Presentation on theme: "Welcome to class… What are the 3 branches of the national government? What is the main job of each branch? What rights does the Declaration of Independence."— Presentation transcript:
1Welcome to class…What are the 3 branches of the national government? What is the main job of each branch?What rights does the Declaration of Independence think we all have?What rights are listed in the Bill of Rights?
2Sections of the NC Constitution PreambleDeclaration of RightsOutline of the framework of governmentListing powers & responsibilities of the stateRules for local governmentsDetails on how to amend the constitution
3NC Constitution US Constitution Preamble: “We the people of the State of NC”Declaration of Rights: 25 guarantees of freedom & principles which the Constitution is based (life, liberty, enjoyment of fruits of labor, & pursuit of happiness)Preamble: “We the People of the US”Bill of Rights: 10 guarantees of freedomDeclaration of Independence: principles which the Constitution is based upon (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness)
4Key PrinciplesPopular sovereignty: the people have the right to rule & are the source of powerSeparation of powers: divides government power into 3 branchesChecks and balances: each branch has some kind of control over the other branchExample?
5Purposes of the NC Constitution 1. to protect the rights of the individual from state power2. to provide a framework of government for the state
6Amendments: 1971 Constitution Prohibiting all poll taxes.Creating a state income tax to be computed on the same basis as the federal income taxAllowing the Governor to serve two consecutive terms (previously, office holders were limited to one term).Requiring the state run a balanced budget.Requiring judges to be lawyers.Giving the Governor the veto power
7Equal ProtectionThe 14th Amendment to the US Constitution defines a citizen as anyone born or naturalize in the US (ensured former slaves’ citizenship)It also requires every state to grant each citizen “equal protection of the laws” (to be treated the same way under the law)Article I, Section 19 of the NC Constitution guarantees this equal protection and outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national originWhich groups were left out of this equal protection?
8NC Legislative Branch Official name is the General Assembly Bicameral (2 houses), made of both the House of Representatives and the SenateHow many members in each house?Senate: 50 membersHouse of Representatives: 120 members
9The General AssemblyMembers of the General Assembly are elected from legislative districts of relatively equal population.Both state senators and state house members serve 2 year termsThere are no term limits for members of the General Assembly
10QualificationsEligibility for the NC house: 21 years old and must have lived in the district for at least 1 yearEligibility for the NC senate: 25 years old; must have lived in NC for at least 2 years and in the district for at least 1 year.
11Leadership in the General Assembly Leadership of the NC house: elects a Speaker that presides over the House and makes key appointmentsLeadership of the NC senate: elects a president pro tempore who presides over the Senate and makes key appointmentsLieutenant Governor: president of the Senate, but only votes if there is a tie
12Legislative SessionsThe General Assembly meets in the legislative building in RaleighIn even-numbered years, they meet for a “short session”, which begins in May and usually only lasts 6 weeksIn odd-numbered years, they meet for a “long session”, from Jan-JuneThey may also meet for special sessions if called by the Governor
13Lawmaking & Other Duties The General Assembly makes 2 types of lawsgeneral statutes: laws that apply statewidespecial laws: apply only to specific counties or citiesThe General Assembly also provideslegislative oversight: reviewing government operationselect members of the University of North Carolina Board of Governorsimpeaching & trying judges and members of the Council of State
14How a Bill Becomes a LawAnyone can draft a bill, but a member of the General Assembly must introduce the bill.After the bill is introduced, it is assigned to a committee to be studied and revisedIf it passes through the committee, it is recommended to the floor of either the Senate or the House for debate.If the bill is passed in one house, it goes to the other house
15If the other house changes the bill, then a conference committee resolves the difference between the versions of the bill.Then, the bill must be signed by the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the SenateFinally, the bill must signed by the Governor for it to become a law.The General Assembly can override the veto with a 60% vote for the bill
16NC Executive Branch Head/Chief Executive: the Governor Serves 4 year termsCan serve only 2 consecutive termsAfter 2 terms, can sit out for a term, and then run againGovernor Jim Hunt served a total of 4 terms
17Governor’s Responsibilities 1. appoints key state officials2. coordinates the work of most state agencies3. administers the state budget4. proposes a state budget and other legislation5. grants pardonsWhat is this?6. represents North Carolina when dealing with other states and the federal government
18QualificationsQualifications for Governor: 30 years old, a US citizen for at least 5 years, and resident of NC for at least 2 years (immediately prior to election)Lieutenant Governor: 4 year terms; same qualifications as Governor because automatically succeeds governor if something happens to the Governor
19Lieutenant GovernorServes as president of the state senate and serves on various commissions or boardsSometimes works closely with the Governor, but not alwaysThe Governor & Lieutenant Governor run for office separately, so they can be from different political partiesUnlike the President & VP
20Council of StateVoters of NC also elect the heads of 8 state agencies. These state executives are called the Council of State4 year terms; unlimited # of termsEach Council of State agency head is responsible for deciding how to carry out the programs of the General Assembly assigned to that department.Each member has a specific area of responsibility (almost like the President’s cabinet), but they are completely independent of the governor
21Governor & Council of State Relationship Positive effects: allows voters more choice; can elect people who may share their views on specific issues such as education, agriculture, etc, rather than having to elect 1 personNegative effects: can lead to an uncoordinated state government; voters may not know enough about the agencies to make an informed choice
22NC Judicial Branch Trial Courts: closest to the people of NC District Courts: handle civil cases (disputes) less than $10,000 and minor crimes (misdemeanors)Superior Courts: handle civil cases more than $10,000 and major crimes (felonies)Those found guilty of misdemeanors (minor crimes) in a district court can request another trial in a Superior Court.The voters of each district elect judges for 4 year terms.
23Other Judicial Officers Clerk of superior court: establish validity of wills and conduct sale of property to pay an owner’s debts (foreclosure)Magistrate: issue warrantsDistrict Attorney: represent the state in all criminal casesPublic Defender: lawyer appointed by NC for people who cannot pay for one
24Higher NC CourtsAppellate Courts: hear disputes about whether the decision of a trial court should be overturnedNC Court of Appeals voters elect 15 appeals court judges. They hear the cases in groups of three. 2 of the 3 judges must agree to the decision.NC Supreme Court: interprets the NC Constitution and NC laws
25NC Supreme CourtVoters elect the chief justice and 6 associate justices for an 8-year term.Also hears appeals of all cases involving the death penaltyA majority of the 7 justices must agree to a decision.Their decisions are final, unless there is an issue involving the US Constitution, then it is appealed to the US Supreme Court
26US Govt NC Govt Congress House of Reps & Senate PresidentFederal Courts:1. district 2. appeals 3. Supreme CourtGeneral Assembly House of Reps & SenateGovernor & Council of StateState Courts:1. district 2. superior 3. appeals 4. NC Supreme CourtLEGISLATIVEEXECUTIVEJUDICIAL