Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Section 504 ADA Co-Presented by: Candy Dunn, Director of Special Education IU1 and Megan Marie Van Fossan, McGuffey School District."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 15 Section 504 ADA Co-Presented by: Candy Dunn, Director of Special Education IU1 and Megan Marie Van Fossan, McGuffey School District
Agenda Why are we here? Self Assessment History ADAAA 08 Definitions Evaluation/Eligibility Service Agreement and Other Forms Grievance Procedures Self Assessment (answers) Q & A
Why Are We Here? To provide an overview of Chapter 15 - Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the revisions effective To provide an update regarding changes in the ADA and Section 504 Rehabilitation Act. To compare IDEA requirements with Section 504. To provide an overview of process, procedures, forms, parents rights and discipline.
Self Assessment (This is not a cooperative learning activity)
A Guiding Quotation “ Some kids need special education… Others need something special in their education.” Education Week, June, 1998
3 Phases of Section 504 Phase 1: Awareness Phase 2: Constriction Phase 3: Expansion Phase 1: Awareness Phase 2: Constriction Phase 3: Expansion 1970’s disability movement Court cases: –Sutton 1999 –Toyota 2002 January 1, ADAAA 1970’s disability movement Court cases: –Sutton 1999 –Toyota 2002 January 1, ADAAA
Section Phase 1 AWARENESS regulations needed to enforce Section 504 were signed –Accessible buildings –Curb cuts Very little impact on schools
Section Phase 2 CONSTRICTION Sutton v. United Airlines (1999) –Mitigating factors considered when evaluating if a person has a “substantial limitation” Toyota v. Williams ( 2002) –Severely restricted an individual from engaging activities of central importance & impairment was permanent or long term IDEA
Section Phase 3 EXPANSION ADA Amendments Act –Effective 1/1/09 In rejecting a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions, the new law is intended to reinstate the broad scope of protection for individuals with disabilities.
Section Phase 3 EXPANSION Section 504, unlike the IDEA, “requires a comparison between the treatment of disabled and nondisabled children, rather than simply requiring a certain level of services for each disabled child.”
Section Phase 3 EXPANSION Broadens the definition and coverage of “disability” under ADA and the Rehabilitation Act. Ensures that individuals who compensate for their disabilities are protected from discrimination. Clarifies that “substantially limits” does not mean “significantly restricts.”
EXPANSION ADA Amendments Act Impairment that is episodic or in remission is a disability if it would substantially limit a major life activity when active. Examples include: epilepsy, asthma, diabetes, cancer, major depression, and bipolar disorder
ADA Amendments Act Requires disability determinations to be made without considering mitigating measures –e.g., medication, medical supplies, appliances, low-vision devices, prosthetics, hearing aids and mobility devices. –Excludes ordinary eye glasses and contact lenses
Section 504: Disability Defined Physical or Mental Impairment**Major Life Activities** Record of Impairment** Regarded Impairment** Physiological disorder, contagious disease, cosmetic disfigurement or anatomical loss in one or more system: Neurological Musculoskeletal Respiratory Cardiovascular Reproductive Digestive Bowel * Genito-urinary Hemic Lymphatic Skin Endocrine Immune System *** Normal Cell Growth *** Bladder *** Reproductive Functions *** Mental or psychological disorder including: Mental retardation Organic brain syndrome Emotional or mental illness Specific learning disabilities Major life activities include: Self-care Manual tasks Walking Seeing Hearing Speaking Breathing Sitting Standing *** Reaching Thinking *** Concentrating *** Reading *** Communicating *** Interacting with others Learning Working Eating *** Sleeping *** Lifting *** Bending *** The individual has: A history of impairment A record of having been misclassified as having an impairment The individual has: An impairment not limiting a major life activity, but treated as disabled by the covered entity No impairment, but treated as disabled by the covered entity Substance Abuse (recovering alcoholic or addict* * Does not include current, illegal drug abusers. ** (34 Code of Fed Reg. Part 104.3) *** Added in new amendments by Congress effective January 1, Non-exhaustive list.
Concentrating Thinking Learning Reading
IDEA Eligibility 504 Eligibility Section 504 vs. IDEA Has a physical or mental impairment Impairment substantially limits one or more major life activities Requires services to meet educational needs as adequately as needs of non-disabled students Meets one or more definitions of IDEA disability categories Disability adversely affects the student educational performance Requires special education and related services (specially designed instruction)
Section 504 vs. IDEA Establish a “level playing field”; eliminate barriers that exclude persons with disabilities.Establish a “level playing field”; eliminate barriers that exclude persons with disabilities. Precludes hurdles to participationPrecludes hurdles to participation No fundingNo funding The definition of a disability is much broader than the definition under IDEA.The definition of a disability is much broader than the definition under IDEA. Remedial – often requiring the provision of programs & services in addition to those available to persons without disabilities.Remedial – often requiring the provision of programs & services in addition to those available to persons without disabilities. Students sometimes granted “more” services than children without disabilities.Students sometimes granted “more” services than children without disabilities. Additional fundingAdditional funding
504 and ADA are Civil Rights Acts Guarantee non discrimination for “unalterable characteristics” Guarantee “equal access” Section 504 is enforced by the U. S. Department of Office for Civil Rights Violation of Section 504 may also result in civil liability
But What About Special Ed? 504 is simpler, less time-consuming 504 generally provides supports and accommodations vs. services or modifications Keeps some kids out of Special Education
Aren’t These Kids All on IEPs? Not necessarily For an IEP, the student needs to have the disability and also require specially designed instruction IEPs are limited to 13 specific handicapping conditions, 504 is much broader
Non-Disabled § 504 IDEA
Child Find Triggers Parent requests an evaluation or 504 plan Suspension or expulsion is being considered Academic performance is lower than expected Student is evaluated and is not IDEA eligible Student exhibits a chronic medical problem
More Triggers Student transfer to SD with a §504 plan from another district Student is chronically absent due to medical/health issues Student receives medication during the school day Student formerly found not eligible due to mitigating measures
Annual Notice On or before the first day of the school year, the district must inform parents of enrolled students that the district: –does not discriminate against protected handicapped students and –the district’s responsibilities under Chapter 15 Notice may be included in a document reasonably expected to reach the parents of students enrolled in the district (e.g. school calendar or brochure)
How is a Referral Made? Parent request in writing for a 504/Chapter 15 evaluation School Staff are concerned about the presence of a disability or suspected disability Site administrator for 504 should proceed with a Written Notice explaining why either the parent or the district is seeking a 504/Chapter 15 evaluation and include a copy of the Procedural Safeguards
The Steps 1.Student evaluated 2.Team meets 3.Eligibility Determined 4.(If eligible) Service Agreement written 5.Agreement implemented and monitored 6.Manifestation Determination (Suggests to follow Chapter 14) 7.Reevaluation if substantial changes
Evaluation Presence of the Disability Impact of disability on school-related activity Level of impact Section 504 only requires that the evaluation be conducted in suspected areas of need.
Evaluation “Evaluation” does not necessarily mean “test.” In the §504 context, “evaluation” refers to a gathering of data or information from a variety of sources so that the committee can make the required determinations. The evaluation process should also consider various other factors, such as teacher recommendations, physical condition, social and cultural background, behavior and any independent evaluations.
Negligible Mild Moderate Substantial Extreme Negligible Student demonstrates signs of minimal difficulty with specific topics in one or tow subject areas or may benefit from slight accommodations Mild Student performance varies from one subject areas to the next, but still is within expectations for a typical student Moderate Student has fair amount of difficulty with a number of subject areas however with effective instruction student performs commensurate with typical peers Substantial Student experiences great difficulty in several subjects and needs extensive support from teachers and parents. Student performs below expectations of typical peers. Extreme Student exhibits little or no success in all subject areas and may need altered curriculum and different standards for instruction and assessment Dr. Perry Zirkel, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA
Impact of Disability Without effect of mitigating measures such as medication, prosthetics, hearing aids, mobility devices, assistive technology, learned behavioral modifications Does not include eyeglasses or contact lenses For episodic or in remission, consider effects when active Compare to average student
Short-term Disability & Exclusions Short term disabilities (such as broken limbs) are usually not considered if less than six months in nature – unless substantial impact Determination must be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the severity and the duration of the impairment, typically 6 months Exclusions: Illegal drugs, gambling, addiction
What questions can the Section 504 team members ask? 1.What is the nature and severity of the impairment? 2.What is the duration or expected duration of the impairment? 3.Does the student consistently need substantial changes to complete assignments? 4.Does the student consistently exhibit difficulties with planning and organization? 5.Has the student shown a consistent downward slope in academic progress? 6.Has the student shown a consistent pattern of negative behaviors? 7.Does the student need assistance to participate fully in any portion of the school day, including those where academics are not at issue?
How is the presence of the disability determined? If parents have a diagnosis/medical, district can review it and accept it (unless they want to refute it) - need parental consent Parent/family member interviews Review of school records School observations Teacher interviews Social/emotional checklists Academic assessments Formal tools not required
Disability Determination Physician or psychologist opinion as to student’s eligibility status is only one source of information the team should consider. Remember, the team is making an educational decision, not a medical decision. Students eligible under IDEA are not entitled to a separate Section 504 plan.
Timeline for Evaluation There is no timeline - the law refers to “reasonable” No more than 60 calendar days is a good rule of thumb
Definition of School Days Chapter 15 defines school days as the days of the school district’s academic year PLUS the 14 calendar days before the beginning of the academic year and the 14 calendar days following the completion of the academic year
Team Meets Must include at least one or both of the parents and the school administrator/representative of the school district If determining eligibility, must be people who: –Know the student –Know evaluation data –Know accommodations/supports options The team ensure that the plan effectively removes the barriers created by a student’s disability.
Evaluation Report Written by the team The information obtained from all sources must be documented and all significant factors related to the student's learning process must be considered. Carefully considered by the team to determine eligibility
Service Agreement Developed Consider area in which there is impact “Allows student to participate in and benefit from public education programs and activities” Physical, instructional, social/emotional/ behavioral accommodations
Service Agreement No required elements like an IEP Goals not required Must include a plan for periodic review Should appoint a “Contact Person” to monitor the plan and communicate with family
Service Agreement Includes specific related aids, services or accommodations Specify the date the services will begin, the date services will be discontinued & when appropriate: the procedures to be followed in the event of a medical emergency
Service Agreement Identify student’s disability, major life activity impacted, and educational impact of disability Design a program to suit student needs Be sure accommodations are succinct and realistic Review each Section 504 Plan at least on an annual basis or upon any significant change in placement
Accommodations While curricular modifications may be available to special education students (i.e., reduced mastery of the grade level curriculum), there is no modification of the curriculum itself for §504 students. 504 is not about reducing expectations for disabled students, but providing the types of accommodations that will compensate for their disabilities so that §504 students have an equal chance to compete in class.
Placement / LRE In the §504 context, “placement” simply means the regular education classroom with individually planned accommodations. It does not literally mean taking the child out of the regular classroom and putting him someplace else.
More About Service Agreements May have to pay for extra services - aide support, therapy, etc. May have to make environmental changes Provide access to extracurricular activities May not exclude from enrollment in challenging academic programs.
Service Agreement Implemented and Monitored Site administrator should ensure that all people involved with the student have a copy Communicate with Contact Person on a periodic basis about implementation and progress Failure to implement a 504 plan can have serious legal consequences - people can be held personally liable
Review No required frequency of review, but it must be “periodic” The plan should specify how often and by whom it will be reviewed Make sure required reviews occur Annual review is recommended
Special Steps for Discipline Same protections for suspension and expulsion as Special Education students (including pattern) 45 days IAEP for weapons, illegal drugs or serious bodily injury Manifestation Determination within 10 days of decision If student is currently using illegal drugs or alcohol, he/she loses his/her right to Manifestation Determination
Re-evaluation The student should be re-evaluated if major changes to the plan are being considered A Student must be reevaluated prior to a significant change in placement which includes exclusion from the educational program of more than 10 school days, transfer to another program or termination or significantly reducing a related service.
Disagreement with Parents Parents should be given their rights at the beginning (Procedural Safeguards) If parents disagree with what district is proposing regarding assessment, eligibility, or plan, use the Prior Written Notice form Approval not needed for change of placement Parents can appeal to the Office of Civil Rights No “stay put” as in IDEA
§504 Teams Gone Wild “Johnny will participate on the varsity basketball team” “Susie will be in the school choir” The sport or activity doesn’t belong in the plan, only the supports needed for them to participate Students must be “otherwise qualified” as judged by the same criteria as other students
Consideration for Special Education If a 504 student is requiring intensive services, therapies, or even alternate placement, consider eligibility for Special Education.
Key Points Common regular education interventions such as RtII may eliminate existence of a “substantial limitation” Standard is to compare student to an “average student”. This means you compare student against chronological peers in the entire state or country. Different standard of FAPE than IDEA. Do not consider mitigating factors when determining whether an impairment is substantially limiting
Follow-Up Steps Follow-Up Steps Following the meeting: –Copies of documentation from the meeting should be placed in the student’s permanent folder –If the student was found eligible, a Section 504 notice should be placed on the student’s permanent folder. –All staff serving the student should be notified of the student’s eligibility and their roles in providing accommodations. These staff should receive a copy of the accommodation plan. –It is best practice that the plan be reviewed on an annual basis, or more often if needed, and modified as needed.
Section 504 Policies & Procedures School districts need to revise Section 504 policy, procedures, and forms to conform with the new changes to Section 504. –Given the new changes under the 2008 Amendments, it is critical that school districts adopt clear and concise Section 504 policies, procedures, and forms that comply with the new definitions of major life activity and substantial limitation.