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World War II Goal 10. Nazis ( nat-zees) Nazi Rise to Power What do you know about the Treaty of Versailles? Young radical named Adolf Hitler joins.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II Goal 10. Nazis ( nat-zees) Nazi Rise to Power What do you know about the Treaty of Versailles? Young radical named Adolf Hitler joins."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II Goal 10

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3 Nazis ( nat-zees)

4 Nazi Rise to Power What do you know about the Treaty of Versailles? Young radical named Adolf Hitler joins National Socialist Party (Nazi); tries revolution in early 1920s – Arrested and jailed – Writes book called Mein Kampf; blames Jews & Communists Nazi Party gains more power after Great Depression hits the world in

5 Natzees Continued Hitler & Nazis gain control of German government LEGALLY in 1933 – Set up “Third Reich” (fascism - nationalistic, racist, dictatorship) – Nazis begin “educating” youth of Germany – Start eliminating political competition – Start persecuting Jews Nuremburg laws  Anti-Semitic Laws

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7 Natzees take over… Italy has fascist government under Benito Mussolini; begins to ally with Hitler Japan gains power; invades Manchuria in 1931 & invades China in 1937 Hitler begins to break Treaty of Versailles – Begins troop buildup & military buildup – Sends troops into Rhineland in 1936 (French & GB do nothing)

8 Continued… Hitler takes control of Austria in 1938 Hitler threatens to take Sudetenland (NW Czechoslovakia) Munich Conference (1938) – British use policy of appeasement; agree to give Sudetenland in exchange for no further aggression – Neville Chamberlin (British Prime Minister) “We’ve achieved peace in our time.” Hitler takes rest of Czechoslovakia in Spring 1939

9 War!!!

10 Who vs. Who this time? Axis Powers – Germany – Japan – Italy Allies – England – France (before defeat) – U.S. – USSR – China

11 FDR, Churchill, Stalin

12 Hitler, Mussolini, Hirohito

13 America: Pre-War Years, Cash & Carry – Sept. 1939: allowed warring nations to buy US arms; must pay cash & transport own goods Tripartite Pact – Establishes the Axis Powers – Sept. 1940: Germany, Italy, Japan sign Lend/Lease Act – 1941: British out of cash; US lends/leases goods – US also provides aide to Soviet Union

14 Pre War Continued German U-Boats – U-boats attack US ships (1941) – Roosevelt orders Navy to fight back IF attacked Japan attacks US – US cut off trade to Japan (including oil) to persuade them to stop expansion in Pacific – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 – US declares war on Japan; Italy & Germany declare war on US

15 War at Home 5 Million Americans volunteered for military service – 10 Million more drafted via Selective Service US industry converts to complete war-time production – War Production Board (WPB) regulates industries for war-time production – Women join workforce (Rosie the Riveter) Government sets up Office of Price Administration (OPA) – Price freezes set up to regulate economy – US citizens begin rationing materials; most for military use – Propaganda used to convince citizens to help

16 Anti-Japanese US discriminates against Japanese-Americans – Internment camps set up for Japanese-Americans on West Coast – 110,000+ relocated from homes to concentration camps – Most are native born – Korematsu v. United States, 1944 – Supreme Court rules in favor of US gov’t

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18 Fighting Pacific – Japan continues expansion in Pacific while US is weak (after Pearl Harbor) – Japan takes Philippines from US in early 1942 General Douglas McArthur vows “I shall return” Troops suffer Bataan Death March Atlantic/Europe – US suffers many early attacks by German U-Boats – Stalin urges US & British to invade Europe in 1942 – Instead US & British attack North Africa (Nov. 42) Allies defeat Germans in N.Africa by May 1943 – Attack next moves into Italian Peninsula in 1943

19 ***Major Battles-Europe*** Stalingrad – Aug.1942-Feb.1943; Turning Point of WWII – Germans lose ¼ of their fighting force; bloodiest battle in history (1.5 million casualties) – Germans fight defensively in the East for the rest of the war Normandy/D-Day – June 6, 1944; Massive allied invasion into France – Largest land/sea/air invasion in world history; leads to allied advances in France – Known as Operation Overlord Battle of the Bulge – Last German effort to stop Allied advance from West (Ardennes) – Dec.1944-Jan.1945; Failed effort left German forces in the West weak – US advances into Germany relatively unharmed

20 Major Battles-Pacific Midway *** – June 4-7, 1942; Turning point of the war in the Pacific – Weakens Japanese navy; they fight defensively for rest of the war Guadalcanal – Aug.1942-Feb.1943; First major land offensive against Japan – Leads to “Island Hopping” Leyte Gulf – October 1944; Largest naval battle in modern history – Japanese begin using kamikaze pilots Iwo Jima*** – Feb-Mar.1945; 22,000 Japanese killed (216 capture) – Fierce fighting; Japanese wouldn’t surrender Okinawa – Mar-June 1945; last stop before mainland of Japan – Japanese continue to fight to the end (200,000 military & civilian casualties) – US plan invasion of Japan

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22 D-Day: June 6, 1944

23 End of the War FDR dies April 12, 1945, Truman takes over. Europe – Soviets lay siege to Berlin in April 1945 – Hitler and many top Nazi leaders commit suicide – Germans finally surrender on May 8, 1945 Pacific – Japanese refuse to surrender – Manhattan Project - US develops atomic bomb  Dr. Robert Oppenhiemer – US decided to use bombs on Japan, hoping to force surrender – Aug.6, 1945 US drops “Little Boy” on Hiroshima Up to 145,000 killed – Aug.9, 1945 US drops “Fat Man” on Nagasaki Up to 75,000 killed – Aug.15, Japan announces decision to surrender, officially doing so on Sept. 2, 1945

24 After Effects Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945) – United Nations created; tensions between Allies begin over post-War Eastern Europe (democracy or communism) Potsdam Conference (July 1945) – Germany divided into 4 occupation zones; leads to communist East Germany and democratic West Germany; where the US gave Japan ultimatum Nuremburg Trials – High ranking Nazi officers put on trial for war crimes – Highest ranking officer (Goering) sentenced to death; commits suicide before being executed Japan Rebuilt – US rebuilds Japan, establishing a constitution/democratic gov’t Cold War – Tensions between US & USSR continue until 1990 regarding spread of communism/democracy (Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, etc.)


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