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History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts 2012 This resource tool is intended to.

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Presentation on theme: "History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts 2012 This resource tool is intended to."— Presentation transcript:

1 History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts 2012 This resource tool is intended to provide material for collaborative discussions between educators of English language arts and history/social studies. The participants should reference the California Common Core State Standards in English language arts throughout this presentation. Activities centered on focus questions for discussion are provided within this tool. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

2 History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part I – Introduction and Skills for the 21st Century Part II - History/Social Studies Literacy: Cognitive Skills and Historical Thinking Part III – History/Social Studies Literacy: Reading Informational Text Part IV - History/Social Studies Literacy: Expository Writing Part V - History/Social Studies Literacy: Academic Vocabulary Part VI –History/Social Studies Literacy: Speaking and Listening Part VII - History/Social Studies Literacy: Civic Education Part VIII – Integrating History/Social Studies and English Language Arts for English Learners Part IX – Research-Based Instructional Tools, Companion Documents, References, Acknowledgements 2012 Terms – History/Social Studies and History-Social Science The Common Core State Standards in English-language arts list reading and writing standards for literacy (grades 6-12) as “Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6-12” and “Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12.” The Framework for History–Social Science in California Public Schools (CDE 1998) describes the current California standards in history-social science classes K-12 and uses the term “social science.” For the purposes of this document, the terms “social studies” and “social science” are interchangeable and are referenced accordingly when discussion pertains to the California standards in history-social science (history-social science) or the literacy standards of the California Common Core Standards in English-language arts (history/social studies). History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

3 Part I – Introduction and Skills for the 21st Century
History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part I – Introduction and Skills for the 21st Century History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

4 Defining literacy in history/social studies
A student proficient in history/social studies literacy is knowledgeable in content information of one or more of the social studies disciplines and is able to use that knowledge contextually and in concert with higher order thinking skills, reading skills, writing skills, research skills, and speaking and listening skills. Literacy in history/social studies is expressed through critical thinking, creative problem-solving, communication of ideas, civic engagement, and global understanding. Discussion activity: Have participants pull out the concepts listed and discuss the importance and the relationship to history/social studies content. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

5 The related disciplines of History/social studies
Geography Economics History Political Science Civic Education Sociology/Anthropology History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

6 history/social studies and literacy
History/social studies is a content subject rich in facts, knowledge, concepts, analytical theory, and evidence but subject- matter CONTENT is only part of the discipline. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

7 History/social studies content and history/social studies skills
Content Knowledge Facts and information (names, dates, people, places) Chronological events and historical eras Philosophical ideology, religion, and world views Theoretical frameworks such as supply-and-demand Discipline-specific academic vocabulary Skills Reading Skills Thinking or cognitive skills such as analysis, evaluation, and cause and effect Research skills Writing skills Problem-solving skills Collaborative and participatory skills Listening and speaking skills In the teaching of history/social studies, content and skills are NOT separate elements. Both content and skills must be taught simultaneously and with explicit instruction as to the use of skills in the exploration of history/social studies content. Skills, however, may be reinforced in a multitude of disciplines and classes. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

8 Reading Standards for Literature
The California Common Core State Standards in English language arts: Providing structure for integration of History/social studies Reading Standards for Literature Reading Standards for Informational Text Writing Standards Speaking and Listening Standards Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6-12 Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12; History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

9 The goal of history/social studies literacy
The goal of high quality history/social studies literacy is to be able to apply knowledge and conceptual understanding of the past and current events to real-life situations, socio-political issues, economics, and the human condition of today’s world. Inquiry and research are keys to developing this understanding. To this end, the study of history and the related social studies disciplines is based more on asking the right questions than relying on adequate answers. Discussion Activity: What is meant by “asking the right questions?” History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

10 history/social studies and literacy- skill sets
Higher-order thinking Research skills Expository reading skills Writing skills such as summary, informative, point of view, argumentation, persuasion, and evaluation Speaking and listening skills Problem-solving skills, creativity, and innovation Collaborative skills Communication skills Academic vocabulary Media literacy Civic literacy Environmental literacy and global awareness History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

11 The use and analysis of primary source historical documents
cross-curricular skills embedded in the English language arts standards and common to high quality history/social studies instruction Academic vocabulary The use and analysis of primary source historical documents Participatory skills and working collaboratively Analytical and evaluative thinking skills Expository reading for information Expository writing as opinion or point of view, informational, explanatory, argumentation, investigative, and historical narrative Speaking, listening, and presentation skills Qualitative evaluation of information Real-life applications Draw attention to the title of this slide. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

12 History/social studies and English language arts instruction
The inclusion of history/social studies literacy in the English-language arts curriculum does not supplant the need for high quality history/social studies instruction but, rather, can support the teacher of English language arts in providing a context for students to see the relationships of the social science disciplines to contemporary society and application of skills. The skills that are honed in high quality history instruction can enrich and support all subjects in the kindergarten through grade 12 curriculum. Discussion Activity: Distinguish “supplant” and “support” and the implication of this for classroom instruction. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

13 Skills for the 21st Century: Preparing students for the 21st Century
Social studies education is the one common educational experience that helps all students acquire the knowledge, skills and dispositions to become competent and responsible citizens throughout their lives. Students need to acquire mastery of rigorous core subject material as well as cognitive and social skills to prepare students for college, career, and citizenship. This historic civic mission of our schools needs to be revitalized as the central purpose of education by strengthening civic education and workplace skills for all students at all grade levels. Discussion Activity: What is meant by the “historic civic mission of our schools?” History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

14 Skills for the 21st Century The four Cs
Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving Communication Collaboration Creativity and Innovation History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

15 Career Ready Definition
Skills for the 21st Century Aligning 21st Century skills and common core standards P21 Framework Element CCSS ELA College and Career Ready Definition Core Subjects Build strong content knowledge Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose and discipline Communication Comprehend as well as critique Information Literacy Value evidence Self Direction Demonstrate independence Global Awareness Come to understand other perspectives and cultures Information, Media and Technology Skills Use technology and digital media strategically and capably Small Group Activity: Seven groups will take one P21 Framework Element and prepare a short statement as to the College and Career Ready definition (this could be in the format of a goal statement). History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

16 Skills for the 21st Century Civic Literacy
Participating effectively in civic life through knowing how to stay informed and understanding governmental processes Exercising the rights and obligations of citizenship at local, state, national and global levels Understanding the local and global implications of civic decisions Schools that understand the importance of developing thinking skills, citizenship skills, and participatory skills, as well as content knowledge, are better equipped to graduate students who will be making successful transitions to career and community life. To support students in becoming a contributing member of a democratic society, instruction needs to help students to think deeply, be judicious in decision-making, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in collaborative efforts for the common good. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

17 Knowing how to make appropriate personal economic choices
Skills for the 21st Century Financial, Economic, Business and Entrepreneurial Literacy Knowing how to make appropriate personal economic choices Understanding the role of the economy in society Using entrepreneurial skills to enhance workplace productivity and career options History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

18 Skills for the 21st Century Environmental Literacy
Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the environment and the circumstances and conditions affecting it, particularly as relates to air, climate, land, food, energy, water and ecosystems Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of society’s impact on the natural world (e.g., population growth, population development, resource consumption rate, etc.) Investigate and analyze environmental issues, and make accurate conclusions about effective solutions Take individual and collective action towards addressing environmental challenges (e.g., participating in global actions, designing solutions that inspire action on environmental issues) (P21 framework definitions, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009) History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

19 Skills for the 21st Century Global Awareness
Using 21st century skills to understand and address global issues Learning from and working collaboratively with individuals representing diverse cultures, religions and lifestyles in a spirit of mutual respect and open dialogue in personal, work and community contexts Understanding other nations and cultures, including the use of non-English languages History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

20 ACTIVITY 1 Focus Question for Professional Discussion
Discuss the cross-curricular instructional goals that would be supported through the integration of English language arts and history content. What types of instructional strategies would support those goals? Small group or large group discussion. Ask if this raises any questions. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

21 History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part II – History/Social Studies Literacy: Cognitive Skills and Historical Thinking History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

22 thinking in history/social studies
Thinking is not driven by answers but by questions… every field stays alive only to the extent that fresh questions are generated and taken seriously as the driving force in a process of thinking. The Center for Critical Thinking (2012) Discussion Activity: Review the idea of using the strategy of questioning to access deeper levels of knowledge. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

23 What is historical thinking in history/social studies?
Historical thinking in history/social studies is the incorporation of analytical and higher-order thinking skills with history/social studies content. Higher-order thinking skills are the means by which the student of history/social studies establishes cause and effect, makes comparisons, develops theoretical frameworks, applies conceptual knowledge, and determines significance. The synthesis of cross-discipline content information and thinking skills is the basis for supporting evidence in argumentation, evaluation, and conclusive determinations. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

24 Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
Foundational Knowledge - facts and recall of who, what, when, where (recalling, recognizing, remembering) Comprehension – understanding how and incorporating contextual information (understanding, conceptualizing, discussing, explaining, relating) Application - transfer and use (applying, interpreting, demonstrating, practicing, implementing) Analysis - the interrelationship and interdependence of components and contextual variables that explain the why of events and issues (analyzing, organizing, examining, deconstructing, differentiating, attributing) Evaluation- the evaluation of evidence to develop hypotheses, form opinions, make judgments, and engage in reasoned decision- making (evaluating, checking, critiquing, prioritizing, deciding, determining, defending) Synthesis/Create - combining ideas, concepts, and information in new ways and the use of meta-cognitive thinking for perspective (creating, connecting, arranging, proposing, hypothesizing, planning, formulating, producing) History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

25 Chronological and Spatial Thinking
History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools Kindergarten Through Grade 12 (1998) analysis skills Chronological and Spatial Thinking Historical Research, Evidence, and Point-of-View Historical Interpretation History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

26 Application of cognitive skills in the history/social studies classroom
Students proficient in history/social studies literacy will be able to: explain cause and effect compare and contrast distinguish between fact and opinion build persuasive and logical arguments understand the significance of historical legacy develop in-depth understandings of diversity, multiculturalism, and the global community engage in citizenship responsibilities, 21st Century skills, and informed discussion of current issues Discussion Activity: In small groups, brainstorm a short list of history/social studies classroom activities that address each of the instructional goals as listed on this slide. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

27 The Critical Thinking process in history/social studies
Identify and articulate the problem, question, or issue. Define the purpose, goals, or objectives. Research the topics and related issues. Take a position. Engage in fact-finding with attention to assumptions, bias, intended audience, multiple perspectives, and evaluation of sources of information. Develop and test hypotheses with logic and evidence. Review position and adjust if necessary. Reflect on implications and consequences, pros and cons, long-term vs. short term effects, alternative perspectives, bias, and other frames of reference. Develop reasoning that leads to conclusions, actions, or positions. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

28 A sampling of Cognitive and reasoning skills in history/social studies
Recalling and recognizing foundational content knowledge Understanding and applying concepts Summarizing Analyzing information Evaluating information and ideas Envisioning and responding to multiple perspectives Recognizing bias Drawing conclusions based on evidence and logic Developing a persuasive argument (oral and written) Taking and defending a position through fact-finding and reasoning Becoming adept at debate skills and building logical argumentation Synthesizing knowledge and content from related fields through cause and effect, identification of key variables, and mitigating/intensifying factors Developing good decision-making skills History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

29 Sample classroom applications of cognitive skills in history/social studies
Writing performance tasks that ask the students “how” and “why” questions Classroom discussion based on sources that inform (articles, maps, graphs, photographs, interviews, etc.) and provide for opportunities in which students analyze, evaluate, consider multiple perspectives, make inferences, and draw conclusions The use of primary sources to discuss original intent, evidence, questions raised, and significance for today Student research of the variables of economics, politics, religion, geography, and world conditions on historical events and current issues Discussion and writing on the significance of historical events, decisions, and eras Structured debate, mock trials, hearings and moot courts, news broadcast re-enactments, student presentations, and dramatic representations to gain in-depth understandings History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

30 ACTIVITY 2 Focus Question for Professional Discussion
List some of the key thinking skills that should be emphasized at each grade level cluster (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12). What are some examples of classroom learning activities that will help to build thinking skills from one grade level to the next? Examples may include: summarize, temporal sequencing, cause and effect, compare, contrast, significance, argumentation, point of view, establishing a position, use of supporting evidence or details, relationships, justification, etc. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

31 Part III – History/Social Studies Literacy: Reading Informational Text
History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part III – History/Social Studies Literacy: Reading Informational Text History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

32 Reading in History/social studies
Reading for information in history/social studies is NOT the same as reading for other disciplines, including literature, science, and technological studies. Reading in history/social studies requires an instructional shift in use of prior knowledge, academic vocabulary in history/social studies, questioning strategies, and critical thinking skills to evaluate, apply, and synthesize information. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

33 Reading for information in history/social studies
History texts “are not lifeless strings of useless facts, but the keys to unlocking the character of human beings, people with likes and dislikes, biases and foibles, airs and convictions” (Wineburg, 2001, p. 74). Reading in history and social studies is unique because the reader “decodes” both the author and the text. From reading, students construct meaning and historical understanding. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

34 Competent readers in history/social studies
Students who are proficient in reading in history/social studies…. Monitor their own comprehension Use reading strategies when understanding begins to break down Summarize after each paragraph Use headings, captions, images, maps, etc. to enhance understanding Determine the meanings of words and phrases in context Connect content to what they already know History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

35 Instructional sources for history/social studies
Primary source documents and images Secondary source articles and texts Propaganda Biographies Diaries and letters Charts, graphs, maps News articles and broadcasts Blogs and internet sources Poetry, myths, and legends Historical fiction History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

36 Deconstructing the history/social studies written word with students
Dissect each sentence into the noun/subject, verb/action, and who/what is the subject of the action. Clarify or define key words and concepts. Identify relationships and patterns between the sentences and within the paragraph. Consider the text as a whole and create a meaningful summary of it. (Schleppegrell, 2009) History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

37 Expository Reading skills in history/social studies
Analyze primary sources Compare and evaluate authors’ arguments and evidence Seek and cite evidence to support one’s own arguments Recognize text structure (e.g., sequential, comparison, cause-effect) Distinguish among fact, opinion and reasoned argument Differentiate and analyze the relationship between primary and secondary sources on the same topic Determine central ideas Corroborate and/or challenge authors’ arguments Determine meanings of words and phrases in context Develop a coherent understanding of a topic by integrating diverse sources History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

38 How can students develop deeper Understanding when reading in history/social studies?
By asking questions that inquire into the author’s purpose and audience, teachers can help students develop an understanding of bias in text as a rhetorical artifact with a focus on what the author was trying to accomplish. Wineburg explains that history-social science text divulges the author’s world view, perceptions, and prejudices. This occurs even when the author intends to hide his or her beliefs. (Wineberg, 2001) Providing opportunities for students to interact with the teacher and classmates about the possible meanings of the text emphasizes the art of historians and social scientists while developing astute readers who attend to what lies between the lines in all text. By challenging students to figure out the author’s beliefs, students become readers who pay close attention and can discern the author’s intentions. Reading and questioning go hand-in-hand as teachers help students understand the world. Discussion Activity: In small groups, discuss the ways to implement each of the above strategies. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

39 Scaffold reading assignments Teach academic vocabulary development
What teachers can do to build reading comprehension in history/social studies Scaffold reading assignments Teach academic vocabulary development Provide support in constructing meaning from primary and secondary sources Utilize a wide variety of fiction and non-fiction materials that capture student interest and help paint a picture of other places and times Teach about bias into the author’s meaning and beliefs Use concept maps, questions, graphic organizers, and opportunities for students to interact with one another about the text Activity: In large or small groups, what other reading comprehension instruction activities could be added to this list? History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

40 Sample Standards alignment in reading and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Reading Standards for Informational Text K Integration of Knowledge 7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 4 State History Reading Comprehension Summarizing Inference Demonstration of knowledge Small group or partner discussion and task After reading a chapter in a grade-level history text, students will examine historical photographs that correspond to the text. Using a “Thinking Map” (graphic organizer), students will diagram their understanding of the text and students will note details (such as where, when, why) of how the photo represents the historical era or event. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

41 Sample Standards alignment in reading and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Reading Standards for Literacy in H-SS Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 8. Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 7 Mongol Invasions Multiple perspectives Analysis of information Compare and contrast Fact vs. opinion Evaluation of information Identification of bias Inference Informed classroom discussion and note-taking Students will read the text chapter on the Mongol invasions of the 13th-14th centuries to identify perspectives that may have a negative connotation of bias against the Mongols and the resulting invasions. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

42 Sample Standards alignment in reading and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Reading Standards for Informational Text Craft and Structure 6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 11 Contemporary American History Point of view Bias Vocabulary Inference Analysis Evaluation Analysis of a primary source Students will read President Obama’s Inauguration speech of January 2009 to identify rhetorical devices used and establish the speaker’s purpose. They will evaluate the overall persuasiveness of the speech. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

43 ACTIVITY 3 Focus Question for Professional Discussion
Effective instruction uses questioning strategies, evidence from historical documents, evaluation of information, and synthesis of conceptual understanding to help students develop inquiry-based knowledge and frame essential questions as the basis for research in history/social studies. How can teachers help students to develop research skills through the framing of essential questions of history/social studies content? What are some examples of effective research questions at each grade level? Research requires focused reading skills that utilize tools such as the K-W-L chart and anticipatory questioning. Those questioning skills can support successive writing activities in helping to frame essays around essential questions. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

44 Part IV – History/Social Studies Literacy: Expository Writing
History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part IV – History/Social Studies Literacy: Expository Writing History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

45 Writing is thinking in visual form
Civilization has always been based on codified norms and recorded through writing. Writing is the concrete manifestation of thinking. Writing allows for organization of the thinking process, cognitive interactions with content, development of logic, and creative or unique presentation of how thinking can be shared. This is our legacy that we share with our students today and into the future (Kidwell, 2011) Writing can support the teaching of civil discourse and respect for diverse opinions through: sharing of multiple perspectives, structured debate, consensus-building, and learning how to disagree without being disagreeable. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

46 Expository Writing Skills in history/social studies
Formulate essential questions Use and present research Evaluate sources of information Differentiate between fact and opinion Develop supporting evidence Address the issue of significance Communicate and present conclusions and evaluative summaries with logic and reasoning History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

47 Forms of Expository Writing in history/social studies
Persuasive writing Reflective writing Summarizing Reporting information Letter-writing Presentation of ideas and viewpoints Narrative Synthesizing or developing interrelationships between events, eras, the disciplines of history/social studies History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

48 Examples of expository writing in history/social studies
Explain a process Narration of a historical event Analyze cause and effect connections Compare and contrast Analyze problems and present solutions Develop a thesis statement or reasonable hypothesis based on factual evidence Present and defend a position with supporting documentation Build a persuasive argument or propose a solution Write about literature, including historical sources and historical fiction Create visuals to support expository writing (timelines, graphic organizers, charts, etc.) Develop a multi-media presentation using quotations, key ideas, visuals, and conclusive evidence for specific audience or purpose; History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

49 Sample writing tasks in the history/social studies classroom
Write a letter to a congressional representative stating a position Describe a day in the life of a historical figure Outline the similarities and differences of historical events, eras, cultures, political regimes, etc. Summarize a community issue or problem and pose a solution Analyze historical cause and effect factors on the Crusades, Imperialism in Africa, the Boston Tea Party, the French Revolution, the industrial revolution, World War I, World War II, or other historical events Explain the historical significance of an event or era Explain the effects of economic, geographic, cultural, or political issues in contemporary society or global relations Support or present opposition to a law or regulation Describe primary sources to support/oppose court rulings Activity: In small or large groups, add to this list. The activities could also be organized by grade level. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

50 Teacher-Directed Class Preparation for the Writing Process
Direct instruction on the writing process Teacher-directed discussion on expectations and requirements with particular attention on the avoidance of plagiarism Rubric review and examination of samples of writing Direct instruction and discussion on how to research credible sources of information, how to differentiate secondary from primary resources, how to evaluate sources of information, and how to identify bias and opinion Modeling of patterns of logic and reasoning Identification and teaching of the appropriate academic vocabulary that applies specifically to the topic as well as generic words that pertain to the genre in which students are writing Provision of adequate time for students to review and revise for ongoing improvement See Common Core ELA standards in writing (Writing standards 1-10) and Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Plagiarism (most often, “cutting and pasting”) is specifically addressed in the Common Core ELA standards (Writing Standard 8). History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

51 Pre-writing activities for student work in history/social studies
Analyze the writing prompt and place it in the proper context Determine the purpose Consider the audience Develop a thesis statement Collect, research, and sort information Share and discuss knowledge among students regarding the topic Evaluate information that is significant, identify related variables, and determine how to reconcile seemingly incongruent facts History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

52 Writing the draft in history/social studies
Develop an outline or graphic organizer into an essay with an introduction, body and conclusion. Start the essay with a hook such as a quotation or an interesting fact Direct the reader to the essential question and the thesis in the introductory paragraph Develop the thesis in straightforward and concise wording using opinion authoritatively with supporting detail Compare draft outline to assignment or writing prompt Construct each paragraph with a main idea, general and specific details (three to four details), and a transition or conclusion. In the body of the essay, students should start with the weakest argument and progress to other questions raised. Review the conclusion paragraph for clarity, specificity, and logic. Rather than offering a simple summary, the formal history/social studies essay concludes by restating the thesis and applying the analysis to a broader context to show significance. Review the introduction paragraph for overall consistency History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

53 Revising, editing, and publishing in history/social studies
Provide support over time for ongoing improvement Use tools such as word sorting activities, computerized word banks, or a thesaurus for word choice variety and specificity Utilize strategies such as peer review, read-alouds, and question-the-author Verify that the message is clear, logical, and supported Reread for consistency, coherency, and clarity Check for punctuation, complete sentences, capitals, grammar, and paragraph structure Review for appropriate and consistent text features such as font sizes, bold and italicized print, labels, charts, maps and pictures Include the source citations, bibliography, and footnotes in the appropriate format History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

54 Sample Standards alignment in writing and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Writing Standards K-5 - Text Types & Purposes 3. Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 2 In the Past Sequencing Chronological development Temporal vocabulary Related detail and information Summarize Interviewing Paragraph development by direct instruction After interviewing a grandparent, the teacher will provide guided instruction on paragraph development and linking of events in a sequential format in summarizing a story from the past. Students demonstrate their knowledge of sequencing through appropriate vocabulary and paragraph structure. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

55 Sample Standards alignment in writing and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Writing Standards K-5 - Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 4 Spanish Colonial Period Research Writing – Summary Multiple perspectives Use of detail Compare and contrast Writing - historical imagining and use of factual detail Students will write accounts of the founding of the Spanish Missions in California from the perspective of the American Indian, the Spanish Explorer, the missionary, and the first woman to travel to the mission from the Eastern United States. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

56 Sample Standards alignment in writing and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Writing Standards Text Types and Purposes 1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and address alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. b. Support claim(s) or counterarguments with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence. d. Establish and maintain a formal style. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 7 Ancient Rome Writing to support a position Reading comprehension Use of supporting evidence Analysis and evaluation Logic and reasoning Document-Based Question Format Students will be given the prompt, “What were the primary reasons for the fall of Rome?” They will analyze 5-6 primary source documents including maps, excerpts, charts, artwork, etc. Using evidence from the documents, they will introduce and support their claim regarding the cause of the fall of Rome as well as acknowledging opposing claims. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

57 Sample Standards alignment in writing and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Text Types and Purposes 1. Write arguments focused on U.S. History content. a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 11 Industrial Revolution Taking a position and defending it Analysis of primary sources Persuasive writing Evaluation of information Multiple perspectives Writing fluency and form Document-Based Question format Students will be given the prompt, “The Gilded Age: Captains of Industry or Robber Barons?” They will analyze a variety of primary and secondary sources about the “Big Business” leaders of the Gilded Age. Using evidence from the sources, they will introduce and support their claim with logical reasoning as well as acknowledge opposing claims. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

58 ACTIVITY 4 Focus Question for Professional Discussion
What are some examples of critical elements that need to be included in a well- developed history/social studies writing prompt? What elements should be included in the corresponding rubric? Prompt examples might include: “How” and “Why” questions, higher-order thinking skills such as analyze and compare, prompts that encourage argumentation from multiple perspectives, etc. Rubric elements might include the use of evidence and supporting detail, conclusions supported by the body of the essay, clarity in word choice and developmental structure, the addressing of multiple perspectives, the use of logic and reasoning, separation of fact from opinion, citations, etc. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

59 Part V – History/Social Studies Literacy: Academic Vocabulary
History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part V – History/Social Studies Literacy: Academic Vocabulary History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

60 What does it mean to be proficient in academic vocabulary in history/social studies?
The student who is proficient in academic vocabulary in history/social studies will have had specific instruction in vocabulary from the domains of geography, economics, history, and civic education. The student will be able to access meaning and inference of the domain- specific vocabulary to read, understand, and interpret historical documents, historical literature, primary sources, graphic representations, quantitative information, and other sources of information. Discussion Activity: Discuss the learning goals for students who are proficient in academic vocabulary. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

61 Why is academic vocabulary so important in history/social studies?
Vocabulary development is critical to both a student’s ability to read with a high level of comprehension in all social studies domains and to write effectively with purpose and clarity. To be an effective reader of social studies, a student must be able to: access the content recognize subtexts and connotation make inferences use essential vocabulary in his or her writing to convey ideas and demonstrate understanding of historical concepts and content. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

62 Six-step approach to teaching vocabulary
The teacher provides a description, explanation or example Students re-state or re-explain meaning in their own words Students construct a picture, graphic, or symbol for each word Students engage in an activity to expand their word knowledge Students discuss vocabulary words with one another Student play games with the words (Marzano, 2004) History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

63 Teaching academic vocabulary in history/social studies
One of the most essential components in teaching and learning history is the integration and use of primary source material to discover and evaluate the past; however, integrating primary sources in the classroom is often more difficult than it sounds. Reading and analyzing historical documents often include antiquated and unfamiliar language and the conventions can be challenging. Teachers must be able to help students recognize the terms that are the critical to maximizing historical understanding. Discussion Activity: Where and when is academic vocabulary most effectively taught? History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

64 ACTIVITY 5 Focus Question for Professional Discussion
A model lesson on Abraham Lincoln begins with framing the research question, “Was Lincoln a Racist?” The teacher may use the following primary source excerpt of Douglas’ speech in the first debate between Lincoln and Douglas at Ottawa, Illinois on August 21, 1858 as one source for students to analyze differing perspectives. To help students fully comprehend the passage, vocabulary instruction is necessary. If you desire Negro citizenship, if you desire to allow them to come into the State and settle with the White man, if you desire them to vote on an equality with yourselves, and to make them eligible to office, to serve on juries, and to judge your rights, then support Mr. Lincoln and the Black Republican party, who are in favor of the citizenship of the Negro. For one, I am opposed to Negro citizenship in any and every form. I believe this government was made by White men, for the benefit of White men and their posterity forever. . .Mr. Lincoln believes that the Negro was born his equal and yours, and that he was endowed with equality by the Almighty, and that no human law can deprive him of these rights.   Stephen A. Douglas, argument in the first Lincoln-Douglas debate at Ottawa, Illinois, August 21, 1858. (Stanford History Education Group, 2009) IN THE SELECTED EXCERPT, WHAT VOCABULARY WORDS MAY NEED PRE-TEACHING? In this lesson, it is important to highlight and teach the vocabulary, such as the term “posterity.” To support student understanding of the text, students will need instruction on this term prior to the reading and then reviewed again during a meta-cognitive reading. This type of instruction does not jeopardize the integrity of the source, but allows student access through vocabulary. Other vocabulary words that may require pre-teaching include equality, eligible, juries, citizenship, Negro, endowed, deprive, as well as other proper nouns and some phrases. A question may be posed as to why the word “white” is capitalized in this passage. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

65 Part VI – History/Social Studies Literacy: Speaking and Listening
History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part VI – History/Social Studies Literacy: Speaking and Listening History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

66 Speaking and listening skills in history/social studies
History/social studies, like any discipline that teaches meaningful interaction between concepts and cognitive skills, also provides opportunities for students to present their knowledge, engage in dialogue with those who have expertise, explore new ideas through discussion, and to learn how to consider multiple perspectives through listening and speaking. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

67 Speaking and listening learning goals in history/social studies
A critical learning goal for students includes the ability to develop effective participatory skills and interactions. Beginning in the earliest grades, students are learning how to function in a group and how to participate in social systems with fairness, courtesy, and respect. Speaking and listening skills provide the structure through which students can engage in informed discussion, civil discourse, disagreement with respect, and an understanding of the rights of individuals to hold disparate views and philosophical orientations. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

68 Speaking and listening as participatory skills
Speaking and presenting information on knowledge, positions, and issues Posing questions and engaging in dialogue Using listening skills to gain understanding Working in groups Learning from others and constructive criticism Building consensus Debating and discussing Gathering information and considering multiple perspectives Compromising Engaging in civil discourse Learning respect, restraint, and taking turns Discussion Activity: What form will these activities take at each grade level or grade level cluster? History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

69 Pair-share activities Oral reports Group presentations
Classroom strategies to support speaking and listening skill development Pair-share activities Oral reports Group presentations Structured debate Informed classroom discussion Round-robin discussion contributions Service learning project presentations Use of multi-media aids Voting by thumbs-up Presenting before a panel of judges History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

70 Sample Standards alignment in speaking and listening and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Speaking & Listening Standards K-5 - Comprehension and Collaboration Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). b. Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges. c. Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 1 Civic Education – participatory skills Listening Speaking Participating in a group Civil discourse and respectful dialogue Formulating questions Class discussion and democratic participation Students develop classroom rules about large group discussion sessions through participatory dialogue. The teacher will facilitate the session and record the rules. Students will vote on the rules to be adopted. The rules will be posted in the classroom. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

71 Sample Standards alignment in speaking and listening and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Speaking & Listening Standards Presentation of Knowledge & Ideas 5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 6 Ancient Civilizations Speaking skills Communication skills Summary of information Compare and contrast Creative presentation Power Point presentation to present a specific topic and summarize information Using Power Point presentation, students will create a slide show demonstrating their knowledge of how the roots of democracy and rule of law was practiced in Mesopotamia, ancient Greece, and ancient China. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

72 Sample Standards alignment in Speaking and listening and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Writing Standards for Literacy in H/SS, etc – Text Types and Purposes 2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments or technical processes. a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g. charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships between ideas and concepts. d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone. f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 8 Bill of Rights; Constitutional Convention; Analytical Thinking Creative Application of Ideas Participating in a group Civil discourse and respectful dialogue Research skills Analytical and evaluative skills Taking a position and defending it Small group to large group discussion Graphic organizers In small groups, discuss the reasons for inclusion of the Bill of Rights in the Constitution. Share reasons with the larger group . Conduct a class discussion on why they have or have not proven to be significant in American history. Students will summarize the discussion with graphic organizers. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

73 Part VII – History/Social Studies Literacy: Civic Education
History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part VII – History/Social Studies Literacy: Civic Education History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

74 What is Civic Education?
Civic education provides the information on how a democracy works but includes the teaching of cognitive skills and participatory skills that support active engagement in governance and social well- being. Civic education requires skills in expository reading and writing for students to become informed citizens. Civic education provides relevancy in the curriculum for our future leaders and citizens. The four components of high-quality civic education are: Knowledge and foundational content information Cognitive or higher-order thinking skills Participatory skills Civic attitudes and dispositions History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

75 Knowledge and foundational content information include:
Historical information and content knowledge in geography, economics, socio-demographics, and government; An understanding of how the disciplines of government, economics, geography, and history are interrelated and interconnected; An understanding of how government works; Knowledge of the philosophical and political foundations of democracy; Synthesis of the foundations of democracy and the effect of globalization on geo-political issues, socio- economic principles, domestic policy, and international affairs; An awareness and understanding of current events. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

76 Cognitive and higher-order thinking skills include:
Recalling and recognizing foundational content knowledge Comparing and contrasting information Understanding and applying concepts, structures, and models Analyzing information Evaluating ideas, theories, and proposals Evaluating sources of information Drawing logical conclusions Defending a position through fact-finding and reasoning Synthesizing knowledge and content from related fields through cause and effect, identification of key variables, and mitigating/intensifying factors History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

77 Participatory skills include:
Speaking and listening skills Working together in groups Consensus building to reach decisions Debate and informed discussion Gathering and analyzing information and multiple perspectives Recognition of bias and point-of-view Compromise Civil discourse Respect for diversity and individual differences History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

78 Civic attitudes and dispositions reflect:
Democratic values and principles Informed decision-making processes Participation in civil society with an understanding of “the common good” and a sense of community while protecting the rights of individuals Reasoned commitment Civic engagement Respect for legitimate authority and the rule of law History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

79 Effective classroom strategies for teaching civic education
Begin with a strong foundation in history and the foundations of democracy knowledge but reinforce with classroom activities in which students: Prepare and participate in structured debate Engage in informed discussion with civil discourse Analyze current events Develop presentations such as proposals for community issues and improvement Interview public figures and government staff Research and present positions, defending it with supporting documentation and facts Work collaboratively in student work groups to propose public policy, create a mock trial, hold a mock hearing, or develop service learning projects Explore active citizenship and community projects Make sense of a democratic system based on multiple perspectives and competing interests. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

80 Sample Standards alignment in civic education and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Writing Standards K-5 – Text Types and Purposes Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g. consequently, specifically). Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 5 Constitution of the United States, government, democracy Analytical Thinking Creative Application of Ideas Participating in a group Civil discourse and respectful dialogue Expository Writing Class discussion Group collaboration Informative and Summary Writing Engage students in a process to develop a Preamble and Bill of Rights for their classroom. Begin by asking students to: Identify the rights and responsibilities of the school, the teacher, and the students. Identify specific problems or potential problems that may violate the rights of the school, teacher, and students. Post the Preamble and the Bill of Rights in the classroom and ask students to write informative/explanatory text that conveys the process, purpose, rationale, and ideas of their Bill of Rights. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

81 Sample Standards alignment in Civic education and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Reading Standards for Informational Texts 6-12 – Key Ideas and Details Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 7 Ancient Rome and foundations of democracy Reading a Primary Source document Participatory skills including civil discourse and consensus building Analytical and evaluative skills Communication skills Small group discussion and collaboration; Analysis of an historical primary source; Class discussion Collaborative group work; In small groups, students select one of the tables of the 12 Tables of Roman Law and read the included laws. Determine the key ideas and central purpose of each law. Draw inferences about Roman society and political values of Roman society. Students present their findings. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

82 Sample Standards alignment in civic education and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Speaking & Listening Standards 6-12 – Presentation of Knowledge & Ideas 4. Present claims and findings (e.g., argument, narrative, response to literature presentations), emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 8 Current Issues, Local government Participatory skills including civil discourse and consensus building Research skills Analytical and evaluative skills Interviewing skills Communication skills Creative thinking Presentation of information Service Learning As a class project, students will research a public policy issue and interview appropriate officials to develop a class proposal that will be presented in four parts: the problem or issue, possible solutions or policies, a class-developed policy, and an action plan to present the class policy. Students will present the project to the appropriate authority agency or board. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

83 Sample Standards alignment in Civic education and history/social studies
CCSS Standard: Writing Standards for Literacy in H/SS, etc – Text Types and Purposes 2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments or technical processes. a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g. charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships between ideas and concepts. d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone. f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. Grade Level History/Social Studies Topic or Unit Skill Development Instructional Strategy Classroom Activity 11 20th Century and Post-WW1 Research skills Analytical and evaluative skills Taking a position and defending it Expository Writing Research and expository writing Evaluate President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points and other sources of information about the time period to explain how the principle of self-determination of people became a rallying point for ethnic minorities in European empires and colonized peoples in Africa and Asia. Present conclusion and supporting detail in essay form. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

84 ACTIVITY 6 Focus Question for Professional Discussion
What types of student presentations and exhibitions would prepare students for roles as citizens, future leaders, and collaborative participants? At which grade levels would these types of learning activities be most effective? Engagement of students relies on instructional strategies that promote active learning such as simulations and mock trials, service learning, current events discussion, structured debate, persuasive and expository writing, and problem-solving. A more detailed activity might have the teachers develop a rough outline of a one major activity per grade that builds over the course of the students’ school career. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

85 History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part VIII – Integrating History/Social Studies and English Language Arts for English Learners 2012 History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

86 History/Social Studies Literacy Instruction and the English Learner Student
For English learner (EL) students, the traditional channels through which students learn History/Social Studies content via English language arts instruction may be blocked with cultural and linguistic obstacles. There are specific challenges facing the EL student to consider and there are strategies that have proven effective in assisting EL students in the classroom. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

87 Specific challenges that ELs face when learning to read material in English:
An abundance of idioms and figurative language in English language arts texts Density of unfamiliar vocabulary Use of homonyms and synonyms Grammar usage; especially the “exceptions to the rules” Word order, sentence structure, and syntax Difficult text structure with a topic sentence, supporting details and conclusion Unfamiliarity with the connotative and denotative meanings of words Possible lack of experience and practice with expressing an opinion about the text Use of regional U.S. dialects Literary terms for story development are not understood Unfamiliarity with drawing conclusions, analyzing characters, and predicting outcomes Imagery and symbolism in text History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

88 Effective English learner Teaching Strategies
Use role plays to make abstract concepts concrete Create analogies to help students link the unfamiliar with the familiar Pre-teach reading assignments to help struggling readers Use graphic organizers and representation to assist in understanding Create opportunities for jigsaw learning to provide reading and study support History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

89 ACTIVITY 7 Focus Question for Professional Discussion
The student that is proficient in history/social studies will have had opportunities to explore and develop in-depth understandings of the role of history-social science content knowledge, diversity and multiculturalism, civic education, 21st century skills, and current events. How will the full spectrum of high quality history-social studies instruction be evaluated and assessed for all students? Types of assessment will include performance assessment, constructed response writing assessments, short answer and selected response assessment, and group project assessments. Assessments should be based on content as well as skills such as speaking and listening, participatory skills, writing, and higher order thinking skills. All assessments should have adequate opportunity for formative assessments to master the content and skills prior to summative assessments. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

90 History/Social Studies Literacy: Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part IX – Research-Based Instructional Tools, Companion Documents, References, Acknowledgements 2012 History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

91 Research-Based Classroom instructional tools and strategies for History/Social Studies Literacy
Simulated Hearings and Mock Trials ` Simulated hearings and mock trials offer students an opportunity to show what they know through prepared presentation as well as the follow- up questioning and persuasive discourse to strengthen the notion that applied knowledge will sharpen the skills of writing, reading, speaking and listening. Most often, students are working on these projects in collaborative groups and they are going outside of the school milieu to gain insights and knowledge of the justice system, local government, governing agencies, and community. This type of activity has been shown to engage students with active learning and reinforces participatory skills, collaborative skills, critical thinking, creative thinking, and development of anticipatory response to the audience and the question. Economic Simulations In economic simulations and activities, students learn about the “how-to” of microeconomics, monetary policy, the stock market, supply and demand, international trade, and the world of finance. Students experience the “opportunity cost” of decisions and trade-offs. Students that have the opportunity to discuss the real-world implications of the economic simulation will better understand the complexity of political, environmental, social, and current events issues. Simulations require students to use all of the critical thinking skills, organization of information, and collaborative skills that mirror real-world decision-making, public policy, and contemporary social issues. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

92 Research-Based Classroom instructional tools and strategies for History/Social Studies Literacy (continued) Informed Classroom Discussion Classroom discussion that is structured to explore issues and confront misconceptions and bias can be one of the most effective teaching strategies in promoting reasoned thinking and decision-making skills. Listening and speaking skills are reinforced as well as civil discourse, learning to disagree with respect, and recognizing that multiple perspectives are part of our democratic foundation of diversity and respect for the individual. Effective strategies include appropriate preparation for students with factual information, differing viewpoints, understanding bias, determination of purpose, and evaluating sources of information. Expository reading, note-taking, civil discourse, questioning strategies, and supporting evidence are skills that are reinforced in classes that practice informed group discussion. Environmental Education Initiative This curriculum is available at no cost through the California Department of Education. The curriculum provides modules that connect history-social studies, science, and environmental studies in lessons for grades K-12. The curriculum reinforces the integration of disciplines and encourages the students to understand the inter-connectedness of variables in learning about the environment, geography, community, and issues of public concern. The curriculum is downloadable at History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

93 Research-Based Classroom instructional tools and strategies for History/Social Studies Literacy (continued) Interactive Mapping and Historical Resources Numerous websites, including the teacher tools on the National Geographic Society website, have maps and activities for instruction with interactive white boards, on computers, and as demonstrations. Many websites host a plethora of primary source documents, teacher tools, writing prompts, and lesson activities in all ranges of history/social studies literacy. Debate Student debate is an exceptional way for authentic assessment of student knowledge and applied thinking skills. As students develop a for- and against-position, they are using skills of reading, writing, research, listening, speaking, and higher-order thinking. The formal structure of opening statement, rebuttal, position, and closing argument mirrors legal formats and provides an opportunity to present knowledge in a civil discourse model. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

94 Research-Based Classroom instructional tools and strategies for History/Social Studies Literacy (continued) Service Learning The California Department of Education defines service-learning as an “instructional strategy whereby students learn academic content standards by participating in organized service that addresses community needs and fosters civic responsibility.” Students learn through active participation in projects that meet the needs of a community issue identified by youth and driven by youth voice. It meets a real community need and is often coordinated with community organizations and partners. Service learning fosters civic responsibility, civic understandings, and civic engagement. It is integrated into and enhances the curriculum of the students and incorporates all of the literacy skills as outlined in the Common Core State Standards. Curricula such as Project Citizen (Center for Civic Education) and the Civic Action Project (Constitutional Rights Foundation) are service learning projects that feature public policy development, active involvement, public presentation, and group projects. Problem-Based Inquiry and Project-Based Learning An effective hook for student engagement and high student involvement in the learning process is to pose a problem to students and allow the natural curiosity and student interest to take initiative in developing a project based on research, inquiry, creative problem solving, and presentation. Project curricula is available from institutions such as the Buck Institute for Problem-Based Learning, the Choices Project from Brown University, and other non-profit learning organizations. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

95 Document-Based Questions (DBQs)
Research-Based Classroom instructional tools and strategies for History/Social Studies Literacy (continued) Document-Based Questions (DBQs) The DBQ Project is a well-developed product that provides students in-depth interaction with primary and secondary source historical documents about United States and world history events. DBQ tasks/activities support the English language arts standards through the study and analysis of primary source and secondary source historical documents, critical thinking skills, discussion activities, group work, and writing. The materials provide a step-by- step process for students to develop the thinking process as they organize the structure of their essays and build their arguments. Students use the material within those documents to support their own thesis in answer to a meaningful focus question, as they develop a persuasive or point-of-view essay.   History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

96 Resources and companion documents
California Department of Education, California’s Common Core Content Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (2010) California Department of Education, History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools Kindergarten through Grade Twelve, (2005) California Department of Education, History-Social Science Framework Update (2010) Herczog, M. et. al., Preparing Students for College, Career and CITIZENSHIP: A Guide to Align Civic Education and the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects (2011) Guardian of Democracy: The Civic Mission of Schools produced by the Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools in partnership with the Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center at the University of Pennsylvania, the National Conference on Citizenship, the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement at Tufts University, and the American Bar Association Division for Public Education Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools: Educating for Democracy (2011). campaign/guardian-of-democracy-report History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

97 References California Department of Education (2010). California’s Common Core Content Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. California’s Common Core State Standards California Department of Education (2005). History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools Kindergarten through Grade Twelve.   California Department of Education (2010). History-Social Science Framework Update. Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools: Educating for Democracy (2011). Guardian of democracy: The civic mission of schools, Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics, University of Pennsylvania, CIRCLE, National Conference on Citizenship, American Bar Association Division for Public Education. democracy-report Center for Civic Education, Los Angeles County Office of Education, and the California, Department of Education (2003). Education for Democracy: California Civic Education Scope and Sequence History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

98 References (continued)
The Center for Critical Thinking (accessed 2012). Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching at Iowa State University (2012). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Accessed August 27,2012 at Herczog, Michelle, et al (2011). Preparing Students for College, Career and CITIZENSHIP: A Guide to Align Civic Education and the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects.   Hess, Diana E. (2009). Controversy in the Classroom: The Democratic Power of Discussion. New York: Routledge. Kahne, J., Middaugh, E. (2008). Democracy for Some: the Civic Opportunity Gap in High School. CIRCLE Working Paper 59. Kidwell, F.L., Branson, M., Croddy, M., Hale, J., (2008). Civic Education in California: Policy Recommendations: Educating for Democracy. California Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools. . History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

99 References (continued)
 Linking Service-Learning and the California History-Social Science Standards (2002). Los Angeles County Office of Education. Marzano, R. J. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement: Research on what works in schools. Alexandria, VA: ASCDPartnership for 21st Century Skills (2011). P21 Common Core Toolkit: A guide to Aligning the Common Core State Standards with the Framework for 21st century Skills.   Schleppegrell, M. (2009). History Summit III Presentation. Retrieved from Schleppegrell.pdf. Stanford History Education Group. Sam Wineburg. (2009). Stanford University. Torney-Purta, J. & Wilkenfeld, B.S. (2009). Paths to 21st Century Competencies Through Civic Education Classrooms: an Analysis of Survey Results from Ninth-Graders (A Technical Assistance Bulletin). Chicago, IL: American Bar Association Division for Public Education. Wineburg, S. (2001). Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the future of teaching the past. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

100 acknowledgements Frances L. (Cricket) Kidwell, Ed.D., Trinity County Office of Education Avi Black, Alameda County Office of Education Lisette Estrella-Henderson, Solano County Office of Education Deborah Granger, Ed.D., Orange County Department of Education Michelle Herczog, Ed.D., Los Angeles County Office of Education Marsha Ingrao, Tulare County Office of Education Laurie Mosier, San Diego County Office of Education Leslie Smith, San Bernardino County Office of Education History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012


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