Water quality must be high. Diseases spread through water. More moisture or humidity in air to cause favorable environment for disease organisms. More expensive.
Soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of soils pH ranges from 0-14, 7 being neutral Ideal pH is
Lime Raises the soil pH Lowers the soil pH Calcium/Sulfur