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Presentation on theme: "THE ORIGINS OF PROGRESSIVISM CHAPTER 28"— Presentation transcript:


2 Warm Up Please read the excerpt from Upton Sinclair’s ‘The Jungle’
After reading the article, what are three concerns you have about the meatpacking industry in the early 1900s?

3 The Progressive Era Middle class movement, those above are abusing the system & those below will become a socialist threat Gov’t needed to be the agency of human welfare

4 Roots of Progressivism
Jane Addams (Hull House) Starts settlement house movement Protestant clergymen –”Social Gospel” –Christian Socialists Post-millenialism (must perfect society before the second coming) Greenback Labor Party (1870s) & Populist Party (1890’s) demanded gov’t intervention Excesses of the monopolies & trusts

Progressive organizations were separate movements that worked independently to solve various societal problems Each worked to one of the following: Protect social welfare Promote moral improvement Create economic reform Foster efficiency

Out of the religious community a new social gospel was preached Josiah Strong Walter Rauschenbusch ‘Theology of the Social Gospel’ (1917) WASP culture has a moral imperative to spread the values of civil liberty & Christianity * Its message was religious groups should work to help the poor The Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) The Salvation Army Instructed poor immigrants in middle class values of hard work and temperance

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10 Muckrakers Magazine publishers make money off exposing ills of society
McClure's, Cosmopolitan, Colliers Term coined by Theodore Roosevelt John Spargo –’The Bitter Cry of Children’ Jacob Riis –’How the Other Half Lives’ Ida Tarbell –’The History of the Standard Oil Company’ Upton Sinclair –’The Jungle’ Licoln Steffens –’Shame of the Cities’


12 Municipal, State & National Reform
Progressives believed that one could solve social problems by taking control of elections & law making Initiative, Referendum, Recall Laws to limit political gifts; no free rail passes Direct elections of Senators to avoid ‘millionaire’s club’ Public commissioner and city manager who are hired, not elected –Galveston, TX flood of 1900 Western states need federal intervention in water rights issues Stop monopolies at city level –stop selling streetcars & utilities to private companies w/o regulation


A key individual that proposed many voting reforms was Governor Robert La Follette of Wisconsin Congressman, Senator, 1924 candidate for president Recall & referendum State legislatures to require direct primaries for each party to select a candidate –before party bosses controlled candidate selection (02/08/04) ‘Fighting Bob’ La Follette

16th Amendment (1912) individual income tax Elimination of tax breaks for corporations Creation of the Federal Reserve (1913) The most significant reform at the national level was the 17th Amendment (1913) Senators were chosen by state legislatures, not the people


17 Progressive Presidents
Theodore Roosevelt – “Square Deal” for all Americans Control Corporations Trustbusting -1st railroads Northern Securities Co. v. US, 1903; brings 43 other indictments 1902 Coal Strike Hepburn Act, 1906 –regulate interstate railroads b/c ICC didn’t have enough power

18 Conservation of Natural Resources
Consumer Protection 1. Pure Food and Drug Act –labeling Conservation of Natural Resources John Muir; Gifford Pinchot Newlands Act –federal lands sold to pay for western irrigation Implementation of National Parks laws -125 mil. Acres saved Balance corporate interests w/nature –Sierra Club

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20 ECONOMIC REFORM American Railway Union leader Eugene V. Debs organized the American Socialist Party Organized the Pullman Strike of 1894 After arrest became anti-capitalistic Advocated that workers could use elections to gain control of gov’t, thus business In Re Debs –SC ruled that the federal gov’t could intervene in intrastate & interstate commerce to limit strikes With Daniel De Leon founded in 1905 the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) (02/10/04)

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22 PROMOTING MORALITY improving the lives of the poor through improving personal behavior Prohibition In 1874, the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was founded Frances Willard Carrie Nation Anti-Saloon League was founded in 1895 as the “Church in action against the Saloon” worked to pass laws to have alcohol banned and lawbreakers punished created tensions with many immigrant groups

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Florence Kelley advocate for improving the lives of women and children founded the National Consumers League, which organized boycotts of goods produced by children helped win passage of the Illinois Factory Act in 1893 It was the first law that prohibited child labor under the age of 14 Muller v. Oregon, 1908 Limits women’s work day *Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, 1911 (02/08/04)

25 Women’s Rights Western states pass suffrage first
Challenging the ‘female sphere’ ‘New Women’ –for the middle class the home is no longer an all consuming place Women’s Clubs Carrie Chapman Catt National American Women’s Suffrage Assoc. (NAWSA); precursor to League of Women Voters

26 Alice Paul National Women’s Party (off-shoot of NAWSA) sought a Constitutional suffrage Amendment Later Equal Rights Amendment G. Margaret Sanger –founded Planned Parenthood; ‘Motherhood in Bondage’

27 Three Models Black Leadership
Booker T. Washington Tuskegee Institute, 1888 Economic advancement before political advancement ‘Atlanta Compromise Speech’ (1895) W.E.B. Du Bois Niagara Movement (1905) NAACP (1910) Immediate political, social & economic equality Marcus Garvey Pan-Africanism, Universal Negro Improvement Association(UNIA)

28 African Americans in the Progressive Era
Post-Civil War Era 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments passed, but not consistently honored (14th/15th) Reconstruction ends too soon (Tilden-Hays Compromise of 1877) Economic disadvantages Sharecropping Crop lien system Rise of segregation –Plessy v. Ferguson Republicans are the party of African Americans, but do little to protect suffrage 30% of blacks in the south were illiterate in 1900


30 The Chink in the Republican Armor
Panic of 1907 Industrial capacity had outrun domestic and foreign consumption Rampant speculation & unregulated banking Industrialists blamed TR’s ‘trustbusting’; TR countered that more regulation was needed JP Morgan saves the day, but makes deal w/TR Expands power of US Steel w/purchase of the Tennessee Coal & Iron Co. Conservative Republicans withdraw support

31 Taft – the ‘bigger’ trustbuster
90 indictments’ BUT Becomes an enemy of TR & splits Republican party due to: Ballinger-Pinchot scandal Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909) Raises most tariffs Free trade w/ Philippines Ultimately loses 1910 Congressional election & presidency TR responds w/‘new Nationalism’



34 Wilson’s New Freedom Assault on the triple wall of privilege
Tariffs –Underwood Tariff bill, graduated income tax revenue Graduated income tax Banking –Federal Reserve Act of 1913 Result of 1907 Panic 12 regional banks run by gov’t, $ supply easily increased/decreased Trusts –Clayton Anti-trust Act of 1914 Allows for labor protest Tries to stop shell companies of trusts Inspired by Louis Brandeis -‘Other People’s Money’ (1913) -Curse of bigness –competition needed, trusts threaten freedom

35 Immigration Reform ‘Stem the tide’ –overcrowding, unemployment, alcoholism Immigrants must assimilate Eugenics Science of altering the reproduction process of flora, fauna Forced sterilization –Carnegie Foundation Nativism Madison Grant ‘The Passing of the Great Race’ Senator William Dillingham

36 SFI Scramble Extending Democracy & reforming Gov’t
Growing Power of Corporations Women’s Suffrage Immigration Foreign policy Consumer Protection & Conservation


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