Presentation on theme: "Spice up your Vocabulary Instruction with Erica Weeks & TerriAnn Murray of MW Educational Consulting."— Presentation transcript:
Spice up your Vocabulary Instruction with Erica Weeks & TerriAnn Murray of MW Educational Consulting
The Vocabulary Gap (CORE, 2008) About 2 words per day OR 10 words per week can be taught directly and effectively to students. This equates to 360 words per year. The vocabulary gap begins when students enter Kindergarten. Some students enter already behind their peers in number of learned words. The bottom 25% of students begin Kindergarten with 1,000 fewer root-word meanings than average students Biemiller (2005)
What happens if we do not intervene? Without intervention these students only acquire about 1.6 new words per day as compared to average students learning 2.4 new words per day. If no intervention is put into place and more words are not taught to these students, they will…
By the end of second grade have a 2,000 word difference/deficit between that of their peers. Average Student - 6,020 words Bottom 25% - 4,168 words
Did that scare you?
It should have…
…but there is something YOU can do…
Increase the effectiveness of your vocabulary instruction
Vocabulary is a weak area for many students, but much “vocabulary instruction” ends up being handwriting practice. (Reading Rockets)
Components of Effective Vocabulary Instruction Rich Oral Language Experiences Specific Word Instruction Wide Reading Word Learning Strategies Word Consciousness
Specific Word Instruction Selecting Words to Teach The three-tier system Sequence of Word Acquisition Rich & Robust Instruction Using Vocabulary in Literature Introducing Specific Words Developing in-Depth Word Knowledge Extending Word use Beyond the Classroom
Specific Word Instruction Introducing Specific Words Student-Friendly Explanations Teacher-Created Contexts Active Engagement with Words
Word Selection Finding “just right”, “goldilocks”, “wonder words” OR Tier 2 Words Bringing Words to Life Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002
Word Selection Tier 1: Everyday Words - these are easy words and generally are already known by most students. Tier 2: Extended Words – the most useful words – these are words for which students have a concept and simpler vocabulary to define the word. Tier 3: Expert Words – they are necessary for the story but may not come up often in conversation and other stories.
Word Selection – tier 2 words Words critical or central to understanding the text at hand. Words that are not too easy, not too hard…they are just right! Goldilocks Words! Words with general utility, likely to be encountered many times. Basic Word: Nice – Teach Wonder Word = satisfying Basic Word: Walk – Teach Wonder Word =
Now that you know how to choose the best words, let’s learn how to teach them…
Specific Word Instruction Four Step Routine STEP ONE Introduce the word Write the word on board or overhead Read the word and have students repeat the word STEP TWO Present a student-friendly definition. Tell the students the definition or have them read it with you.
Specific Word Instruction Four Step Routine STEP THREE Illustrate the word with examples Concrete examples Visual representations Verbal examples STEP FOUR Check students understanding. There are 3 options for checking understanding
Check students understanding Ask deep processing questions “When Maria was told that the soccer game had been canceled, she said, I am relieved.” “Why might Maria be relieved?”
Check students understanding Have students discern between examples and non-examples “If you were nervous singing in front of others would you feel relieved when the concert was over? Why?” “If you loved singing to audiences would you feel relieved when the concert was over? Why?”
Just another great idea! The Wonder Word Journal Instruct students to say and write the Wonder Word. Lead discussion: Provide a definition of the word as used in the written context. Instruct students to use the word in sentences that tell about their own experiences. Students: write a definition, draw a picture, create a vocabulary circle, or word chain to help them remember their new words!
Yet another great idea! Word Chains When we teach words in groups as relatives, it is easier for students to remember the words, retrieve the words, and use the words. These words are related in a meaning network: Connect, link, hook, latch
Word Chains Meaning Related: doctorphysicianhospitalmedication?
Why Read-Aloud? Perfect opportunity to teach more tier two words AND content area vocabulary. Students can see YOU reading fluently and using a rich vocabulary.
Before the read-aloud Select 3-5 words to teach. Procedure for teaching each word: 1.Give the word 2.Give the sentence containing the word from the story. 3.State definition 4.Have students use the word in a sentence and give a sentence starter if possible
During the read-aloud When you come to one of the words…. Quickly state the definition of the word and move on. Do not stop to instruct, simply draw attention to the word and remind students of it’s definition. If we stop too many times during read the read-aloud, comprehension may be lost.
Read-Aloud in Action!
Independent Reading Teaching students to read frequently, on their own, fosters growth in vocabulary, comprehension and of course… the love of reading.
Word-Learning Strategies Dictionary use Root Words and Word Families Compound Words Prefixes Suffixes
Dictionary use Use dictionaries and reference aids to locate and define vocabulary words. Use dictionaries and reference aids to assist in pronunciation. Be sure dictionary use is consistent between students and teacher. Try to use a dictionary that provides student friendly definitions. “Instruction related to dictionary should be simple and direct and involve children in analyzing dictionary definitions in the course of vocabulary instruction.” -Stahl, 2005
Morphemic Analysis Morphemes-word-part clues; the meaningful parts of words Root Words- a single word that cannot be broken into smaller words or parts. Word Family- a group of words related in meaning. For example collect, collecting, collection, & collector. Prefix- a word part added to the beginning of a root word that changes in meaning. Suffix- a word part added to the end of the root word that changes its meaning.
Morpheme Related: directdirectlyindirect?? Word Chains
Using Word-Part Clues to Derive Word Meaning StepActionExample Word: disagreement 1Look for the Root Word. What does it mean? agree = to have the same opinion 2Look for a Prefix. What does it mean? dis = not or opposite 3Look for a Suffix. What does it mean? ment = state or quality of something 4Put the Meanings of the Word Parts Together. What is the meaning of the whole word? dis + agree + ment = state or quality of not having the same opinion CORE 2008
Twenty prefixes account for 97% of the prefixed words in school reading material. Four prefixes (un-, re-, in-, & dis-) account for 58% of all prefixed words. Prefixes are used in a large number of words. Prefixes trend to be consistently spelled. Prefixes are easy to identify because they occur at the beginning of words. Prefixes usually have a clear meaning. Prefixes
Vocabulary instruction is not just one of several important aspects of reading: it is a gift of words, a gift that one gives generously to others. -Stahl 2005
References Beck, I., Kucan, L., McKeown, M. (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York, New York: The Guilford Press. Beck, I., Kucan, L., McKeown, M. (2008). Creating Robust Vocabulary: Frequently Asked Questions & Extended Examples. New York, New York: The Guilford Press. Honig, B., Diamond, L., Gutlohn, L. (2008). Teaching Reading Sourcebook 2 nd Edition. Novato, California: Arena Press. McEwan-Adkins, Elaine. (2010). 40 Reading Intervention Strategies for K-6 Students: Research-Based Support for RTI. Bloomington, Indiana: Solution Tree Press. Other Resources Reading Rockets Solution Tree Florida Center for Reading Research