2Social Structure of Czarist Russia Peasants90% of population, Majority were serfsCould not own land, No legal rights, Could not travel freely, Taxed heavilyIntellectualsVery small class of peopleWell educatedWanted to improve Russia
4Social Structure of Czarist Russia ClergyRussian Orthodox Church (Christian)Many different ranks among leaders Priests, bishops, archbishopsNobility1% of populationControlled the land and wealth of RussiaLived and dressed extravagantlyIncluded the Czar of Russia
6Czarist RussiaBefore 1905 Russia had an Absolute Monarchy; Czar Nicholas II Romanov and his wife The Czarina AlexandraAlexander II had been assassinated – he had been a reformerAlexander IIINicholas IIAutocracy meant that the Czar had complete controlHe did not allow any political oppositionPersecution of Jews and other non-Russian groups as a means of creating a Russian culturePogroms, etc.
10RasputinRasputin was a peasant “holy man” that supposedly had magical healing powers.The people of Russia disapproved of Rasputin.
11Causes of the Revolution Russia was not industrializedStarvation of peasantsMilitary was overcommitted and under prepared inWorld War I -(Treaty of Brest-Litovsk)Russo Japanese WarThe Monarchy was out of touch with the problems of the peopleRussia was behind western Europe industrially1890’s began large scale industrialization in Russiafueled by taxes and foreign investmentSteel production roseRailway to connect European side of Russia, to the Pacificbegan in 1891, finished in 1904
12Events of the Revolution Revolution of 1905The Duma (legislature) was created. Limited MonarchyBloody Sunday & St Petersburg RiotsThe peasants were starving and Father Gapon brought demands to the King. Protesters were killed and riots started all over the cityMarch Revolution -1917The Czar abdicated or stepped down. The Romanov family was executed a year later.Kerensky and The Provision Government-1917The Duma (Russian Legislature) set up a temporary government that was democratic. The head of the government was KerenskyJapan and Russia fought over Korea and Manchuria in 1904 after Russia broke agreementsJapan defeated Russia --> Unrest at homeBloody Sunday – January 22, 1905 – 200,000 workers and families in St. Petersburg came to Czar’s palace with a petition for better working conditions, more personal freedom, and representationSoldiers were ordered to fire on the crowd, 500-1,000 demonstrators diedLead to more strikesCzar created Duma (legislature) in October 1905first met in May 1906, but dissolved after ten weeks because Czar did not like Duma’s agendaRemember the chart from last class?Many Russian soldiers were killeddemoralized – home and warprices driven highRasputin was a Monk who gained influence with the Czarina (Czar’s wife) while the Czar was at the fronthe gained enough influence to bring his friends in and generally corrupt the governmentEventually, he was killed by some nobles after they drugged him and shot him and finally threw him in the river – died by drowning
14LeninLenin believed in Karl Marx’s communist ideasBolsheviks- a group of elite revolutionariesLenin was sent into exile but returned to Russia in 1917Leon Trotsky was Lenin’s right hand man
15Events of the Revolution November Revolution- 1917Kerensky’s Provisional Government lost power because they kept Russia in WWILenin’s Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Gov. and took Russia out of WWI (Treaty of Brest-Litovosk)Slogan – Land, Peace, BreadRussian Civil WarReds (communists) vs. Whites (loyalists)Communists defeated the whitesUnion of the Soviet Socialist Republic