Presentation on theme: "Pleasant Learning Environments Jonathan Amey. Standing on the Shoulders of Others Glenn Latham Ogden Lindsley Libby Street Murray Sidman Markle & Tiemann."— Presentation transcript:
Pleasant Learning Environments Jonathan Amey
Standing on the Shoulders of Others Glenn Latham Ogden Lindsley Libby Street Murray Sidman Markle & Tiemann Kent Johnson Bill Helsel
Outline Pleasant learning environments Conducting a motivational analysis Effective RtI strategies
Performance Management (1) Binder’s Six Boxes Expectations Tools & Resources Consequences Skills & Knowledge Selection Motives Recycling Pinpoint, structure, train, monitor, feedback, evaluate Systems Analysis Family Systems Skill Acquisition (2) Instructional Delivery Errorless learning Graduated Guidance Shaping Script Fading Mathetics Discrete Trial Error Correction Fluency building Curriculum or Program Scope & Sequence Reinforcement Contingent & Noncontingent Prevention (3) Motivative Analysis Establishing Abolishing Environmental Management Physical Layout Clean transitions Materials accessible Schedules & Routines Antecedents Physical Barriers Medical concerns Medications Sleeping & eating Intervention (4) Strengthening Types & Schedules of Reinforcement Weakening Extinction Punishment Managing Protective Restraint Helsel ’ s Four Building Blocks
What Is the Ideal Classroom?
Ideal Classroom Students are productive Classroom is physically and mentally safe Promotes success Classroom is vital and busy
How Do We Get There? Creating a Pleasant Environment
What Is a Pleasant Environment?
A Classroom of Happy Learners!
Consider If You Will Would a happy learner, enthused with intervention, likely make better, faster, easier progress? – probably Would a willing learner be easier to teach? – Most assuredly
Assent and Consent Assent – to agree to something freely and with understanding Consent – Legally and ethically required
Assent Come to task willingly Participate in learning interactions without coercion
Withdrawl Assent Avoid us Avoid coming to task Leave during task Participate far below ability
Students Are Behaving - Now What? More instructional time Increased teacher effort As teachers improve management skills they must refine teaching skills
Instructional management skills need to improve proportionately since there will be an increased level of student on-task behavior and academic productivity Wear good deodorant
Principals of Human Behavior Product of its immediate environment Strengthened/weakened by its consequences Responds better to positive than negative Punished or reinforced? Watch rate over time Past behavior is best predictor of future behavior
Immediate Environment If students act out, something in classroom is initiating and maintaining it Identify those things and take data Who likes math? – Goofing off during math gets student kicked out of room. What ’ s that student going to do more of?
All children can learn, even children from dysfunctional families The answers to problems within an environment are to be found within that environment
Your Job Is to Create the Most Pleasant Environment Possible Change the Environment and the Behavior Will Change
Behavior Strengthened or Weakened by Its Consequences Not a problem with the student Teachers often reinforce the very behaviors that disrupt the class Frequent teacher attention in the form of praise is more effective than rules or reprimands in increasing appropriate behavior
Behavior Responds Better to Positive Than to Negative Teacher attention is a powerful reinforcer of appropriate and inappropriate student behavior Teachers allow over 95% of all appropriate behavior to go unrecognized Teachers are typically four to six times more likely to attend to inappropriate behavior than appropriate Teacher attention to inappropriate behavior increases probability that such behavior will be strengthened and thus occur predictably and with regularity
Your Job Is to Identify the Behaviors You Want to Strengthen or Weaken and Deliver, or Withhold, the Appropriate Consequences
Whether a Behavior Has Been Punished or Reinforced Is Known Only by the Future Course of That Behavior What is punishing to one child might be reinforcing to another, and vice-versa. Take data! If you keep doing what you ’ ve always done, you ’ ll keep getting what you ’ ve always gotten.
Your Job Is to Be Patient and Consistent. Wait Two Weeks and See. Record Behavior. If What You Are Doing Works- Keep It. If Not, Go Back to Tool Skills and Change Them
Past Behavior Is the Best Predictor of Future Behavior A-B-C easy as Take data!
Your Job Is to Remember Past Experiences Don ’ t Take Away Video Games If He Has Already Proven He Will Become Aggressive
Alright, Nice Theory, Now What?!
Latham ’ s Tools for Positive Behavior Change Staying close Giving positive consequences Ignoring junk behavior Ignoring junk behavior of one person and giving positive consequences for the appropriate behavior of another person
Latham ’ s Tools for Positive Behavior Change Stop-redirect-give positive consequences Setting expectations Using a contract Time-out ABC ’ s of assessing behavior Consulting skills of staff
Staying Close You create a safe, positive environment and establish yourself as a source of caring, empathy, and positive consequences The closer you are to a person, the greater the influence you have on them
How to Stay Close Physically- be within arms length, walk and sit with, move toward them Touch appropriately- pat on back or arm, squeeze shoulder Facial expressions- emote accurately, show one message Tone of voice- how you say it counts Body language- be relaxed, open arms, eye contact, orient to person Show empathy- mirror feelings (sounds like your happy or yuk, that was hard to do)
Giving Positive Consequences You focus primarily on building up appropriate behaviors with positive consequences – Show behavior you like by giving attention; Establish self as safe to be with; Maintain self control; Have a plan; Practice saying what you like and providing a positive consequence that fits appropriate behavior within 3 seconds
Types of Positive Consequences Verbal praise Appropriate touch Tangible items Privileges and activities
“ Unless what you are about to say or do has a high probability of making things better, don ’ t say it and don ’ t do it ” (Latham)
Ignoring Junk Behavior You carefully ignore any age typical behavior that may be annoying – Annoying but not harmful to self,others, or property Examples ….
Ignore Junk Give Positive to Other You carefully ignore junk behavior of one person while giving positive consequences for the appropriate behavior of another person Examples …
Stop-Redirect-Give Positive Consequences You stop a person ’ s inappropriate behavior, redirect them to a different, logically related behavior, and show you like it by giving positive consequences when the person does it
Setting Expectations You let the person know what behavior is expected and what the consequences will be for meeting or not meeting the expectations – Pick a time; A place; Set a pleasant tone; State what specific behavior you expect and what benefits are to person; Model and get person to show expected behavior; Giving instead of taking
Designing Expectations Clearly state context for behavior Clearly state behavior you want to see (provide model if necessary) Clearly state consequence for following
Examples Circle time Individual work Centers Snack Transitions
Maintaining Expectations Praise completion (3-4 per minute) Students should be able to state teacher expectations to anyone, anytime, anywhere Display expectations around room Display schedule
Contract Written agreement with the student that identifies positive expectations and consequences
Time-Out Interrupt student ’ s behavior to minimize consequences and allow you to attend to appropriate behaviors after the person has maintained a brief period of calm Time-based … not behavior based! Need good analysis, remember the disruptive student in math class
ABC ’ s and Consulting Skills Example of ABC Use school counselors to help develop parent skills across settings
Results of Coercion Student will learn coercive behavior Student will try to avoid coercive behavior by escaping and lying Student will try to get even Student will become afraid that they will fail Student will receive attention for inappropriate behavior
Coercion produces only short term compliance followed by long term losses. In the long run, behavior responds better to positive consequences.
“ My mother used to tell me that to get along in this world you gotta be either oh so smart or oh so pleasant. For a long time I was smart. I recommend pleasant. ” (Elwood P. Dowd)
The Problem That Presents Is Not Always the Problem to Solve
Conducting a Motivational Analysis Variables that affect the probability of a given stimulus-response relationship – Physiological/Environmental Increase chance of certain behaviors occurring Increase value of what happens after behavior occurs
MMM … Food Motivating operation (hunger) – Engage in behaviors that get food – Bang on table with knife and fork Abolishing operation (full) – Stop engaging in behavior that get food – Fall asleep on couch watching football
Motivative Operation AntecedentBehaviorConsequences Not feeling well.Woke up early. Teacher gives student instruction Student swipes and throws materials Teacher becomes frustrated and stops giving instructions Got back from recess, laughing Teacher asks for a high five Student smiles and gives teacher a high five Teacher praises student Observer in classroomObserver in close proximity to student Student keeps turning around to look at observer Observer smiles and looks directly at student Student is coloring at desk Teacher approaches student Student bites his crayon several times Teacher removes the crayons and explains that he needs to keep the crayons down.
Hey MA! Reinforcer assessments Choice or Demand? (Intraverbal statements) Setting up your classroom
Effective Teachers Ensure high level of student engagement with tasks Provide frequent and detailed feedback Use carefully sequenced materials Establish clear routines and expectations Deal with several things at once Judge quickly the importance of an event and intervene
Are aware of entire classroom despite distraction; are monitoring students frequently Time their actions for maximum effect Give attention to more than one student at a time; they pivot Manage transition time Exhibit unconditional positive regard
Preventive Actions Taken Before Students Enter the Room Room arrangement should invite productive behavior Walkways Distance between student stations Minimal seductive items Arrange materials for ease of use
Arrange materials for instructional control Develop a system for distributing and receiving materials Develop a strategy for setting learning skill expectations Develop routines – Uncomplicated – Sustainable – Support educational goals
Identify possible rewards Identify anticipated behaviors of concern Plan all lessons thoroughly Carefully schedule instructional time Determine how you will move and monitor Determine how you will reduce frustration Identify potential competing contingencies Select signals and key phrases
Know your behavior management strategies Know your treatment options Know your staff and resources
That Was All Before the Students Entered the Room? Yes
Students in the Room Manage transition times What to do with current materials What materials are needed for next activity Where will next task take place What are the expectations for next task Be clear about when it ’ s time to begin moving Be clear about time allowed for move
Be clear about expectations for move Quickly establish instructional control at next site Continuously monitor students ’ performance Use cues in advance of BOC ’ s Manage behavior discreetly
Minimize interruptions and disruptions Follow through immediately on all rules- no warnings Avoid higher and higher thresholds
Alright Now I ’ m Tired Drink some coffee then … Evaluate outcome of actions for success Restructure actions as needed
“ Create learners - not kids who know stuff ” (Alison Moors)
Group Activity Apply a few before, during and after strategies to your room. What does that look like for you? Discuss with your group minutes
Response to Intervention Fluency – Accuracy plus speed – Quality plus pace – Frequency of correct responding – Doing the right thing without hesitation – True mastery
Stages of Learning Acquire new behavior Practice components for fluency Apply and combine fluent repertoires
100% Good for You Johnny can complete basic addition problems at 100% Julie can complete basic addition problems at 100% Who is better at math? – Or stated differently – who has a more functional math repertoire?
100% Correct … What About Time? Johnny can complete 2+2=4 and 1+5=6 at 100% but it takes him 5 minutes. Julie can complete 2+2=4, 1+1=2, 3+3=6, 2+3=5, 4+3=7, 1+2=3, 5+3+8, 8+2=10 at 100% and in 20 seconds. Who has the more functional math repertoire?
Components of Fluency Based Instruction Skills are established Emphasis on skill accuracy – Discrete trial – Direct instruction – Incidental teaching – Whatever procedure you want …
Skills Practiced Daily Practice until previous performance is surpassed – If the student did 3 math problems on Monday then on Tuesday the goal is 4
Practices are Timed Use the Standard Celeration Chart
Standard Celeration Chart Developed by Ogden Lindsley Uses a multiply scale Allows for instructional decision making Allows for easy reading of performance across skills and students Changes are made when the student does not grow
RESA- Its as easy as driving home from work or riding a bike Retention Endurance Stability Application
High 5 Start at 0 and count up by 5 ’ s, write each number down. Get ready, please begin.
Lucky Sevens Start at 100 and count backwards by seven, write each number down …. Get ready, please begin.
I ’ m Still Fluent After All This Time? Sign your name Write your full name in cursive but take a full minute to write it What did you notice?
Another Chart?! Input/Output Helps to organize skills Channel wrapping
Gotta Have the Right Tools Tool skills Component Composite
Tool Skills What are the tool skills for writing? What are the tool skills for talking? What are the tool skills for kickball?
Psychomotor is the Key Markle and Tiemann showed us that to get higher order skills you must have psychomotor repertoires first Oh and emotion influences everything
Psychomotor Student learns how to move certain muscles in precise way Puts responses in particular order and moves smoothly Chains of responses put together to match situation
Simple Cognitive Student learns when to make responses Chains them together and learns steps for using Can give verbal account of something (tell how to take blood pressure, retell a story, describe field trip) Knows how to respond to known situations
Complex Cognitive Knows how to respond to new situations Write a play Determine how goods will be distributed fairly among a group of people
My Brain is Starting to Hurt These are the things you can start focusing on when you don ’ t have to manage behaviors of concern all day
Review Pleasant environments create learning environments Motivational analysis develops over time and creates learning opportunities Taking data is key to success Before teaching skill be sure students have the necessary tool skills HAVE FUN