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Chapter Three: Settling the Northern Colonies ( )

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1 Chapter Three: Settling the Northern Colonies (1619-1700)

2 The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
In 1517, Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg cathedral. He ignited the Protestant Reformation. John Calvin preached Calvinism Basic doctrines were stated in the 1536 document entitled Institutes of the Christian Religion. Stated that all humans were weak and wicked. Only the predestined could go to heaven, no matter what. Calvinists were expected to seek “conversions,” signs that they were one of the predestined, and afterwards, lead “sanctified lives.” German friar Martin Luther denounced the authority of the priests and popes when he nailed his protests against Catholic doctrines to the door of Wittenberg's cathedral in 1517.  He declared that the Bible alone was the source of God's words.  He started the "Protestant Reformation." John Calvin of Geneva elaborated Martin Luther's ideas.  He spelled out his basic doctrine in Latin in 1536, entitled Institutes of the Christian Religion.  These ideas formed Calvinism.  When King Henry VIII broke his ties with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, he formed the Protestant Church.  There were a few people who wanted to see the process of taking Catholicism out of England occur more quickly.  These people were called Puritans. A tiny group of Puritans, called Separatists, broke away from the Church of England.  Fearing that his subjects would defy him both as their political leader and spiritual leader, King James I, the head of state of England and head of the church from , threatened to harass the more bothersome the Separatists out of the land. p43

3 The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
In England, King Henry VIII breaks his ties with the Holy Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s. Puritans All believed that only “visible saints” should be admitted to church membership. Separatists vowed to break away from the Church of England because the “saints” would have to sit with the “damned.” King James I, saw them as a threat. German friar Martin Luther denounced the authority of the priests and popes when he nailed his protests against Catholic doctrines to the door of Wittenberg's cathedral in 1517.  He declared that the Bible alone was the source of God's words.  He started the "Protestant Reformation." John Calvin of Geneva elaborated Martin Luther's ideas.  He spelled out his basic doctrine in Latin in 1536, entitled Institutes of the Christian Religion.  These ideas formed Calvinism.  When King Henry VIII broke his ties with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, he formed the Protestant Church.  There were a few people who wanted to see the process of taking Catholicism out of England occur more quickly.  These people were called Puritans. A tiny group of Puritans, called Separatists, broke away from the Church of England.  Fearing that his subjects would defy him both as their political leader and spiritual leader, King James I, the head of state of England and head of the church from , threatened to harass the more bothersome the Separatists out of the land. p44

4 The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
The Voyage The Separatists that left England for Holland. Why did they leave?? After negotiating with the Virginia Company, the Separatists left Holland and sailed for 65 days at sea on the Mayflower Were they off course?? The Pilgrims became squatters Captain Myles Standish (a.k.a. Captain Shrimp) proved to be a great Indian fighter and negotiator. Truth about the rock The Voyage The Separatists that left were from Holland, where they had fled to after they had left England. They were concerned that their children were getting to “Dutchified.” They wanted a place where they were free to worship their own religion and could live and die as good Puritans. After negotiating with the Virginia Company, the Separatists left Holland and sailed for 65 days at sea on the Mayflower until they arrived off the rocky coast of New England in 1620, a trip in which only one person died and one person was born. Less than half of the pilgrims on the Mayflower were actually Separatists. Contrary to myth, the Pilgrims undertook a few surveys before deciding to settle at Plymouth, an area far from Virginia. The Pilgrims became squatters, people without legal right to land and without specific authority to establish government. Captain Myles Standish (a.k.a. Captain Shrimp) proved to be a great Indian fighter and negotiator.Captain Myles Standish (c – October 3, 1656), (sometimes spelled Miles Standish) was an English born military officer hired by the Pilgrims as military advisor for Plymouth colony. Arriving on the Mayflower, he worked on colonial defense. On February 17, 1621, he was appointed the first commander of Plymouth colony. Later, he served as Plymouth's representative in England, and served as assistant governor and as the colony's treasurer. He was also one of the founders of the town of Duxbury, Massachusetts (named after his ancestral seat at Duxbury Woods, Chorley) in In January 2008 in Chorley a new road was opened called the Myles Standish Way and sometime this year or next year a Myles Standish visitor centre will be opened in Chorley. Standish is often remembered for his bravery in battle and his reputation as the military captain of the Pilgrims, as well as a character in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's fictitious poem The Courtship of Miles Standish. The former Fort Standish, located on Lovell's Island, Massachusetts, was named in his honor, as well as the town of Standish, Maine. p44

5 Sources of Puritan Migration
The Great Migration may refer to the Winthrop Fleet of 1630, wherein eleven ships delivered 1,000 passengers migrating from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It may refer more generally to the Puritan migration of approximately 40,000 English refugees to what is now the Northeastern United States, the Chesapeake Bay area, and the Caribbean during the 1630s. This greatly increased the (European) population of North America, which is why it is called the "Great Migration". Many Puritans migrated from England to North America during the 1620s to the 1640s due to belief that the Church of England was beyond reform. However, most Puritans in England and New England were non-separatists. They continued to profess allegiance to the Church of England despite their dissent with leadership and practices. Most of the Puritans who emigrated settled in the New England region. However, the Great Migration of Puritans was relatively short-lived and not as large as believed.[1] It began in earnest in 1629 with the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and ended in 1642 when King Charles I effectively shut off emigration to the colonies with the start of the English Civil War. From 1629 through 1643 approximately 21,000 Puritans emigrated to New England. [2] This is actually far less than the number of English citizens who emigrated to Ireland, Canada, and the Caribbean during this time. Emigration resumed under the rule of Oliver Cromwell, but not in large numbers as there was no longer any need to "escape persecution." Many Puritans returned to England during the war. "In 1641, when the English Civil War began, some immigrants returned to fight on the Puritan side, and when the Puritans won, many resumed English life under Oliver Cromwell's more congenial Puritan sway."[3]

6 The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
Before disembarking from the Mayflower, the Pilgrim leaders drew up and signed the Mayflower Compact.  It was the first attempt at a government in America. In the Pilgrims' first winter of , only 44 of the 102 survived. In 1621, there was the first Thanksgiving Day in New England. William Bradford- elected 30 times as governor of the Pilgrims in the annual elections; a self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Dutch; Pilgrim leader. Signing of the Mayflower Compact, a painting by Edward Percy Moran, which hangs at the Pilgrim Hall MuseumShifting alignments of the European powers (due to religious differences, struggles over the monarchies and intrigues within the ruling Habsburg clan) caused the Dutch government to fear war with Catholic Spain, and to become allied with James I of England. Social pressure (and even attacks) on the separatists increased in the Netherlands. Their congregation's leader, John Robinson, supported the emerging idea of starting a colony. Bradford was in the midst of this venture from the beginning. The separatists wanted to remain Englishmen (although living in the Netherlands), yet wanted to get far enough away from the Church of England and the government to have some chance of living in peace. Arrangements were made, and William with his wife sailed for America in 1620 from Leiden aboard the Mayflower. The first winter in the new colony was a terrible experience. Half the colonists perished, including the colony's leader, John Carver. Bradford was selected as his replacement on the spring of From this point, his story is inextricably linked with the history of the Plymouth Colony. William Bradford (March 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657) was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected thirty times to be the Governor after John Carver died. He was the second signer and primary architect of the Mayflower Compact in Provincetown Harbor. His journal (1620–47), published as Of Plymouth Plantation. Bradford is credited as the first to proclaim what popular American culture now views as the first Thanksgiving. The Manor House, Austerfield, Yorkshire - birthplace of William BradfordHe was the son of William Bradford and was born on March 19, 1590 near Doncaster, in Austerfield, Yorkshire. At an early age, he was attracted to the "primitive" congregational church, in nearby Scrooby, and became a committed member of what was termed a "Separatist" church, since the church-members had wanted to separate from the Church of England. By contrast, the Puritans wanted to purify the Church of England. The Separatists instead felt the Church was beyond redemption due to unbiblical doctrines and teachings. When James I began to persecute Separatists in 1609, Bradford fled to the Netherlands, along with many members of the congregation. These Separatists went first to Amsterdam before settling at Leiden. Bradford married his first wife, Dorothy May (d. December 7, 1620), on December 10, 1613 in Amsterdam. While at Leiden, he supported himself as a fustian weaver. William Bradford died at Plymouth, and was interred at Plymouth Burial Hill. On his Grave is etched: "qua patres difficillime adepti sunt nolite turpiter relinquere" “What our forefathers with so much difficulty secured, do not basely relinquish.”

7 vs. Pilgrims? Puritans? Mass Bay
Pilgrims, or Pilgrim Fathers (or Pilgrim Mothers), is a name commonly applied to the early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts. Their leadership came from a religious congregation who had fled a volatile political environment in the East Midlands of England for the relative calm of the Netherlands to preserve their religion. Concerned with losing their cultural identity, the group later arranged with English investors to establish a new colony in North America. The colonists faced a lengthy series of challenges, from bureaucracy, impatient investors and internal conflicts to sabotage, storms, disease, and uncertain relations with the indigenous people. The colony, established in 1620, became the second successful English settlement in what was to become the United States of America, the first being Jamestown, Virginia, which was founded in Their story has become a central theme of the history and culture of the United States A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of disparate religious groups advocating for more "purity" of worship and doctrine, as well as personal and group piety. Puritans felt that the English Reformation had not gone far enough, and that the Church of England was tolerant of practices which they associated with the church of Rome. The word "Puritan" was originally an alternate term for "Cathar" and was a pejorative used to characterize them as extremists similar to the Cathari of France. The Puritans sometimes cooperated with presbyterians, who put forth a number of proposals for "further reformation" in order to keep the Church of England more closely in line with the Reformed Churches on the Continent. Mass Bay Puritans?

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9 The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
Charles I dismissed Parliament in 1629 and sanctioned anti-Puritan persecutions. In 1629, an energetic group of non-Separatist Puritans, fearing for their faith and for England’s future, secured a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company.  (Massachusetts Bay Colony)  During the Great Migration of the 1630s, about 70,000 refugees left England for America.  Most of them were attracted to the warm and fertile West Indies, especially the sugar-rich island of Barbados. the Bay Colony’s first governor - served for 19 years. The first winter in the new colony was a terrible experience. Half the colonists perished, including the colony's leader, John Carver. Bradford was selected as his replacement on the spring of From this point, his story is inextricably linked with the history of the Plymouth Colony. William Bradford's second wife, Alice Carpenter Southworth, came to Plymouth aboard the Anne in July 1623 following the death of her first husband, Edward Southworth.[4] Governor Bradford married Carpenter on August 14, 1623 at Plymouth. Bradford and Carpenter had three children, William, Mercy, and Joseph. Alice also helped to raise John, the son of his first marriage; Alice's sons from her first marriage, Constant and Thomas, arrived in Plymouth sometime after 1627 and presumably lived with their mother and stepfather.[5] William Bradford died at Plymouth, and was interred at Plymouth Burial Hill. On his Grave is etched: "qua patres difficillime adepti sunt nolite turpiter relinquere" “What our forefathers with so much difficulty secured, do not basely relinquish.”

10 We shall be as a city on a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us.
John Winthrop Church & State Freemen/voting Government enforces God’s laws Repress “animal instincts” Protestant work ethic Massachusetts Bay Colony Royal Charter Less radical than Plymouth Bigger and more successful than Plymouth Town meetings a major influence John Winthrop ( ). john winthrop ( ) was a substantial English landowner who supported the Puritan cause. A leader in the Cambridge Agreement , he was elected Governor of the Company, and was one of ten stockholders who moved to New England. Within a year, winthrop and the other stockholders admitted 118 other Puritan church members to the status of "freemen" (i.e., stockholders or voters) of the company, with the right to meet to elect the governor, deputy governor, and council. winthrop was the most distinguished of the early Massachusetts Bay leaders; he was elected governor 12 times, and set the tone for much of its sense of religious mission into the wilderness. Like other Puritans, he hoped that the example of godly living in New England would be a "saving remnant" from which English society itself could be transformed. We shall be as a city on a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us.

11 Building the Bay Colony
Governor Winthrop of the Bay Colony did not like Democracy.  The freemen annually elected the governor and his assistants and a representative assembly called the General Court. Visible Saints was another name for the Puritans. John Cotton- a very devoted Puritan. Michael Wigglesworth wrote the poem, “The Day of Doom,” in 1662. John Cotton (December 4, 1585 – December 23, 1652) was a highly regarded principal among the New England Puritan ministers, who also included John Winthrop, Thomas Hooker, Increase Mather (who became his son-in-law), John Davenport, and Thomas Shepard and John Norton, who wrote his first biography. Cotton was the grandfather of Cotton Mather, who was named after him. Born in England, he was educated at Derby School, in buildings which are now the Derby Heritage Centre, and attended Cambridge University, where he also taught, and became a long-serving minister in the English town of Boston, Lincolnshire before his Puritanism and criticism of hierarchy drew the hostile attention of Church of England authorities. He is best known among other things for his initial defense of Anne Hutchinson early in her trials during the Antinomian crisis, during which she mentioned him with respect, though he turned strongly against her with the further course of the trial. He is also remembered for his role in the banishment of Roger Williams regarding the role of democracy and the separation of church and state in the Puritan theonomic society, both of which Williams tended to advocate. Cotton grew still more conservative in his views with the years but always retained the estimation of his community. Michael Wigglesworth [ ] was born in England and came to America at the age of seven. He lived in New Haven until he went to Harvard; he was graduated in 1651 and remained as a tutor for three years. He lived out the rest of his essentially uneventful life in Malden, Massachusetts, the place of the ministry to which he was appointed in A small man, he was extremely frail and weak until 1686 when, apparently, he attained an Indian summer of health. Because of his physical condition he went to Bermuda for seven months in 1663; there he began to study medicine, which had always interested him. Eventually he became a physician of the body as well as of the soul. Although his household occupied some of his leisure (he was married three times and had eight children), he took to writing in order to spread the doctrine that his frailty frequently kept him from preaching in the pulpit. The most famous result of his efforts was The Day of Doom. Although it is not the best of his verse-and although even the best is something less than true poetry-The Day of Doom deservedly remains the most famous of his works. It must be considered in a purely historical light, for it reveals the Puritan Cast in familiar, jingling ballad meter, it helped New Englanders to remember the doctrines of righteousness, and children memorized Wigglesworth's doggerel along with the catechism. The ideas seem so harsh today that some commentators have supposed erroneously that Wigglesworth was a morbid fanatic. In reality the poem merely dramatizes the abstractions that all orthodox Puritans agreed upon, and it is interesting for its disclosure of Puritan psychology as well as doctrine. Published in 1662, The Day of Doom became America's first best seller, circulating 1800 copies during the first year. It has been estimated that at one time one copy was owned for every thirty-five people in all of New England; every other family must have had The Day of Doom on its parlor table. The poem went through ten editions in the next fourteen decades, four in the seventeenth century and six in the eighteenth. In spite of its literary shortcomings, it is still the best "official" statement of the Puritan's attempt to use poetry for a plain exposition of the beliefs by which he tried to live. p47

12 Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth
Quakers were fined, flogged, and/or banished. Anne Hutchinson was a very intelligent, strong-willed, talkative woman who claimed that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man. Brought to trial in 1638, Anne boasted that her beliefs were directly from God. She was banished from the colony and eventually made her way to Rhode Island. She died in New York after an attack by Indians In 1636, Anne Hutchinson, the wife of one of Boston’s leading citizens, was charged with heresy and banished from Massachusetts Colony. A woman of learning and great religious conviction, Hutchinson challenged the Puritan clergy and asserted her view of the “Covenant of Grace” – that moral conduct and piety should not be the primary qualifications for “visible sanctification.” Her preachings were unjustly labeled “antinomianism” by the Puritans – a heresy – since the Christian leaders of that day held to a strong “Covenant of Works” teaching which dictated the need for outward signs of God’s grace. The question of “works versus grace” is a very old one; it goes on forever in a certain type of mind. Both are true doctrines, however, the “Covenant of Grace” is true in a higher sense. Anne Hutchinson’s teaching can be summed up in a simple phrase which she taught the women who met in her home: “As I do understand it, laws, commands, rules and edicts are for those who have not the light which makes plain the pathway. He who has God’s grace in his heart cannot go astray.” Actually, what Anne Hutchinson was preaching was not antithetical to what the Puritans believed at all. What began as quibbling over fine points of Christian doctrine ended as a confrontation over the role of authority in the colony. Threatened by meetings she held in her Boston home, the clergy charged Hutchinson with blasphemy. An outspoken female in a male hierarchy, Hutchinson had little hope that many would speak in her defense, and she was being tried by the General Court. After being sentenced, she went with her family to what is now Rhode Island. Several years later she moved to New York where she and some of her family were massacred by Indians. One of her descendants, Thomas Hutchinson, later became governor of Massachusetts. Anne Hutchinson pioneered the principles of civil liberty and religious freedom which were written into the Constitution of the United States. The spirit of Anne Hutchinson, the first woman preacher and fearless defender of freedom in New England, survived her persecution and death and it survives even until this day.

13 Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth
Roger Williams was a radical idealist hounded his fellow clergymen to make a clean and complete break with the Church of England. He went on to deny that civil government could and should govern religious behavior. He was banished in 1635, and flew to the Rhode Island area the next year. Roger Williams was a radical idealist hounded his fellow clergymen to make a clean and complete break with the Church of England. He went on to deny that civil government could and should govern religious behavior. He was banished in 1635, and flew to the Rhode Island area the next year. The Rhode Island “Sewer” Land of the Outcasts People who went to Rhode Island weren’t necessarily similar; they were just unwanted everywhere else. They were against special privilege. “Little Rhody” was later known as “the traditional home of the otherwise minded.” It finally secured a charter in 1644. p48

14 New England Spreads Out
In 1635, Hartford, Connecticut was founded. Reverend Thomas Hooker led an energetic group of Puritans west. In 1639, settlers of the new Connecticut River colony drafted in open meeting a trailblazing document called the Fundamental Orders. It was basically a modern constitution. In 1638, New Haven was founded and eventually merged into Connecticut. In 1623, Maine was absorbed by Massachusetts and remained so for nearly a century and a half. In 1641, the granite-ribbed New Hampshire was absorbed into Massachusetts. In 1679, the King separated the two and made New Hampshire a royal colony. Thomas Hooker (July 5, 1586 – July 7, 1647) was a prominent Puritan religious and colonial leader remembered as probably the pre-eminent founder of the Colony of Connecticut. He was born in rural Marefield, Leicestershire. After Mr. Hooker's conversion, his keenly reasoned reflections upon the meanings of Biblical passages and upon the life of a Christian helped his rise into the leadership of the Puritan movement in England. But this status as a leader in the Puritan movement would cause him to emigrate first to Holland and then to New England in 1633, on the ship Griffin, [1] to escape the persecution of Archbishop William Laud for non-conformity. He was appointed the first pastor of the church at Newetowne, Massachusetts (now Cambridge). He is attributed as being the first minister of the First Parish in Cambridge, a church that still exists in the present day. His home was on a plot of land which today is part of the yard at Harvard College. His departure from the Colony of the Massachussettes Bay (the nucleus of the present-day Commonwealth of Massachusetts) was one of the key events leading to the creation of the Colony of Connecticut (the nucleus of the present-day State of the same name). In 1635, he was appointed by the General Court of Massachusetts to try to persuade his friend Roger Williams to give up his controversial views. Williams took part in a public debate, but Williams refused to change his opinions. In 1636, Thomas Hooker led 100 of his congregation west to found the new English settlement at Hartford, Connecticut. One of the reasons he left Massachusetts was his failure to agree with John Winthrop about who should take part in civil government. Winthrop held that only admitted members of the Church should vote and hold office; Hooker maintained that any adult male who owned property should be able to vote and participate in civil government, regardless of church membership. He and his party, which included Thomas Welles, traveled on the Native American trail that was soon known as the Old Connecticut Path. After settling in Hartford, Hooker continued to be in contact with John Winthrop and Roger Williams. Hooker often traveled to Boston along the Old Connecticut Path, to help settle intercolonial disputes. He is also remembered for his role in creating the "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut". This document is one of the modern world's first written constitutions and a primary influence upon the current American Constitution, written nearly a century and a half later. p49

15 Seventeenth-Century New England Settlements
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was the hub of New England. All earlier colonies grew into it; all later colonies grew out of it. Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

16 Population of the New England Colonies

17 Puritans vs. Indians Before the Puritans had arrived in 1620, an epidemic had swept through the Indians, killing over three quarters of them. At first, Indians tried to befriend the Whites. Squanto, a Wampanoag, helped keep relative peace. In 1637, though, after mounting tensions exploded, English settlers and the powerful Pequot tribe fought in the Pequot War, in which the English set fire to a Pequot village on Connecticut’s Mystic River, annihilating the Indians and bringing about forty years of tentative peace. In an attempt to save face, the Puritans did try to convert some of the Indians, though with less zeal than that of the Spanish and French. Tisquantum, more commonly known today as Squanto, (c. 1580s – November 1622) was a Patuxet Native American Indian, as well as British slave (his given European slave name was Jeremiah Stein), who assisted the Pilgrims after their first winter in the New World. Squanto helped the Europeans despite having been kidnapped and enslaved in Europe before returning to America to find that his entire tribe had been wiped out by a plague. Squanto along with several other Indians, including his best friend Samoset, was kidnapped and taken by Captain George Weymouth in 1605, according to the memoirs of Ferdinando Gorges. According to Gorges, he worked in England for several years before returning to the New World on John Smith's 1613 voyage. During his time in England he learned to speak the language and, with his knowledge of the land and tribes of New England, had become valuable as a guide and interpreter for explorers. Soon after returning to his tribe in 1614, Tisquantum was kidnapped by another Englishman, Thomas Hunt. Hunt was one of John Smith's lieutenants. He returned once more to his homeland in 1619, making his way with an exploratory expedition along the New England coast. He was soon to discover that his tribe, as well as a majority of coastal New England tribes, had been decimated the year before by a plague. This had been thought to be flu or smallpox. It is then he vowed never to have a relationship and abandoned his English wife and children. From 1617 to 1619, 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans had been wiped out by smallpox[2], as well as much of the Native American population of the northeast[3]. Tisquantum finally settled in a Wampanoag village, led by Chief Massasoit. It was while he was living there that he first came in contact with the Pilgrims, who arrived in the New World in Before they had chosen a suitable site for their settlement, it was late in December. More than half of them died before spring arrived. Samoset, a resident of the Wampanoag village who spoke some English, visited them on March 16. On March 22, he returned with Tisquantum, who spoke English better than Samoset because of his experiences in England. Squanto, as he was called, stayed with the Pilgrims and helped them replenish their food. William Bradford wrote later that Squanto was a "special instrument sent by God for their good beyond their expectations." He helped them recover from their first difficult winter by teaching them the best places to catch fish and eel. He helped them to build warmer houses and taught them when and how to plant corn and how to cook it. As well as helping them fish and hunt for eel (a Native American delicacy) Squanto also advised the Pilgrims in their relations with the Wamponoag. He acted as interpreter, guided them on trading expeditions, and gave advice on bargaining and relations between the two groups.

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19 Puritans vs. Indians IN 1675, Metacom (called King Philip by the English) united neighboring Indians in a last-ditched attack that failed. The King Philip’s War slowed colonial western march, but Metacom was beheaded and quartered and his head was stuck on a sharp pike for all to see, his wife and son sold to slavery. Squanto remained with the Pilgrims for about 18 months. When he returned to the Wampanoag village, he tried to challenge Massasoit for leadership of the tribe. He was unsuccessful; all he managed to do was anger most of the members. After this, he was considered to be the enemy of the Wampanoag. Whatever Tisquantum's motives, he ended up distrusted by both the English and the Wamponoag[citation needed]. Massasoit, the sachem who originally appointed Tisquantum or Squanto as a diplomat to the Pilgrims, did not trust him before the tribe's dealing with the Pilgrims (as is evidenced by the assignment of Hobomok to watch over Tisquantum and act as a second representative), and certainly not after that time[citation needed]. On his way back from a meeting to repair the damaged relations between the native population and the Pilgrims, Tisquantum became sick with a fever; however, it is speculated that he had been poisoned because of his disloyalty to the sachem. He died a few days later in 1622 in Chatham, Massachusetts, and is now buried in an unmarked grave on Burial Hill in Chathamport, overlooking Ryder's Cove. Peace between the two groups lasted for another fifty years

20 Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence
A Bit of Unity Shown In 1643, four colonies banded together to form the New England Confederation. It was almost all Puritan. It was weak, but still a notable milestone toward American unity. The colonies were basically allowed to be semiautonomous commonwealths. After Charles II was restored to the British throne, he hoped to control his colonies more firmly, but was shocked to find how much his orders were ignored by Massachusetts. As punishment, a sea-to-sea charter was given to rival Connecticut (1662), and a charter was given to Rhode Island (1663). Finally, in 1684, Massachusetts’ charter was revoked. A Bit of Unity Shown In 1643, four colonies banded together to form the New England Confederation. It was almost all Puritan. It was weak, but still a notable milestone toward American unity. The colonies were basically allowed to be semiautonomous commonwealths. After Charles II was restored to the British throne, he hoped to control his colonies more firmly, but was shocked to find how much his orders were ignored by Massachusetts. As punishment, a sea-to-sea charter was given to rival Connecticut (1662), and a charter was given to Rhode Island (1663). Finally, in 1684, Massachusetts’ charter was revoked. p53

21 Andros Promotes the First American Revolution
Opposition to England Grows In 1686, the Dominion of New England was created to bolster the colonial defense against Indians and tying the colonies closer to Britain by enforcing the hated Navigation Acts. The acts forbade American trade with countries other than Britain. As a result, smuggling became common. Head of the Dominion was Sir Edmund Andros. Establishing HQ in Boston, he openly showed his association with the locally hated Church of England. . Sir Edmund Andros (December 6, February 24, 1714) was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England. Andros was born in London on December 6, 1637, son of Amice Andros, an adherent of Charles I and Bailiff of Guernsey. He served for a short time in the army of Prince Henry of Nassau, and in was gentleman in ordinary to the queen of Bohemia, Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I of England. He then served against the Dutch, and in 1672 was commissioned major in what is said to have been the first English regiment armed with the bayonet. Two years later he succeeded his father as bailiff of Guernsey. In 1674 he became, by the appointment of the Duke of York (who later became James II), governor of the Province of New York and the Jerseys, though his jurisdiction over the Jerseys was disputed, and until his recall in 1681 to meet an unfounded charge of dishonesty and favouritism in the collection of the revenues, he proved himself to be a capable administrator. His imperious disposition, however, rendered him quite unpopular among the colonists. Anthony Brockholls was acting Governor from 1681 to 1683 until Thomas Dongan arrived in America. Dongan remained at the post until 1688 when Andros returned to the post and remained until As Andros was Governor of the Dominion of New England, day to day activities in New York were assigned to Lieutenant Governor Francis Nicholson from 1688 to 1689. During a visit to England in 1678 he was knighted. In 1686 he became governor, with Boston as his capital, of the Dominion of New England, into which Massachusetts (including Maine), Plymouth Colony, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire were consolidated, and in 1688 his jurisdiction was extended over New York and the Jerseys. He practiced an arbitrary government in which he limited the legislature, limited towns to a single annual meeting, and enforced toleration of Anglicans and the Navigation Acts. Andros angered the Puritan colonists of Boston by openly affiliating with the Church of England. They were also angered by his noisy, "sinning" soldiers. But his vexatious interference with colonial rights and customs aroused the keenest resentment, and on April 18, 1689, soon after news reached Boston of the arrival of William III in England, the colonists violently rioted. They ran him out of town angrily and he was later caught just outside the town attempting to escape in women's clothing. He was spotted as man solely because his boots showed underneath the dress. He was arrested by Jonas Bond of Watertown, a militia Colonel, Justice of the Peace and member of the General Court. The Bonds, Jonas and his father William (soon elected Speaker of the General Court), were members of the Church of England but sided with the colonists. In New York his deputy, Francis Nicholson, was soon afterwards deposed by Jacob Leisler; and the inter-colonial union was dissolved. .

22 Andros Promotes the First American Revolution
Andros responded to opposition by curbing town meetings, restricting the courts and the press, and revoking all land titles. He taxed the people without their consent. At the same time, the people of England staged the Glorious Revolution, instating William and Mary to the crown. Result, the Dominion of New England collapsed. Massachusetts got a new charter in 1691, but this charter allowed all landowners to vote, as opposed to the previous law of voting belonging only to the church members. Opposition to England Grows In 1686, the Dominion of New England was created to bolster the colonial defense against Indians and tying the colonies closer to Britain by enforcing the hated Navigation Acts. The acts forbade American trade with countries other than Britain. As a result, smuggling became common. Head of the Dominion was Sir Edmund Andros. Establishing HQ in Boston, he openly showed his association with the locally hated Church of England. His soldiers were vile-mouthed. Andros responded to opposition by curbing town meetings, restricting the courts and the press, and revoking all land titles. He taxed the people without their consent. At the same time, the people of England staged the Glorious Revolution, instating William and Mary to the crown. Result, the Dominion of New England collapsed. Massachusetts got a new charter in 1691, but this charter allowed all landowners to vote, as opposed to the previous law of voting belonging only to the church members. "Andros a Prisoner in Boston"

23 New York (then New Amsterdam), 1664
New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that later became New York City. The town developed outside of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island in the New Netherland territory (1614–1674) which was situated between 38 and 42 degrees latitude as a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic as of Provincial possession of the territory was accomplished with the first settlement which was established on Governors Island in A year later, in 1625, construction of a citadel comprising Fort Amsterdam was commenced on the southern tip of Manhattan and the first settlers were moved there from Governors Island [1]. Earlier, the harbor and the river had been discovered, explored and charted by an expedition of the Dutch East India Company captained by Henry Hudson in 1609.The town was founded in 1625 by New Netherland's second director, Willem Verhulst who, together with his council, selected Manhattan Island as the optimal place for permanent settlement by the Dutch West India Company. That year, military engineer and surveyor Krijn Frederiksz laid out a citadel with Fort Amsterdam as centerpiece. To secure the settlers' property and its surroundings according to Dutch law, Pieter Minuit, volunteer, created a deed with the Manhattan Indians in 1626 which signified legal possession of Manhattan. He was appointed New Netherland's third director by the local council after Willem Verhulst was recalled to patria and sailed away in November 1626. The city, situated on the strategic, fortifiable southern tip of the island of Manhattan was to maintain New Netherland's provincial integrity by defending river access to the company's fur trade operations in the North River, later named Hudson River. Furthermore, it was entrusted to safeguard the West India Company's exclusive access to New Netherland's other two estuaries; the Delaware River and the Connecticut River. Fort Amsterdam was designated the capitol of the province in 1625 and developed into the largest Dutch colonial settlement of the New Netherland province, now the New York Tri-State Region, and remained a Dutch possession until September 1664, when it fell provisionally and temporarily into the hands of the English. The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city New Orange.The Dutch took back New York. Dutch warships sailed into New York and attacked the british. The Dutch WIC captain Cornelis Evertszn de Jongste also know as "the little devil" in Holland won it back for the Dutch and WIC. Renaming it as said above. Back in Holland, the in Amsterdam and in the city of Hoorn located WIC Headquarters were not happy to have New Orange or New Netherlands back as a Dutch colony. Cornelis Evertszn sailed for the WIC but starting in Zeeland. This was another Dutch province were the VOC and WIC operated from. New York (then New Amsterdam), 1664 This drawing clearly shows the tip of Manhattan Island protected by the wall after which Wall Street was named. The British Library

24 Old Netherlanders at New Netherland
The Little Guys Gain Power In the 17th Century, the Netherlands revolted against Spain, and with help of Britain, gained their independence. The Dutch East India Company was established, with an army of 10,000 men and a fleet of 190 ships (including 40 men-of-war). The Dutch West India Company often raided rather than traded. In 1609, Henry Hudson ventured into Delaware and New York Bay and claimed the area for the Netherlands. It was the Dutch West India Company that bought Manhattan Island for some worthless trinkets (22,000 acres of the most valuable land in the world today). New Amsterdam was a company town, run by and for the Dutch company . New Amsterdam attracted people of all types and races. One French Jesuit missionary counted 18 different languages being spoken on the street.

25 Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors
Trouble for the Dutch Indian’s attacked the Dutch for their cruelties. New England was hostile against Dutch growth. The Swedes trespassed Dutch reserves from 1638 to 1655 by planting the anemic colony of New Sweden on the Delaware River. Things got so bad that the Dutch erected a wall in New Amsterdam In 1655, the Dutch sent one legged Peter Stuyvesant to besiege the main Swedish fort, and he won, ending Swedish colonial . every in Delaware. Peter Stuyvesant (originally Pieter or Petrus, Peter is never mentioned in historical records) (c – August 1672) served as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in He was a major figure in the early history of New York City. Stuyvesant's accomplishments as director-general included a great expansion for the settlement of New Amsterdam (later renamed New York) beyond the southern tip of Manhattan. Among the projects built by Stuyvesant's administration were the protective wall on Wall Street, the canal that became Broad Street, and Broadway. Trouble for the Dutch Indian’s attacked the Dutch for their cruelties. New England was hostile against Dutch growth. The Swedes trespassed Dutch reserves from 1638 to 1655 by planting the anemic colony of New Sweden on the Delaware River. Things got so bad that the Dutch erected a wall in New Amsterdam, for which Wall Street is named today. In 1655, the Dutch sent one legged Peter Stuyvesant to besiege the main Swedish fort, and he won, ending Swedish colonial rule and leaving only Swedish log cabins and place names as evidence that the Swedes were every in Delaware.

26

27 Dutch Residues in New York
The Dutch Get Voted Off the Island In 1664, Charles II granted the area of modern-day New York to his brother, the Duke of York, and that year, British troops landed and defeated the Dutch, kicking them out, without much violence. New Amsterdam was renamed New York. The Dutch Legacy The people of New York retained their autocratic spirit. Dutch names of cities remained, like Harlem, Brooklyn, and Hell Gate. Even their architecture left its mark on buildings. The Dutch also gave us Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, sauerkraut, bowling, sleighing, skating, and golf. During Stuyvesant's administration and especially after the mid-1650s, immigration to New Netherland grew steadily. Transatlantic commerce was regularized, as were partnerships with Amsterdam's merchant houses. Ordinary burghers of New Amsterdam and Beverwijck (women among them) traveled to the patria seeing to business affairs. Well-developed legal and notarial systems gave protection to ordinary townspeople caught up in daily matters as well as to merchants engaged in international trade. In 1660 one of Stuyvesant's councillors profiled New Netherland for the company directors, listing two cities, thirteen villages, two forts, and three colonies. In 1664 New Amsterdam's burgomasters praised the city for its fine houses, surpassing nearly every other place in North America. The province's population was 10,000 people. Among them were small numbers of Africans. After their first arrival in 1626, some of these men and women remained as slaves on Manhattan Island. Others lived as free persons or were given considerable freedom and manumitted. Beyond the colony, the New Netherlanders played a major role in the African slave trade, with the first cargo of slaves probably arriving in New Amsterdam in 1655 for transshipment to the southern colonies and the West Indies. But Stuyvesant inherited Kieft's legacy. In 1655 hostilities ignited, largely around Manhattan Island. In 1660 settlers in Esopus (Kingston) began a year of hostilities with the Esopus people. Stuyvesant and his council debated whether they could retaliate on the grounds of a "just war." They decided they could not. They urged the natives to relocate and sued for Mohawk mediation and peace. But it failed to hold. In 1664 Esopus was attacked and fighting resumed. In August 1664 and in the absence of a declared war, an English fleet forced Stuyvesant's surrender of New Netherland. The province became the property of James, duke of York.

28 Penn’s Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania
William Penn and the Quakers The Quakers (characteristics) They “quaked” under deep religious emotion. They were offensive to religious and civil rule. They addressed everyone with simple “thee”s and “thou”s and didn’t swear oaths because Jesus had said “Swear not at all,” this last part creating a problem, since you had to swear a test oath to prove that you weren’t Roman Catholic. Though stubborn and unreasonable, they were simple, devoted, democratic people against war and violence. William Penn, a well-born Englishman, embraced the Quaker faith. In 1681, he managed to secure an immense grant of fertile land from the land. It was called Pennsylvania, in honor of Penn, who, being the modest person that he was, had insisted that it be called Sylvania. It was the best advertised of all the colonies. William Penn (October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) was founder and "Absolute Proprietor" of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future U.S. state of Pennsylvania. He was known as an early champion of democracy and religious freedom and famous for his good relations and his treaties with the Lenape Indians. Under his direction, Philadelphia was planned and developed. As one of the earlier supporters of colonial unification, Penn wrote and urged for a Union of all the English colonies in what was to become the United States of America. The democratic principles that he set forth in the Pennsylvania Frame(s) of Government served as an inspiration for the United States Constitution. As a pacifist Quaker, Penn considered the problems of war and peace deeply, and included a plan for a United States of Europe, "European Dyet, Parliament or Estates," in his voluminous writings.

29 Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors
Philadelphia was more carefully planned than most cities, with beautiful, wide streets. Penn bought land from the Indians, like Chief Tammany, later patron saint of New York’s political Tammany Hall. His treatment of the Indians was so gentle that Quakers could walk through Indian territory unarmed without fear of being hurt. However, as more and more non-Quakers came to Pennsylvania, they mistreated the Indians more and more. Freedom of worship was available to everyone except for Jews and Catholics (only because of pressure from London), and the death penalty was only for murder and treason. No restrictions were placed on immigration, and naturalization was made easy. The Quakers also developed a dislike toward slavery. The Religious Society of Friends, also known as Quakers, is a movement that began in England in the 17th century. In its early days it faced opposition and persecution; however, it continued to expand, extending into many parts of the world, especially the Americas and eastern Africa. The Society of Friends has been influential in the history of the world. The state of Pennsylvania, in the United States, was founded by William Penn, as a safe place for Quakers to live and practice their faith. Quakers have been a significant part of the movements to abolish slavery, acknowledge the equal rights of women, and end warfare. They have also promoted education and the humane treatment of prisoners and the mentally ill, through the founding or reforming of various institutions. During the 19th century Friends in the United States suffered a number of separations. These separations have resulted in the formation of different branches of the Society of Friends. Despite the separations, Friends remain united in their commitment to discover truth and promote it. There are perhaps 400,000 Quakers in the world today, the overwhelming majority of them Evangelicals in Africa and Latin America.

30 Quaker Pennsylvania Pennsylvania attracted a great variety of people from all races, class, and religion. By 1700, only Virginia was more populous and richer. Penn, unfortunately, was not well-liked because of his friendliness towards James II, the deposed Catholic king, and he was jailed at times, and also suffered a paralytic stroke, dying full of sorrows. New Jersey and Delaware prospered as well. Sketch of William Penn, from life Penn

31 The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies
New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania All had fertile soil and broad expanse of land. The middle colonies were the middle way between New England and the southern plantation states. Landholdings were generally intermediate in size. ethnically mixed than other colonies. A considerable amount of economic and social democracy prevailed. Benjamin Franklin, born in Boston, entered Philadelphia as a seventeen-year-old in 1720 Americans began to realize that not only were they surviving, but that they were also thriving.

32 Makers of America: The English
In the 1600s, England was undergoing a massive population boom. About 75% of English immigrants were indentured servants. Most of them were young men from the “middling classes.” Some had fled during the cloth trade slump in the early 1600s while others had been forced off their land due to enclosure. Some 40% of indentured servants died before their seven years were over. Late in the 17th Century, as the supply of indentured servants slowly ran out, the southerners resolved to Black Slaves.

33 Makers of America: The English
From 1629 to 1642, 11,000 Puritans swarmed to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In contrast to the indentured servants, Puritans migrated in family groups, not alone. Puritans brought the way of life from England with them to America. i.e. Marblehead, Mass. had mostly fishermen because most of the immigrants had been fisherman in England. i.e. Rowley, Mass. brought from Yorkshire, England their distinctive way of life. In Ipswich, Massachusetts, settled by East Anglian Puritans, the rulers had long terms and ruled with an iron hand. Mass bay

34 Characteristics of New England Settlements
Low mortality  average life expectancy was 70 years of age. Many extended families. Average 6 children per family. Average age at marriage: Women – 22 years old Men – 27 years old.

35 Patriarchy Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household. Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled church congregations and household patriarchs.

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37 More Like Later America Than Other Regions!
Economic diversity. Large cities  more cosmopolitan culture. Some slavery [6%-12% of the population]. Ethnic and religious diversity. Religious toleration. “Bread Colonies.”

38 Penn & Native Americans

39 Early Settlements in the Middle Colonies, with Founding Dates
North of Spanish Florida, four European powers competed for territory and trade with Native Americans in the early seventeenth century. Swedish and Dutch colonization was the foundation upon which England's middle colonies were built. Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

40 Map 3.4: Sir Edmund Andros's Dominion of New England

41 Map 3.5: Early Settlements in the Middle Colonies, with Founding Dates


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