10 Consider If You WillWould a happy learner, enthused with intervention, likely make better, faster, easier progress?probablyWould a willing learner be easier to teach?Most assuredly
11 Assent and Consent Assent Consent to agree to something freely and with understandingConsentLegally and ethically required
12 Assent Come to task willingly Participate in learning interactions without coercion
13 Withdrawl Assent Avoid us Avoid coming to task Leave during task Participate far below ability
14 Students Are Behaving - Now What? More instructional timeIncreased teacher effortAs teachers improve management skills they must refine teaching skills
15 Instructional management skills need to improve proportionately since there will be an increased level of student on-task behavior and academic productivityWear good deodorant
16 Principals of Human Behavior Product of its immediate environmentStrengthened/weakened by its consequencesResponds better to positive than negativePunished or reinforced? Watch rate over timePast behavior is best predictor of future behavior
17 Immediate Environment If students act out, something in classroom is initiating and maintaining itIdentify those things and take dataWho likes math?Goofing off during math gets student kicked out of room. What’s that student going to do more of?
18 All children can learn, even children from dysfunctional families The answers to problems within an environment are to be found within that environment
19 Your Job Is to Create the Most Pleasant Environment Possible Change the Environment and the Behavior Will Change
20 Behavior Strengthened or Weakened by Its Consequences Not a problem with the studentTeachers often reinforce the very behaviors that disrupt the classFrequent teacher attention in the form of praise is more effective than rules or reprimands in increasing appropriate behavior
21 Behavior Responds Better to Positive Than to Negative Teacher attention is a powerful reinforcer of appropriate and inappropriate student behaviorTeachers allow over 95% of all appropriate behavior to go unrecognizedTeachers are typically four to six times more likely to attend to inappropriate behavior than appropriateTeacher attention to inappropriate behavior increases probability that such behavior will be strengthened and thus occur predictably and with regularity
22 Your Job Is to Identify the Behaviors You Want to Strengthen or Weaken and Deliver, or Withhold, the Appropriate Consequences
23 Whether a Behavior Has Been Punished or Reinforced Is Known Only by the Future Course of That BehaviorWhat is punishing to one child might be reinforcing to another, and vice-versa.Take data!If you keep doing what you’ve always done, you’ll keep getting what you’ve always gotten.
24 Your Job Is to Be Patient and Consistent. Wait Two Weeks and See Your Job Is to Be Patient and Consistent. Wait Two Weeks and See. Record Behavior.If What You Are Doing Works- Keep It. If Not, Go Back to Tool Skills and Change Them
25 Past Behavior Is the Best Predictor of Future Behavior A-B-C easy as 1-2-3Take data!
26 Your Job Is to Remember Past Experiences Don’t Take Away Video Games If He Has Already Proven He Will Become Aggressive
28 Latham’s Tools for Positive Behavior Change Staying closeGiving positive consequencesIgnoring junk behaviorIgnoring junk behavior of one person and giving positive consequences for the appropriate behavior of another person
29 Latham’s Tools for Positive Behavior Change Stop-redirect-give positive consequencesSetting expectationsUsing a contractTime-outABC’s of assessing behaviorConsulting skills of staff
30 Staying CloseYou create a safe, positive environment and establish yourself as a source of caring, empathy, and positive consequencesThe closer you are to a person, the greater the influence you have on them
31 How to Stay ClosePhysically- be within arms length, walk and sit with, move toward themTouch appropriately- pat on back or arm, squeeze shoulderFacial expressions- emote accurately, show one messageTone of voice- how you say it countsBody language- be relaxed, open arms, eye contact, orient to personShow empathy- mirror feelings (sounds like your happy or yuk, that was hard to do)
32 Giving Positive Consequences You focus primarily on building up appropriate behaviors with positive consequencesShow behavior you like by giving attention; Establish self as safe to be with; Maintain self control; Have a plan; Practice saying what you like and providing a positive consequence that fits appropriate behavior within 3 seconds
33 Types of Positive Consequences Verbal praiseAppropriate touchTangible itemsPrivileges and activities
34 “Unless what you are about to say or do has a high probability of making things better, don’t say it and don’t do it” (Latham)
35 Ignoring Junk Behavior You carefully ignore any age typical behavior that may be annoyingAnnoying but not harmful to self,others, or propertyExamples….
36 Ignore Junk Give Positive to Other You carefully ignore junk behavior of one person while giving positive consequences for the appropriate behavior of another personExamples…
37 Stop-Redirect-Give Positive Consequences You stop a person’s inappropriate behavior, redirect them to a different, logically related behavior, and show you like it by giving positive consequences when the person does it
38 Setting ExpectationsYou let the person know what behavior is expected and what the consequences will be for meeting or not meeting the expectationsPick a time; A place; Set a pleasant tone; State what specific behavior you expect and what benefits are to person; Model and get person to show expected behavior; Giving instead of taking
39 Designing Expectations Clearly state context for behaviorClearly state behavior you want to see (provide model if necessary)Clearly state consequence for following
41 Maintaining Expectations Praise completion (3-4 per minute)Students should be able to state teacher expectations to anyone, anytime, anywhereDisplay expectations around roomDisplay schedule
42 ContractWritten agreement with the student that identifies positive expectations and consequences
43 Time-OutInterrupt student’s behavior to minimize consequences and allow you to attend to appropriate behaviors after the person has maintained a brief period of calmTime-based… not behavior based!Need good analysis, remember the disruptive student in math class
44 ABC’s and Consulting Skills Example of ABCUse school counselors to help develop parent skills across settings
45 8 Kinds of Coercion Criticism Sarcasm/Teasing Threats/Force Arguing GuiltLogicQuestioning
46 Results of Coercion Student will learn coercive behavior Student will try to avoid coercive behavior by escaping and lyingStudent will try to get evenStudent will become afraid that they will failStudent will receive attention for inappropriate behavior
47 Coercion produces only short term compliance followed by long term losses. In the long run, behavior responds better to positive consequences.
48 “My mother used to tell me that to get along in this world you gotta be either oh so smart or oh so pleasant. For a long time I was smart. I recommend pleasant.” (Elwood P. Dowd)
49 The Problem That Presents Is Not Always the Problem to Solve
50 Conducting a Motivational Analysis Variables that affect the probability of a given stimulus-response relationshipPhysiological/EnvironmentalIncrease chance of certain behaviors occurringIncrease value of what happens after behavior occurs
51 MMM… Food Motivating operation (hunger) Abolishing operation (full) Engage in behaviors that get foodBang on table with knife and forkAbolishing operation (full)Stop engaging in behavior that get foodFall asleep on couch watching football
52 Motivative Operation Antecedent Behavior Consequences Not feeling well.Woke up early.Teacher gives student instructionStudent swipes and throws materialsTeacher becomes frustrated and stops giving instructionsGot back from recess, laughingTeacher asks for a high fiveStudent smiles and gives teacher a high fiveTeacher praises studentObserver in classroomObserver in close proximity to studentStudent keeps turning around to look at observerObserver smiles and looks directly at studentStudent is coloring at deskTeacher approaches studentStudent bites his crayon several timesTeacher removes the crayons and explains that he needs to keep the crayons down.
53 Hey MA! Reinforcer assessments Choice or Demand? (Intraverbal statements)Setting up your classroom
54 Effective Teachers Ensure high level of student engagement with tasks Provide frequent and detailed feedbackUse carefully sequenced materialsEstablish clear routines and expectationsDeal with several things at onceJudge quickly the importance of an event and intervene
55 Are aware of entire classroom despite distraction; are monitoring students frequently Time their actions for maximum effectGive attention to more than one student at a time; they pivotManage transition timeExhibit unconditional positive regard
56 Preventive Actions Taken Before Students Enter the Room Room arrangement should invite productive behaviorWalkwaysDistance between student stationsMinimal seductive itemsArrange materials for ease of use
57 Arrange materials for instructional control Develop a system for distributing and receiving materialsDevelop a strategy for setting learning skill expectationsDevelop routinesUncomplicatedSustainableSupport educational goals
58 Identify possible rewards Identify anticipated behaviors of concernPlan all lessons thoroughlyCarefully schedule instructional timeDetermine how you will move and monitorDetermine how you will reduce frustrationIdentify potential competing contingenciesSelect signals and key phrases
59 Know your behavior management strategies Know your treatment optionsKnow your staff and resources
60 That Was All Before the Students Entered the Room? Yes
61 Students in the Room Manage transition times What to do with current materialsWhat materials are needed for next activityWhere will next task take placeWhat are the expectations for next taskBe clear about when it’s time to begin movingBe clear about time allowed for move
62 Be clear about expectations for move Quickly establish instructional control at next siteContinuously monitor students’ performanceUse cues in advance of BOC’sManage behavior discreetly
63 Minimize interruptions and disruptions Follow through immediately on all rules- no warningsAvoid higher and higher thresholds
64 Alright Now I’m Tired Drink some coffee then… Evaluate outcome of actions for successRestructure actions as needed
65 “Create learners - not kids who know stuff” (Alison Moors)
66 Group ActivityApply a few before, during and after strategies to your room. What does that look like for you?Discuss with your group10-15 minutes
67 Response to Intervention FluencyAccuracy plus speedQuality plus paceFrequency of correct respondingDoing the right thing without hesitationTrue mastery
68 Stages of Learning Acquire new behavior Practice components for fluencyApply and combine fluent repertoires
69 100% Good for You Johnny can complete basic addition problems at 100% Julie can complete basic addition problems at 100%Who is better at math?Or stated differentlywho has a more functional math repertoire?
70 100% Correct… What About Time? Johnny can complete 2+2=4 and 1+5=6 at 100% but it takes him 5 minutes.Julie can complete 2+2=4, 1+1=2, 3+3=6, 2+3=5, 4+3=7, 1+2=3, 5+3+8, 8+2=10 at 100% and in 20 seconds.Who has the more functional math repertoire?
71 Components of Fluency Based Instruction Skills are establishedEmphasis on skill accuracyDiscrete trialDirect instructionIncidental teachingWhatever procedure you want…
72 Skills Practiced Daily Practice until previous performance is surpassedIf the student did 3 math problems on Monday then on Tuesday the goal is 4
73 Practices are TimedUse the Standard Celeration Chart
77 Standard Celeration Chart Developed by Ogden LindsleyUses a multiply scaleAllows for instructional decision makingAllows for easy reading of performance across skills and studentsChanges are made when the student does not grow
78 RESA- Its as easy as driving home from work or riding a bike RetentionEnduranceStabilityApplication
79 High 5 Start at 0 and count up by 5’s, write each number down. Get ready, please begin.
80 Lucky SevensStart at 100 and count backwards by seven, write each number down….Get ready, please begin.
81 I’m Still Fluent After All This Time? Sign your nameWrite your full name in cursive but take a full minute to write itWhat did you notice?
88 Psychomotor Student learns how to move certain muscles in precise way Puts responses in particular order and moves smoothlyChains of responses put together to match situation
89 Simple Cognitive Student learns when to make responses Chains them together and learns steps for usingCan give verbal account of something (tell how to take blood pressure, retell a story, describe field trip)Knows how to respond to known situations
90 Complex Cognitive Knows how to respond to new situations Write a play Determine how goods will be distributed fairly among a group of people
91 My Brain is Starting to Hurt These are the things you can start focusing on when you don’t have to manage behaviors of concern all day
92 Review Pleasant environments create learning environments Motivational analysis develops over time and creates learning opportunitiesTaking data is key to successBefore teaching skill be sure students have the necessary tool skillsHAVE FUN