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Media Enhanced Learning Theory and Practice. Workshop Goals encourage you to incorporate multimedia into teaching give guidelines on best use of multimedia.

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Presentation on theme: "Media Enhanced Learning Theory and Practice. Workshop Goals encourage you to incorporate multimedia into teaching give guidelines on best use of multimedia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Media Enhanced Learning Theory and Practice

2 Workshop Goals encourage you to incorporate multimedia into teaching give guidelines on best use of multimedia provide resources gather suggestions for future workshops

3 Workshop Agenda overview of human learning processes cognitive vs. information delivery suggest methods for improving learning review six media element principles apply guidelines to course materials discussion and brainstorming throughout get suggestions for future workshops

4 Diagram of Cognitive Learning Processes

5 Cognitive Learning Theory human memory has 2 channels for processing information: visual and auditory human memory has limited capacity for processing information learning occurs by active processing in memory system new knowledge and skills must be retrieved from long term memory to be used

6 Metacognition Defined learners overall ability to manage their learning set goals for learning create a plan for reaching goals monitor progress in achieving goals ex. Freshman vs. Senior

7 Information Delivery information is delivered through eyes and ears (if sound, music, narration, etc. is used) stored briefly in visual and auditory sensory memory

8 Working Memory information from temporary sensory memory enters working memory site where all active thinking happens has limited capacity active processing called rehearsal

9 Encoding and Retrieval encoding is process of integrating new knowledge with existing knowledge in long-term memory retrieval is process of getting knowledge from long-term memory

10 Processes Needed for Learning selection of important information for learner management of limited capacity in working memory to allow for rehearsal integration of information in working memory with existing knowledge from long-term memory retrieval of new knowledge when needed management of above via metacognitive skills

11 Methods for Improving Learning direct student attention to important information by adding learning objectives at beginning of lessons use an arrow to point to relevant part of a diagram or picture suggestions from group

12 Methods for Improving Learning manage limited capacity in working memory by following less is more principle and avoiding extraneous images, text, sound (if using audio) suggestions from group

13 Methods for Improving Learning aid integration by presenting verbal and visual information together show text explanation in a graphic within the image rather than above or below it (see next slide for example) slide providing practice exercises and worked examples suggestions from group

14 Present text within graphic

15 Methods for Improving Learning promote retrieval from long-term memory by creating practice exercises that fall within the context of future use of the knowledge or skills use real life or job scenarios for good retrieval hooks later on avoid edutainment – type exercises (Jeopardy) suggestions from group

16 Methods for Improving Learning develop better metacognitive management by including monitoring systems self-checks or quizzes journals suggestions from group

17 Six Media Element Principles 1. multimedia 2. contiguity 3. modality 4. redundancy 5. coherence 6. personalization

18 Multimedia Principle multimedia – any presentation containing words and pictures words may be written or spoken pictures are static images like charts, diagrams, maps, photos dynamic graphics like animations or video use words and graphics rather than words alone to promote active learning

19 Graphics use graphics that support content avoid graphics that merely decorate use representative graphics (e.g., screen snap shots) to illustrate facts and concepts use graphics to illustrate conceptsillustrate concepts use graphics to teach factsteach facts use graphics to show relationshipsshow relationships

20 Illustrate Concepts Click on image to view this example online

21 Teach Facts Click on image to view this example online

22 Show Relationships Click on image to view this example online

23 Contiguity Principle contiguity principle means placing corresponding words and graphics near each other reduces need to search for which part of graphic relates to which words web pages should not require scrolling to see words that go with a graphic printed pages should have graphic and words on same page

24 Contiguity Example 1

25 Contiguity Example 2

26 Modality Principle modality principle suggests that words be spoken rather than presented as printed text when simultaneously presenting a graphic and words that explain it reduces demands on visual processing since both incoming information channels (visual and auditory) are used not just visual

27 Modality Example Click on image to view this example online

28 Printed Words Pictures Ears Eyes MultimediaSensory MemoryWorking Memory Phonetic Processing Visual Processing Visual Overload

29 Two Channels Used Spoken Words Pictures Ears Eyes MultimediaSensory MemoryWorking Memory Phonetic Processing Visual Processing

30 Exceptions to Modality use words instead of (or in addition to) audio narration when technical terms are presented key steps in a procedure are given directions for a practice exercise are needed words are needed as reference support

31 Redundancy Principle redundancy principle suggests that presenting both printed and spoken words can hurt learning graphics explained by audio and redundant printed text should be avoided graphics explained by audio is usually best redundant printed text overloads the visual channel

32 Visual Component Animation Printed Words Eyes Ears Multimedia Presentation Sensory Memory Working Memory Spoken Words Auditory Component Overloading Visual Channel

33 Exceptions to Redundancy consider narrating printed text when: there are no pictures on screen learner has enough time to process the pictures and text learner is likely to have trouble processing spoken words non-native speakers seeing AND hearing words might be a benefit foreign language, technical jargon, etc.

34 Coherence Principle coherence principle suggests that adding interesting but non essential material hurts learning exclude extraneous information entertaining stories and graphics not essential to learning objectives background music and sounds detailed textural descriptions often done to spice up a presentation

35 Extra Content Harmful causes distraction – diverts attention from what is important causes disruption – learner cant build links among appropriate pieces of material causes seduction – learner calls on inappropriate existing knowledge to organize the incoming material

36 Extraneous Sounds, Pictures & Words extraneous sounds can overload working memory capacity pictures used to decorate distract and should be avoided interest cant be added to an otherwise boring lesson can interfere with the process of sense-making due to limited cognitive capacity extra words present same problems

37 Personalization Principle personalization principle suggests the use of conversational style printed and spoken text is best done in informal/conversational style use you, your, I, our, and we dont be too informal (Hey Dude…) narrator is perceived as a partner engaging learner in conversation so learner works harder to understand

38 Formal vs. Informal Writing This program is about what type of plants survive on different planets. For each planet, a plan will be designed. The goal is to learn what type of roots, stem, and leaves allow the plant to survive in each environment. Some hints are provided throughout the program. You are about to start a journey where you will be visiting different planets. For each planet, you will need to design a plant. Your mission is to learn what type of roots, stem, and leaves will allow your plant to survive in each environment. I will be guiding you through by giving out some hints. Formal Example: Informal Example

39 Applying Guidelines in Visual Mode Only use relevant graphics & text to communicate content (multimedia) integrate text into the graphic on the screen, slide or page (contiguity) avoid separating information that must be integrated for learning (contiguity)

40 Applying Guidelines in Visual Mode Only avoid irrelevant graphics, stories, & lengthy text (coherence) write in conversational style using first and second person (personalization)

41 Applying Guidelines in Audio & Visual Mode use relevant graphics explained by audio narration to communicate content (multimedia) maintain information the learner needs time to process in text on the screen (exception to modality principle) directions to tasks new terminology

42 Applying Guidelines in Audio & Visual Mode avoid covering or separating information that must be integrated for learning (contiguity) do not present words as both onscreen text and narration when there are graphics on the screen (redundancy)

43 Applying Guidelines in Audio & Visual Mode script audio in a conversational style using first and second person (personalization) avoid irrelevant videos, animations, music, stories, and lengthy narrations (coherence)

44 Resources for Media **MERLOT - UMUC Virtual Resource Site for Teaching with Technology CSU Center for Distributed Learning World Lecture Hall

45 The End! e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning by Ruth Colvin Clark and Richard E. Mayer. Jossey-Bass, Two copies available in SCCD Libraries at NSCC & SCCC Call number: HF1106.C


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