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RAHH Day 21 Agenda Goal –To understand victories of CR, the schism in CR movement, the fighting of the war in Vietnam and counter culture-new left Review.

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Presentation on theme: "RAHH Day 21 Agenda Goal –To understand victories of CR, the schism in CR movement, the fighting of the war in Vietnam and counter culture-new left Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 RAHH Day 21 Agenda Goal –To understand victories of CR, the schism in CR movement, the fighting of the war in Vietnam and counter culture-new left Review Vietnam packet p 4 about how the war divided the US Complete p 7 regarding how the war in Vietnam affected the US politically and emotionally during 1968 Changes in the Civil Rights Movement p 9 after 1965 – take notes on changes in the movement and successes Review Counter Culture and the New Left – p 19 complete Venn diagram Review Read reading #’s 1, 5 and 6 on pp about the New Left’s goals and proposed methods As you read – actively read to identify the goals, methods and tone of each reading. What is the difference between early SDS goals and methods highlighted in Reading # 1 and the later SDS goals and methods presented in Reading # 5? How did conservative America perceive members of SDS and the New Left generally? Video of counter culture Read p 10 – Discovering Greatness in Lyndon Johnson – What is McGovern’s thesis? What evidence does he present in support Do you agree or disagree? Present evidence Complete p 10 – Kennedy, Johnson and the great Society Video of Civil rights movement – see CR p 1

2 William F. Buckley Jr., 82, Dies; Sesquipedalian1 Spark of Right
William Buckley, with his winningly capricious personality, his use of ten-dollar words and a darting tongue writers loved to compare to an anteater’s, was the popular host of one of television’s longest-running programs, “Firing Line,” and founded and shepherded the influential conservative magazine National Review. 1 Sesquipedalian2 n. One who is inordinately infatuated with polysyllabic obfuscation, preferring never to employ a less complicated syntactic arrangement of descriptive words when there exists a single expressive unit that amalgamates the multiplicity of morphemes1 comprising the simpler phrase. 2 Given to or characterized by the use of long words.

3 Challenges and changes in CR Movement
Group Leaders Goals Methods SCLC Dr. King end discrimination end segregation gain voting rights for real Non-violent civil disobedience, marches, speeches, polite and respectful CORE Early SNCC James Farmer Stokely Charmichael Sit-ins, marches, freedom rides, voter registration drives Black Power Later SNCC Stokely Charmichael, Huey Newton, Bobby Seale End discrimination, equal opportunity leading to equal outcome, black political, economic and social power Marches, protests, violence, self-defense training, political candidates, community building, education and job training programs Nation of Islam Elijah Muhammed, Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhan wanted separation, promoted black superiority, black pride, traditional families resorted to violence, religious and family training, strict community policing, self-defense, community building Black Panthers Huey Newton, Bobby Seale wanted separation, promoted black superiority, black pride, equal opportunity leading to equal outcome, black political, economic and social power violence, self-defense training, political candidates, community building, education and job training programs

4 Challenges and changes in CR Movement
3. Malcolm X changed 3. He believed that blacks were better than whites, and that whites were the evil oppressors who needed to be confronted and fought. That Blacks should be separate from whites controlling their own destinies. Malcolm changed after the Haj in April He believed in equality under Allah and while not renouncing violence, he argued for integration and working together – “ballots not bullets”

5 Challenges and changes in CR Movement
4. Charmichael’s changes 5. How did SNCC differ from the Black Panthers? 4. After June 17, 1966, Stokely no longer promoted integration and non-violence. After his 27th arrest, he preached fighting fire with fire and confronting the discrimination and segregation. He then joined the Black Panthers, which promoted the idea he began of Black Power. Like many young blacks, he was angered that changes in real life had not followed changes in the laws 5. SNCC was a civil rights group, the BPs were a political party running pre-school programs, job training, health clinics & candidates for office 6. Gains made by the Civil Rights movement: Laws were passed to end discrimination and segregation, Court cases ordered the ending of segregation Millions of blacks were registered to vote – 60% by 1968 Thousands of blacks were elected into local state and federal offices Blacks appeared in more TV shows and movies, more in college, Racism became socially improper

6 US Involvement and Escalation
1 – Lyndon Johnson – President who used the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to increasingly escalate US Military action in ‘nam - Robert McNamara – Secretary of Defense who supported escalation - Dean Rusk – Secretary of State argued for escalation as part of the overall cold war containment policy - William Westmoreland was the commanding General in Vietnam who argued for more and more troops - Congress authorized the President to use any measures necessary to “take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against US forces and to prevent further aggression” - American public opinion was heavily in favor of the war for the first 3 years – politicians were generally wary about arguing against war for fear they would be labeled as soft on communism and not be reelected

7 US Involvement and Escalation
US military advantages: - owned the skies with fighter and bomber aircraft - training - weapons medical care supplies -more money VC military advantages: - owned the night - used terror knew the terrain could easily hide in plain sight Willing to DIE

8 US Involvement and Escalation
US military strategies - napalm - heavy carpet bombing - search and destroy - zippo raids war of attrition - agent orange winning hearts and minds VC strategies: - ambushes - booby traps snipers - punji pits hit and run - suicide bombings Willing to DIE

9 US Involvement and Escalation
The US Economy – inflation went up, taxes went up Money for the Great Society decreased Television – the Vietnam war has been referred to as the living room war because the nightly news showed us images from the war – and in many cases grisly images of death and destruction The Fulbright Hearings – Senator Fulbright’s committee investigated the war effort, in the course of which the truthfulness of government officials was questioned. Began an increasing feeling of unease with the war.

10 A Nation Divided Avoiding the War Ran away to Canada, Sweden
Medical deferment (4F) using sympathetic doctors to make diagnoses that the “patient” was not healthy enough for combat Going to college and maintaining good grades Burning draft cards and moving constantly to keep ahead of the local draft boards Refusing to register for the draft Join the national guard ‘Nam was seen as working class because the easiest way to defer draft selection was to stay a student or to move, both of which took money that most working class kids did not have.

11 A Nation Divided Opposing the War
3. Any of the liberal groups opposed the war: NAACP, SDS, SCLC, SNCC, Black Panthers, the Weather Underground, and other student and civil rights groups. While a higher percentage of young people were not opposed to the war than the older people, the most vocal opponents of the war were young students. The war was quite popular at first, with over 60% of Americans in favor of it. Up until 1968, the percentage of people in favor of the war was much higher than those opposed. By the end of the war, the majority opposed the war , not because it was immoral but because they thought it was a mistake. 4. Doves opposed the war for many reasons: Johnson in 1968 changed the draft rules to get more students into the war, the government seemed to not be telling the truth, many civilian were hurt, it was not our business, it was immoral to fight wars, it was too costly in men and money that could be better spent at home on the poor. 5. They protested, burned draft cards, wrote letters, ran away, some became militant and sabotaged troop trains

12 A Nation Divided Defending the War
6. Prior to 1968, US public was fairly strongly in favor of the war in Vietnam. Over 62% responded to a Gallup poll that they were in favor in a poll taken in January of Only 28% were opposed. After the Tet Offensive by the Viet Cong and NVA against US and ARVN positions, US public support for the war declined to 40% for and 42% opposed. 7. Hawks criticized Johnson for not doing enough to win the war. To many limitations on bombing targets, too many limits on where US forces could go and what they could attack. Not enough military might brought on North Vietnam. Fighting a limited war is fighting to not lose, rather than fighting to win.

13 Public opinion of War in Vietnam

14 Arguments for and Against War
US committed to defend South Vietnam – Us must keep its promises Domino theory – US needs to contain communsim Other nations count on US for defense, if we give up in ‘Nam then US influence in the world will be weakened. Aggression and threats to world peace need to be stopped or another Nazi Germany will arise Spread of anti-American thinking threatens US security and intersts Against Draft is bad and unequal Our ally cannot win so we cannot win Misleading reasons for starting and continuing war The US should not be involved in a civil war We cannot win a war against suicidal enemies The war is too costly in terms of men and money If we enter, the war could spread to other countries The methods are immoral and civilians die

15 Johnson’s poor showing in NH Primary
1968 a Tumultuous Year Tet Offensive Causes Viet Cong wanted to make a major push against the Americans because the VC had been weakened Tet had always been a time of ceas-fire, so a perfect time for a sneak attack Effects Viet Cong was seriously weakened No towns, bases or cities were kept by the Viet Cong Us people began to think we could not win Pres. Johnson decides not to seek reelection after his near loss in the NH primary Beginning of Vietnamization - deescalation Johnson’s poor showing in NH Primary Causes Apparent military loss during Tet Loss of popularity due to war McCarthy’s appeal to the young and vocal anti-war crowd Effects Johnson decides to drop out of race Robert Kennedy enters race Hubert Humphrey enters race as Johnson surrogate

16 The Tet Offensive, January 1968

17 Disorder at Democratic National Convention
1968 a Tumultuous Year Assassination of RFK Causes RFK was a supporter of Israel after ’67 6-Day War Sirhan Sirhan was a Palestinian who disliked Israel and its supporters Effects No clear winner at the Democratic National Convention with his delegates unassigned McCarthy closes in on Humphrey DNC is very messy Disorder at Democratic National Convention Causes Two-way race after front runner RFK is killed War in Vietnam Unpopularity of Johnson 10,000 anti-war protestors outside convention Willingness of Chicago police to use force Effects Democrats look very weak Democrats look to be incapable of running the country if they are incapable of running their own convention Humphrey is a weakened candidate against Nixon

18 1968 a Tumultuous Year Election of Nixon Causes Disorder at DNC
Appeal to Silent Majority and the Southern strategy of attracting conservative southern Democrats Lawlessness and disorder in society Entry of George Wallace to get many southern Democrat votes Effects

19 Culture and counterculture p 17
participants Beliefs about American society Goals for society Movement centers Attitudes & activities Violence Impact on arts Impact on music Longterm impact Young middle class white and educated – called hippies Cold, conformist, materialist, cruel and selfish Peace, harmony, tolerance, self-awareness, idealistic, less material San Francisco haight-ashbury, NYC – Greenwich Village Rock’n’Roll, drugs, communes, weird cloths, beards, sex Drug OD’s, Stones concert, Manson Pop Art, Jeans, Music, Color, Casual Rock, Hendrix, Beatles, Woodstock Sex, casual, conservative backlash, Nixon, permissive and tolerant

20 Issues at the Root of 60-’s Activism
Social Issues Conformity Conservatism Materialism Moralism Political Issues Injustice Racism Discrimination Poverty War in ‘Nam Close ties b/t business and schools draft

21 New Left v Counter-culture
New Left – a political movement Change gov’t to be more liberal to help poor, minorities, cities, women to improve their lives Motivate activist grass-roots political action to improve schools, neighborhoods, community services End draft and war in ‘Nam Limit business and gov’t influence in univerisities Civil rights Counter-culture – a social movement Change society from materialism, conformity and intolerance Decrease closed-mindedness, injustice, racism, sexism Drugs, sex, rock ’n roll, communal, “freaky” long hair, beards, clothes, no bras

22 New Left v Counter-culture
Major difference –organized political movement versus social movement American mainstream and conservative response The Conservative response to these two leftist-like movements was one of anger and disapproval. Conservatives got support from mainstream Americans because the reality was that most Americans were not in favor of the activist, militant methods of the New Left, nor were most Americans supporters of the way of life promoted by the counter-culture. Most Americans, even in 1969 were quietly trying to live the American Dream. President Nixon referred to these mainstream Americans, those trying to live the American dream as the non-shouters, the non-demonstrators, the SILENT MAJORITY. It is these who brought Nixon the the presidency

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