Presentation on theme: "RAHH Day 21 Agenda Goal –To understand victories of CR, the schism in CR movement, the fighting of the war in Vietnam and counter culture-new left Review."— Presentation transcript:
1 RAHH Day 21 AgendaGoal –To understand victories of CR, the schism in CR movement, the fighting of the war in Vietnam and counter culture-new leftReview Vietnam packet p 4 about how the war divided the USComplete p 7 regarding how the war in Vietnam affected the US politically and emotionally during 1968Changes in the Civil Rights Movement p 9 after 1965 – take notes on changes in the movement and successesReview Counter Culture and the New Left – p 19 complete Venn diagramReview Read reading #’s 1, 5 and 6 on pp about the New Left’s goals and proposed methodsAs you read – actively read to identify the goals, methods and tone of each reading.What is the difference between early SDS goals and methods highlighted in Reading # 1 and the later SDS goals and methods presented in Reading # 5?How did conservative America perceive members of SDS and the New Left generally?Video of counter cultureRead p 10 – Discovering Greatness in Lyndon Johnson –What is McGovern’s thesis?What evidence does he present in supportDo you agree or disagree? Present evidenceComplete p 10 – Kennedy, Johnson and the great SocietyVideo of Civil rights movement – see CR p 1
2 William F. Buckley Jr., 82, Dies; Sesquipedalian1 Spark of Right William Buckley, with his winningly capricious personality, his use of ten-dollar words and a darting tongue writers loved to compare to an anteater’s, was the popular host of one of television’s longest-running programs, “Firing Line,” and founded and shepherded the influential conservative magazine National Review.1 Sesquipedalian2 n. One who is inordinately infatuated with polysyllabic obfuscation, preferring never to employ a less complicated syntactic arrangement of descriptive words when there exists a single expressive unit that amalgamates the multiplicity of morphemes1 comprising the simpler phrase.2 Given to or characterized by the use of long words.
3 Challenges and changes in CR Movement GroupLeadersGoalsMethodsSCLCDr. Kingend discriminationend segregationgain voting rights for realNon-violent civil disobedience, marches, speeches, polite and respectfulCOREEarly SNCCJames FarmerStokely CharmichaelSit-ins, marches, freedom rides, voter registration drivesBlack PowerLater SNCCStokely Charmichael, Huey Newton, Bobby SealeEnd discrimination, equal opportunity leading to equal outcome, black political, economic and social powerMarches, protests, violence, self-defense training, political candidates, community building, education and job training programsNation of IslamElijah Muhammed, Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhanwanted separation, promoted black superiority, black pride, traditional familiesresorted to violence, religious and family training, strict community policing, self-defense, community buildingBlack PanthersHuey Newton, Bobby Sealewanted separation, promoted black superiority, black pride, equal opportunity leading to equal outcome, black political, economic and social powerviolence, self-defense training, political candidates, community building, education and job training programs
4 Challenges and changes in CR Movement 3. Malcolm X changed3. He believed that blacks were better than whites, and that whites were the evil oppressors who needed to be confronted and fought. That Blacks should be separate from whites controlling their own destinies.Malcolm changed after the Haj in April He believed in equality under Allah and while not renouncing violence, he argued for integration and working together – “ballots not bullets”
5 Challenges and changes in CR Movement 4. Charmichael’s changes5. How did SNCC differ from the Black Panthers?4. After June 17, 1966, Stokely no longer promoted integration and non-violence. After his 27th arrest, he preached fighting fire with fire and confronting the discrimination and segregation. He then joined the Black Panthers, which promoted the idea he began of Black Power. Like many young blacks, he was angered that changes in real life had not followed changes in the laws5. SNCC was a civil rights group, the BPs were a political party running pre-school programs, job training, health clinics & candidates for office6. Gains made by the Civil Rights movement:Laws were passed to end discrimination and segregation,Court cases ordered the ending of segregationMillions of blacks were registered to vote – 60% by 1968Thousands of blacks were elected into local state and federal officesBlacks appeared in more TV shows and movies, more in college,Racism became socially improper
6 US Involvement and Escalation 1 – Lyndon Johnson – President who used the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to increasingly escalate US Military action in ‘nam- Robert McNamara – Secretary of Defense who supported escalation- Dean Rusk – Secretary of State argued for escalation as part of the overall cold war containment policy- William Westmoreland was the commanding General in Vietnam who argued for more and more troops- Congress authorized the President to use any measures necessary to “take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against US forces and to prevent further aggression”- American public opinion was heavily in favor of the war for the first 3 years – politicians were generally wary about arguing against war for fear they would be labeled as soft on communism and not be reelected
7 US Involvement and Escalation US military advantages:- owned the skies with fighter and bomber aircraft- training - weaponsmedical caresupplies -more moneyVC military advantages:- owned the night - used terrorknew the terraincould easily hide in plain sightWilling to DIE
8 US Involvement and Escalation US military strategies- napalm - heavy carpet bombing- search and destroy - zippo raidswar of attrition - agent orangewinning hearts and mindsVC strategies:- ambushes - booby trapssnipers - punji pitshit and run - suicide bombingsWilling to DIE
9 US Involvement and Escalation The US Economy –inflation went up,taxes went upMoney for the GreatSociety decreasedTelevision – the Vietnam war has been referred to as the living room war because the nightly news showed us images from the war – and in many cases grisly images of death and destructionThe Fulbright Hearings – Senator Fulbright’s committee investigated the war effort, in the course of which the truthfulness of government officials was questioned. Began an increasing feeling of unease with the war.
10 A Nation Divided Avoiding the War Ran away to Canada, Sweden Medical deferment (4F) using sympathetic doctors to make diagnoses that the “patient” was not healthy enough for combatGoing to college and maintaining good gradesBurning draft cards and moving constantly to keep ahead of the local draft boardsRefusing to register for the draftJoin the national guard‘Nam was seen as working class because the easiest way to defer draft selection was to stay a student or to move, both of which took money that most working class kids did not have.
11 A Nation Divided Opposing the War 3. Any of the liberal groups opposed the war: NAACP, SDS, SCLC, SNCC, Black Panthers, the Weather Underground, and other student and civil rights groups. While a higher percentage of young people were not opposed to the war than the older people, the most vocal opponents of the war were young students.The war was quite popular at first, with over 60% of Americans in favor of it. Up until 1968, the percentage of people in favor of the war was much higher than those opposed.By the end of the war, the majority opposed the war , not because it was immoral but because they thought it was a mistake.4. Doves opposed the war for many reasons: Johnson in 1968 changed the draft rules to get more students into the war, the government seemed to not be telling the truth, many civilian were hurt, it was not our business, it was immoral to fight wars, it was too costly in men and money that could be better spent at home on the poor.5. They protested, burned draft cards, wrote letters, ran away, some became militant and sabotaged troop trains
12 A Nation Divided Defending the War 6. Prior to 1968, US public was fairly strongly in favor of the war in Vietnam. Over 62% responded to a Gallup poll that they were in favor in a poll taken in January of Only 28% were opposed.After the Tet Offensive by the Viet Cong and NVA against US and ARVN positions, US public support for the war declined to 40% for and 42% opposed.7. Hawks criticized Johnson for not doing enough to win the war. To many limitations on bombing targets, too many limits on where US forces could go and what they could attack. Not enough military might brought on North Vietnam. Fighting a limited war is fighting to not lose, rather than fighting to win.
14 Arguments for and Against War US committed to defend South Vietnam – Us must keep its promisesDomino theory – US needs to contain communsimOther nations count on US for defense, if we give up in ‘Nam then US influence in the world will be weakened.Aggression and threats to world peace need to be stopped or another Nazi Germany will ariseSpread of anti-American thinking threatens US security and interstsAgainstDraft is bad and unequalOur ally cannot win so we cannot winMisleading reasons for starting and continuing warThe US should not be involved in a civil warWe cannot win a war against suicidal enemiesThe war is too costly in terms of men and moneyIf we enter, the war could spread to other countriesThe methods are immoral and civilians die
15 Johnson’s poor showing in NH Primary 1968 a Tumultuous YearTet OffensiveCausesViet Cong wanted to make a major push against the Americans because the VC had been weakenedTet had always been a time of ceas-fire, so a perfect time for a sneak attackEffectsViet Cong was seriously weakenedNo towns, bases or cities were kept by the Viet CongUs people began to think we could not winPres. Johnson decides not to seek reelection after his near loss in the NH primaryBeginning of Vietnamization - deescalationJohnson’s poor showing in NH PrimaryCausesApparent military loss during TetLoss of popularity due to warMcCarthy’s appeal to the young and vocal anti-war crowdEffectsJohnson decides to drop out of raceRobert Kennedy enters raceHubert Humphrey enters race as Johnson surrogate
17 Disorder at Democratic National Convention 1968 a Tumultuous YearAssassination of RFKCausesRFK was a supporter of Israel after ’67 6-Day WarSirhan Sirhan was a Palestinian who disliked Israel and its supportersEffectsNo clear winner at the Democratic National Convention with his delegates unassignedMcCarthy closes in on HumphreyDNC is very messyDisorder at Democratic National ConventionCausesTwo-way race after front runner RFK is killedWar in VietnamUnpopularity of Johnson10,000 anti-war protestors outside conventionWillingness of Chicago police to use forceEffectsDemocrats look very weakDemocrats look to be incapable of running the country if they are incapable of running their own conventionHumphrey is a weakened candidate against Nixon
18 1968 a Tumultuous Year Election of Nixon Causes Disorder at DNC Appeal to Silent Majority and the Southern strategy of attracting conservative southern DemocratsLawlessness and disorder in societyEntry of George Wallace to get many southern Democrat votesEffects
19 Culture and counterculture p 17 participantsBeliefs about American societyGoals for societyMovement centersAttitudes & activitiesViolenceImpact on artsImpact on musicLongterm impactYoung middle class white and educated – called hippiesCold, conformist, materialist, cruel and selfishPeace, harmony, tolerance, self-awareness, idealistic, less materialSan Francisco haight-ashbury, NYC – Greenwich VillageRock’n’Roll, drugs, communes, weird cloths, beards, sexDrug OD’s, Stones concert, MansonPop Art, Jeans, Music, Color, CasualRock, Hendrix, Beatles, WoodstockSex, casual, conservative backlash, Nixon, permissive and tolerant
20 Issues at the Root of 60-’s Activism Social IssuesConformityConservatismMaterialismMoralismPolitical IssuesInjusticeRacismDiscriminationPovertyWar in ‘NamClose ties b/t business and schoolsdraft
21 New Left v Counter-culture New Left – a political movementChange gov’t to be more liberal to help poor, minorities, cities, women to improve their livesMotivate activist grass-roots political action to improve schools, neighborhoods, community servicesEnd draft and war in ‘NamLimit business and gov’t influence in univerisitiesCivil rightsCounter-culture – a social movementChange society from materialism, conformity and intoleranceDecrease closed-mindedness, injustice, racism, sexismDrugs, sex, rock ’n roll, communal, “freaky” long hair, beards, clothes, no bras
22 New Left v Counter-culture Major difference –organized political movement versus social movementAmerican mainstream and conservative responseThe Conservative response to these two leftist-like movements was one of anger and disapproval.Conservatives got support from mainstream Americans because the reality was that most Americans were not in favor of the activist, militant methods of the New Left, nor were most Americans supporters of the way of life promoted by the counter-culture. Most Americans, even in 1969 were quietly trying to live the American Dream.President Nixon referred to these mainstream Americans, those trying to live the American dream as the non-shouters, the non-demonstrators, the SILENT MAJORITY. It is these who brought Nixon the the presidency