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Research in Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS) SPED 596 Chris Borgmeier, PhD. Contact:

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Presentation on theme: "Research in Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS) SPED 596 Chris Borgmeier, PhD. Contact:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Research in Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS) SPED 596 Chris Borgmeier, PhD. Contact:

2 Ways of Knowing & Research Based Practices Chris Borgmeier, PhD Portland State University

3 Discussion Guides Each day you will come to class with a completed (typed & printed) Discussion Guide (based on what you read) This will guide your discussion with partners (groups of 3-4) Following your discussion complete the rating on the bottom of the page & turn in your Discussion Guide

4 Discussion Guide Questions 1. Briefly describe the three main points of this week’s readings. 2. Describe 3 ideas, concepts, or strategies from this week’s readings that you would like to discuss further with colleagues. 3. Describe any concerns, difficulties, or questions you have with this week’s assigned readings. Rate the following, then provide a brief (1-2 sentence) explanation of your rating: poor fair excellent My preparation for discussion was: The quality of group discussion was:

5 “We associate truth with convenience, with what most closely accords with self-interest and personal well-being, or promises best to avoid awkward effort or unwelcome dislocation of life. We also find highly acceptable what contributes most to self-esteem.” John Kenneth Galbraith

6 “Conventional wisdom must be simple, convenient, comfortable, and comforting… not necessarily true.” Steven Levitt

7 “Social behavior is complex, and to comprehend its character is mentally tiring. Therefore we adhere, as though to a raft, to those ideas which represent our understanding” John Kenneth Galbraith

8 Ways of Knowing Personal or vicarious experience  “It worked for me”  Research can stimulate, inform, reinforce, challenge & question our own experiences to enhance professional judgment Tradition  Simply accept what has been done as the best or right way (eliminates the need to search for knowledge & understanding) Authority  People considered to experts or authorities are major sources of knowledge Challenge = these ‘ways of knowing’ are primarily idiosyncratic, informal & influenced heavily by subjective interpretation

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10 Ways of Knowing Research or Experimental Analysis  Involves a systematic process of gathering, interpreting and reporting information  Disciplined inquiry characterized by accepted principles to verify that claim is reasonable

11 Activity Identify a FACT a) about life in general b) about an intervention in your field, and the effect of that intervention. c) What is the source of your knowledge?  History  Authority  Logic  Experience  Experimental Analysis

12 Why is research important in informing education?... & work with students w/ behavior problems Maximize outcomes Minimize harm Increased accountability Increase efficiency Improve decision making Improve resource use

13 The 4 Functions of Research in Education 1. Description 2. Prediction 3. Improvement 4. Explanation ….of an educational phenomenon

14 Research to DESCRIBE Used to identify and describe problems and practices Emphasis on measurement & observation of current phenomenon Increase our knowledge about what happens in schools

15 Research to DESCRIBE Example: Describing problem of Disproportionate Discipline is a problem in many schools (x race, disability, etc.) Skiba, R. J., Michael, R. S., Nardo, A., & Peterson, R. L. (2002). The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment. Urban Review, 34(4), Skiba, R. J., Michael, R. S., Nardo, A., & Peterson, R. L. (2002). The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment. Urban Review, 34(4), Locally Exclusionary Discipline in Multnomah County Schools: How suspensions & expulstion impact students of color Exclusionary Discipline in Multnomah County Schools: How suspensions & expulstion impact students of color

16 Research to PREDICT Ability to predict a phenomenon that will occur at time Y from information available at an earlier time X. “If an antisocial behavior pattern is not changed by grade 3, it should be treated as a chronic condition.” Kazdin, A. (1987). Treatment of Antisocial Behavior in Children: Current status and future directions. Psychological Bulletin, 102,

17 Research to PREDICT Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44 (2),

18 Research to IMPROVE/ INTERVENE Concerns the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve practice. E.g., drug therapies in medicine, reading/writing/math interventions to improve students’ academic achievement

19 Research to EXPLAIN If able to explain a phenomenon this means you can: describe it, predict its consequences, & know how to intervene to change those consequences Explanations are usually framed as theories E.g., Behavioral Theory, Social Interaction theory, Positive Behavior Support

20 Research to EXPLAIN Social Interaction Theory Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44 (2), School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G. Heineman, M., Lewis, T. J., Nelson, C.M. Scott, T., Liaupsin, C., Sailor, W., Turnbull, A. P., Rutherford-Turnbull, H., Wickham, D., Wilcox, B., & Ruef, M. (2000). Applying positive behavior support and functional behavioral assessment in schools. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 2(3), Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G. Heineman, M., Lewis, T. J., Nelson, C.M. Scott, T., Liaupsin, C., Sailor, W., Turnbull, A. P., Rutherford-Turnbull, H., Wickham, D., Wilcox, B., & Ruef, M. (2000). Applying positive behavior support and functional behavioral assessment in schools. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 2(3),

21 Features of the Scientific Process Public process Operational description of variables Measurement  Quantifiable  Reliable (consistent)  Valid (accurate) Replicable (measurement, intervention) Exposure to disproof (research design) Objective analysis

22 Types of Research Basic Research – formulates & refines theories Applied Research – improves practice & solves practical problems Action Research – goal is to solve a specific classroom or school problem, improve practice or help make a decision at as single site

23 What to look for in articles Refereed v. Non-refereed articles Refereed articles – reviewed by panel of peers/experts Non-refereed – not reviewed by experts Pay Journals – pay to have information published Primary source – original articles or reports in which researchers communicate directly the methods & results of their study  Need to then evaluate the methods used in the study Secondary source – reviews, summarizes or discusses research conducted by others Commentary/opinion

24 Quantitative & Qualitative Research Based on different assumptions about how to best understand and come to know what is true  Quantitative – emphasizes numbers, measurement, deductive logic, control & experiments  Qualitative – emphasizes natural settings, understanding, verbal narratives, and flexible designs

25 Quantitative Research Experimental Research  Investigators have control over 1 or more variables & manipulate 1 factor to see if it has an impact on student behavior  Can be used to identify Causal relationships  True Experimental design = random assignment  Quasi-experimental design = no random assignment  Single Subject design = experiment with a single person or a few individuals

26 Population & Sample Population: Group to whom you want to apply your results (e.g., teachers in a school district; n=800) Sample: group that you have chosen from your population from which to collect data (e.g., n=80 teachers from a school district selected to interview/survey)

27 Define Independent variable (IV) or predictor variable Independent variable= Intervention/treatment manipulated for different groups or at different times (e.g., literacy training). Predictor variable= Inherent characteristics that are different between groups (e.g., studying gender differences)

28 Dependent variable (DV) & criterion variable: Variable that the researcher is interested in measuring to determine how it is different for groups with different experiences (dependent) or characteristics (criterion). Dependent variable: Measured/outcome variable

29 Experimental & control groups Experimental group- receives intervention Control group- business as usual, no intervention

30 Randomized Control Trials “Gold Standard” for evaluating an intervention’s effectiveness Studies that randomly assign participants to an intervention group or to a control group, in order to measure the effects of the intervention  Advantage: allows evaluation of whether the intervention caused the outcomes, as opposed to other factors  Can’t ‘stack the deck’

31 Quantitative Research Non-experimental Research – no experimental manipulation or experimental control of factors that may influence subjects  Usually because events already occurred, or because they can’t be manipulated  Means research can only ‘describe’ something or identify relationships between variables; cannot determine causation  Descriptive – info. about frequency or amount of something  Comparative – examine differences between groups on target variable  Correlational – investigate relationships between 2 variables Is there a relationship between

32 Single Subject Design Example 3 middle school students Measure on-task behavior in 15 sec. intervals (momentary time sampling) during first 10 min. of class Intervention: Greet at door saying students name & positive comment

33 Evaluating a Research Study Quantity  One study is only one study (unless it’s a meta-analysis)  Convergence of evidence required Quality  Type of Research Design  Sample (size & match)  Measures (really measure important change?)

34 Steps in the Research/Scientific Process  1. Identify socially important issue  2. Review current literature  3. Define conceptual model  4. Define specific hypothesis(es) and research question(s)  5. Define dependent variable(s)/measure  6. Identify independent variable(s)/measures  7. Select appropriate research design  8. Obtain consents  9. Collect data  10. Analyze data  11. Communicate results Written presentation Oral presentation

35 For Next Week  Do your readings & remember to complete your Discussion Guide


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