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Body Organization.

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Presentation on theme: "Body Organization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Body Organization

2 Anatomy vs. Physiology LT#1
Anatomy is the study of structure of body parts & their relation to one another Physiology is the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery Structure of an organ suits its function

3 Atoms Molecules Macromolecules Cells w/organelles Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organism LT#2

4 Levels of Organization – pg 2 LT#2
Chemical – atoms combined to form molecules Cellular – cells are made of molecules Tissue – consists of similar types of cells Organ – made up of different types of tissues Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together Organism – made up of the organ systems

5 Anatomical Position LT#3
Standing erect Face forward Arms at the sides Palms and toes forward

6 Planes of the body LT#3

7 Relative positions of the body LT#3
Superior / inferior –which plane? Anterior / posterior –which plane? Medial / lateral –which plane? Proximal / distal –which plane? Superficial / deep –which plane? Central / peripheral –which plane?

8 Regions of the body SQ5 Gross Anatomy = macroscopic
Axial – head, neck, trunk Appendicular – limbs (arms & legs)

9 Body cavities LT#4 Dorsal = 1 Ventral = 2 Cranial cavity Spinal cavity
Thoracic Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity Abdominopelvic Abdominal Pelvic

10 Organs within body cavities LT#5
Dorsal / posterior – brain & spinal cord Ventral / anterior – chest & abdomen Chest – thoracic cavity: heart & lungs Diaphram divides thorax / abdomen Abdominopelvic cavity – digestive organs, kidneys, bladder, gonads

11 Organ systems & associated organs LT#6
Integumentary sys – skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands Skeletal sys – bones, cartilage, ligaments, red & yellow marrow Muscular sys – skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle Nervous sys – brain, spinal cord, sense organs Endocrine sys – hormone secreting glands, like gonads

12 Organ systems & associated organs LT#6 (continued)
Circulatory sys – heart, blood vessels, lymph Lymphatic sys – disease fighting = immune system Respiratory sys – lungs, bronchial tubes Digestive sys – mouth (teeth, tongue, salivary glands), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, gall bladder, pancreas Reproductive sys – gonads, external sex organs

13 Functions of the organ systems LT#7
Integumentary – protection, temperature control, senses Skeletal – support, protection, blood production, mineral storage Muscular – movement, fight/flight response Nervous – perception, information processing, responses Endocrine – produces hormones to regulate all functions

14 Functions of the organ systems LT#7 (continued)
Circulatory – transport nutrients, eliminate waste Lymphatic – disease fighting Respiratory – oxygen in, carbon dioxide out Digestive – receives & processes nutrients Reproductive – perpetuation of the species

15 Homeostasis & how to maintain it LT#8
Keeping the body’s internal environment fairly constant: [glucose 0.1%], pH 7.4, BP 120/80, temperature ~37 C (98.6 F) Negative feedback (fig 1.9 p 13) Positive feedback

16 Negative feedback – the output shuts off the original stimulus

17 e.g. regulation of blood glucose

18 Positive feedback – output exaggerates the original stimulus – e. g
Positive feedback – output exaggerates the original stimulus – e.g. regulation of blood clotting

19 Disease: Local vs. Systemic LT#9
A breakdown in normal self-regulation – homeostasis fails! Local – restricted to a certain body part (e.g. UTI – urinary tract infection) Systemic – entire body affected or at least several organ systems Acute vs. chronic / sudden, short vs. less severe & longer duration

20 Name the 4 quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity
Name the 4 quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity. Divide it into the 9 regions. SQ#7


22 9 abdomminopelvic regions SQ#7


24 Answer the following questions
Organ donation – the application piece. Please read the Medical Focus on p. 10. Answer the following questions Why is organ donation fairly successful? (2 reasons) How many organs can be given from 1 person? What is problematic about organ donation? What are the requirements for donation? How are organs distributed?

25 Organ donation reflection (10pts)
Write a brief reflection about how you feel about organ donation. Would you do it? Have you done it already? What about the film 7 Pounds? Would you want to prescreen your donations?

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