Presentation on theme: "10s & 18s History By Kevin Shrive. What Are 10s & 18s 10s List of orders to keep firefighters safe When followed injuries should be avoided Have changed."— Presentation transcript:
10s & 18s History By Kevin Shrive
What Are 10s & 18s 10s List of orders to keep firefighters safe When followed injuries should be avoided Have changed over the last 50 years Deliberate and sequential way to be implemented and applied to all fires
What Are 10s & 18s 18s List that shout watch out More specific and cautionary Created after the 10s Created to help keep fire fighters thinking
History Developed by the USDA- Forest Service Created after the Inaja Fire ( 11 perished ) Task force formed in 1957 Lead by Chief Richard E. McArdle Reviewed 20 tragic fires that occurred from Focused on 5 fires where 10 or more firefighters were killed at once EG: Mann Gulch, Inaja 18 watch out situations established shortly after
What did they change 1930s – 1950s Heroes were publicly praised Failures were also publicly singled out Praise and blame approach eventually considered unfair: same action praised in one situation is criticized in another Many called for standardization
10s or FIRE ORDERS? Initially called the 10s, they were made in sequential order. Memory and reaction times ( human factor) not well understood. Turned into FIRE ORDERS after the US armed forces General orders Easier for people to remember Have recently been switched back to the 10s
So what are the 10s Original Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts Know what your fire is doing at all times – observe personally, use scouts. Base all actions on current and expected behavior of fire Have escape routed for everyone and make them known Post a lookout when there is possible danger Be alert, keep calm, think clearly, Act decisively Maintain prompt communication with your men, boss, and adjoining forces Give clear instructions and be sure they are understood Maintain control of your men at all times Fight fire aggressively but provide for safety first. FIRE ORDERS Fight fire aggressively but provide for safety first Initiate all action based on current and expected fire behavior Recognize current weather conditions and obtain forecasts Ensure instructions are given and understood Obtain current information on fire status Remain in communication with crew members, your supervisor, and adjoining forces Determine safety zones and escape routes Establish lookouts in potentially hazardous situations Retain Control at all times Stay alert, keep calm, think clearly and act decisively
So how do they work In the original 10s you can recognize what are needs improvement EX: failures in standard orders 1-3 might indicate need for training in fire behavior or the failure of standard orders 8 and 9 might indicate need for intensive foremanship training 1-3 refers to fire behavior 4-6 refers to fire line safety 7-9 refers to organizational control
How about the 18s Designed shortly after the 10s were established Give specific situation that should shout watch out Sequentially in order from arrival to a fire to the end Have not changed in the last 50 years Keeps fire fighters thinking
The 18s Fire not scouted and sized up. In country not seen in daylight. Safety zones and escape routes not identified. Unfamiliar with weather and local factors influencing fire behavior. Uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards. Instructions and assignments not clear. No communication link with crewmembers/supervisors. Constructing line without safe anchor point. Building fireline downhill with fire below. Attempting frontal assault on fire. Unburned fuel between you and the fire. Cannot see main fire, not in contact with anyone who can. On a hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel below. Weather is getting hotter and drier. Wind increases and/or changes direction. Getting frequent spot fires across line. Terrain and fuels make escape to safety zones difficult. Taking a nap near the fire line.
How Do These Affect RFD Local Fuel and topography Steep slopes Flashy Fuels Weather Dry Hot Windy ( santa anas )
How Do These Affect RFD Communication 800mhz vs. 150mhz CAL FIRE San Bernardino vs. Riverside Repeaters Resource Availability Sent On Strike Team Squadies On Your Hose Line
How LCES Was Created Paul Gleason Former Zig Zag Hotshot Superintendent Established In June 1991 Encompasses all the 10s and 18s Easy to remember Easy to continually check and recheck
Paul Gleason, June 1991 A key concept - the LCES system is identified to each firefighter prior to when it must be used. The nature of wildland fire suppression dictates continuously evaluating and, when necessary, re-establishing LCES as time and fire growth progress. These are the same items stressed in the FIRE ORDERS and "Watchout" Situations. I prefer to look at them from a "systems" point of view, that is, as being interconnected and dependent on each other. It is not only important to evaluate each one of these items individually but also together they must be evaluated as a system. For example, the best safety zone is of no value if your escape route does not offer you timely access when needed.
LCES Look Outs Communication Escape Routes Safety Zones
Lookout No only for your self but your crew Lookout(s) or scouts (roving lookouts) need to be in a position where both the objective hazard and the firefighter (s) can be seen. The whole idea is when the objective hazard becomes a danger the lookout relays the information to the firefighter so they can reposition to the safety zone.
Communication Right Radio Right Channel Clear Communication Work Of Mouth Orders and objectives Understood
Escape Routes Escape Routes are the path the firefighter takes from their current locations, exposed to the danger, to an area free from danger. Route(S) : Should always have more then one way out. Continue to update and recognize these routes as you work and terrain changes
Safety Zones Safety Zone(s) are locations where the threatened firefighter may find refuge from the danger These ARE NOT shelter deployment zones Safety zones should be constructed and planned as a location where no shelter is needed Fireline intensity and safety zone topographic location determine safety zone effectiveness