Presentation on theme: "The Bolter (1904), Charles M. Russell. NEXT Growth in the West, 1860–1900 Miners, ranchers, cowhands, and farmers help settle the West and conflict with."— Presentation transcript:
The Bolter (1904), Charles M. Russell. NEXT Growth in the West, 1860–1900 Miners, ranchers, cowhands, and farmers help settle the West and conflict with Native Americans.
NEXT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Miners, Ranchers, and Cowhands Native Americans Fight to Survive Life in the West Farming and Populism Growth in the West, 1860–1900
NEXT Miners, ranchers, and cowhands settle in the West seeking economic opportunities. Section 1 Miners, Ranchers, and Cowhands
Geography and Population of the West NEXT Miners, Ranchers, and Cowhands Frontier—unsettled, sparsely settled area, Native Americans occupy 1 SECTION Despite Native American occupants, U.S. claims ownership, Great Plains Few whites settle in Great Plains, follow miners into California Great Plains—region from Missouri River to the Rockies Trains carry natural resources of the West to the East Bring white settlers to West, helps end Native American way of life Map
Mining in the West NEXT 1 SECTION Miners rush to gold, silver strikes in Colorado, Nevada, South Dakota Strikes draw people from Eastern, Western U.S., other parts of world Boomtowns—towns that have fast economic population growth Mining companies use equipment to dig deep, strip land Mining boom over by 1890s, many boomtowns become ghost towns Mining work dangerous, causes deadly cave-ins, lung problems Image
NEXT 1 SECTION Before 1860, small cattle herds in West, ranchers sell cattle locally Cowhands take cattle drives—long drives—to cow towns along railways Ranchers, livestock dealers make large profits The Rise of the Cattle Industry Follow specific trails, first is Chisholm Trail—San Antonio to Abilene Railroads make transport of cattle to Eastern cities possible Map
Vaqueros and Cowhands NEXT 1 SECTION First cowhands, or vaqueros (Spanish word), come from Mexico Help Spanish, Mexican ranchers, teach American cowhands to rope, ride Many cowhands are former soldiers, Mexicans, African Americans Image
The “Wild West” NEXT 1 SECTION Cow towns have no local government, law officers Some women become outlaws, Belle Starr, horse thief Some Union, Confederate veterans bitter about war, become outlaws Have gambling, “con men” are common Vigilantes—people who take law into their own hands Try to protect citizens, catch criminals, punish them without trial
End of the Long Drives NEXT 1 SECTION Cattle industry booms for about 20 years By 1886, several developments bring boom to an end: -price of beef drops sharply - farmers, sheep herders use barbed wire, end open range -many cattle die in harsh winter of 1886–1887
NEXT The Native Americans of the Great Plains fight to maintain their way of life as settlers pour onto their lands. Section 2 Native Americans Fight to Survive
Native American Life on the Plains NEXT 2 SECTION Before Europeans arrive, Plains tribes live in villages along rivers Plains tribes use buffalo for food, use skins for shelter, clothing Hunters ride far from their village seeking buffalo Native Americans Fight to Survive Learn to ride horses brought by Spanish (early 1540s) Image
A Clash of Cultures NEXT 2 SECTION U.S. government promises huge area in West for Native Americans First Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851): -many but not all Plains tribes sign - allow U.S. government to buy back some Native American land - sets boundaries for tribal lands White settlers pressure U.S. government for more land in West Interactive Continued...
NEXT 2 SECTION Some Cheyenne, Sioux resist treaty, fight settlers, soldiers, miners Second Treaty of Fort Laramie with Sioux (1868): - Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho sign - gives tribes land in Black Hills of South Dakota Plains tribes react, raid white settlements U.S. troops kill Cheyenne men, women, children— Sand Creek Massacre continued A Clash of Cultures
Battle of the Little Bighorn NEXT 2 SECTION Seeking gold, miners ignore Fort Laramie treaty, rush onto Sioux land Unite under Sioux chiefs; Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse Many Sioux warriors flee reservation during winter of 1875–1876 Tribal leaders reject government offer to buy back land Reservation—land set aside for Native Americans Image Continued...
NEXT 2 SECTION U.S. 7th cavalry sets out to return Sioux to reservation Custer, men wiped out, U.S. steps up military action against tribes Fights thousands of Sioux, Cheyenne at Battle of Little Bighorn Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer commands cavalry Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull’s followers surrender, return to reservation continued Battle of the Little Bighorn
Resistance in the Northwest and Southwest NEXT 2 SECTION U.S. government forces Nez Perce to sell land, move to Idaho Apache forced to settle on Arizona reservation, Geronimo refuses In Southwest, Navajo, Apache fight against being moved to reservations Chief Joseph refuses, leads followers toward Canada, caught, surrenders Navajo surrender to U.S. troops, take “Long Walk” to reservation Leads Apaches on raids of settlers’ homes, surrenders (1886), prison Image
A Way of Life Ends NEXT 2 SECTION Plains tribes depend on dwindling buffalo for survival Wovoka’s vision quickly spreads among Plains peoples Some Plains tribes turn to Paiute prophet, Wovoka, for hope Hired hunters kill millions of buffalo for sport, railroads, factories Preaches whites will be removed, tribes will freely hunt buffalo Continued...
NEXT 2 SECTION Wovoka’s followers flee reservations, U.S. troops track them down U.S. troops massacre 300 Native Americans— Wounded Knee Massacre Wovoka’s followers start to surrender to troops, someone fires a shot Ends Native American armed resistance in the West continued A Way of Life Ends
The Dawes Act Fails NEXT 2 SECTION White reformers call for better treatment of Native Americans: - feel assimilation is only way for Native Americans to survive Dawes Act (1887): - encourages Native Americans to reject traditions, become farmers - divides reservations into plots of land - sends Native American children to schools, learn white culture Dawes Act does little to help Native Americans
NEXT Section 3 Life in the West Diverse groups of people help to shape both the reality and the myth of the West.
Women in the West NEXT 3 SECTION Homestead—piece of land and the house on it Some women run dance halls, boarding houses On a homestead, women rarely see neighbors, do cooking, first aid Life in the West In most Western territories, women own property, control own money Women often work as teachers, servants, do sewing, laundry Image Wyoming Territory gives women the vote (1869)
The Rise of Western Cities NEXT 3 SECTION Railroad brings rapid growth to Denver, Omaha, Portland, other cities Denver quickly becomes capital of Colorado Territory (1867) Gold, silver strikes cause cities to grow rapidly in the West Chart
Mexicanos in the Southwest NEXT 3 SECTION Railroads spur increase of white settlers in Southwest (1880s, 1890s) Mexicanos—southwesterners of Spanish descent who come from Mexico For centuries, Southwest is home to Mexicanos Hispanic society survives only in New Mexico Territory Mexicanos lose economic, political power, land to white settlers
The Myth of the Old West NEXT 3 SECTION Western myth continues with novels, plays, movies: - often show whites as heroes - usually show Native Americans as villains - ignore African Americans Sometimes hero was a real person, plots are fictitious, exaggerated “Dime novels” portray West as heroic place filled with adventures William “Buffalo Bill” Cody brings Wild West show to the world Image
The Real West NEXT 3 SECTION African Americans serve in U.S. Army, known as “buffalo soldiers” Native Americans, African Americans help with cattle ranching First cowhands are Mexican vaqueros Chinese immigrants help greatly in building railroads Native American attacks often caused by broken treaties U.S. government contributes greatly to white settlement Image
NEXT Section 4 Farming and Populism A wave of farmers move to the Plains in the 1800s and face many economic problems.
U.S. Government Encourages Settlement NEXT 4 SECTION U.S. government passes Homestead Act (1862): - offers free land to anyone who will live on, improve it for 5 years Many migrate to Kansas, call themselves Exodusters Reconstruction ends, African Americans face discrimination in South Farming and Populism U.S. sells land to railroads, railroads resell much land to settlers Many Europeans immigrate to the West Image
Life on the Farming Frontier NEXT 4 SECTION Farmers on the plains build homes out of blocks of sod Inventions like steel plow, reaper help farmers face challenges Farmers are called sodbusters, dig deep wells, face harsh weather Image
The Problems of Farmers 4 SECTION As farmers grow more food, prices for crops drop (1870s) Form cooperatives—organizations owned, run by members: -buy grain elevators - sell crops directly to merchants - allow farmers to keep more profits Farmers form Grange—group meets social needs of farm families Farmers have to pay more for machinery, railroad rates U.S. states regulate freight rates, storage charges NEXT
The Rise of Populism NEXT 4 SECTION Farm groups form Populist Party, or People’s Party (1890) Inflation would increase crop prices, help farmers pay back loans Opponents want U.S. to keep gold standard to keep prices down Gold standard—U.S. backs every dollar with certain amount of gold Populist presidential candidate loses but has a good showing (1892) Want U.S. to adopt free silver policy to increase inflation
The Election of 1896 NEXT 4 SECTION Nation suffers through depression, the Panic of 1893 Populists back Democrat William Jennings Bryan for president Farmers in South, West vote overwhelmingly for Bryan Industrialists, bankers, business leaders vote for William McKinley Money issues matter more to voters McKinley wins presidential election by half million votes Image
The Closing of the Frontier NEXT 4 SECTION Indian Territory, last remaining open land Indian Territory becomes Oklahoma Territory (1890), frontier ends Frederick Jackson Turner writes that end of frontier marks end of era Today many historians disagree, think U.S. remains land of opportunity Oklahoma land rush, settlers claim land that Native Americans once had Image
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