Unreliable Narrator “In the case of an unreliable narrator (sometimes called a fallible narrator), the reader has reason not to trust what the narrator is saying. The narrator may be unreliable for many reasons. Some of the typical scenarios are: The narrator may be of a dramatically different age than the people in the story, such as a child attempting to explain adult actions The narrator may have prejudices about race, class or gender The narrator may have low intelligence The narrator may suffer from hallucinations or dementia (as with the narrator in “The Tell-Tale Heart” The narrator may have a personality flaw such as pathological lying or narcissism The narrator may be trying to make a point that is contrary to the actions of the story or be attempting to libel one of the characters due to a grudge
Tone TONE describes the author’s attitude toward his/her subject. The attitude may be stated in so many words or implied. Diction is a key to tone. Tones can be formal or informal (among other things):
Mood MOOD is the situation's atmosphere or characters' feelings: CalmCheerfulChillingComicalDark DepressingDismalEerieFancifulForeboding GloomyGrimGrotesqueHeart- breaking Heartrending HolyHopefulHorrificIntenseJoyful LightLightheartedMelancholicMorbidMournful MysteriousOminousOptimisticPessimisticPowerful RomanticSadSinisterSoothingSorrowful SpiritualSpookyTerrifyingThreateningTranquil Whimsical
Verbal Irony Sarcasm, Satire, Understatement SATIRE The use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues. The use of words that mean the opposite of what you really want to say especially in order to insult someone, to show irritation, or to be funny The presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is.
Figurative Language Hyperbole Metaphor Simile Idiom