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The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate Slide 11.21 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Increased heart rate 1. Sympathetic.

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Presentation on theme: "The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate Slide 11.21 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Increased heart rate 1. Sympathetic."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Increased heart rate 1. Sympathetic nervous system  Crisis  Low blood pressure 2. Hormones  Epinephrine  Thyroxine 3. Exercise 4. Decreased blood volume

2 The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Decreased heart rate 1. Parasympathetic nervous system 2. High blood pressure or blood volume 3. Decreased venous return

3 Major Arteries of Systemic Circulation Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.11

4 Major Veins of Systemic Circulation Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.12

5 Arterial Supply of the Brain Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.13

6 Hepatic Portal Circulation Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.14

7 Circulation to the Fetus Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.15

8 Blood Pressure Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Measurements by health professionals are made on the pressure in large arteries  Systolic – pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction  Diastolic – pressure when ventricles relax  Pressure in blood vessels decreases as the distance away from the heart increases

9 Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.18

10 Comparison of Blood Pressures in Different Vessels Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.17

11 Blood Pressure: Effects of Factors Slide 11.39a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1. Neural factors  Autonomic nervous system adjustments (sympathetic division) 2. Renal factors  Regulation by altering blood volume  Renin – hormonal control

12 Blood Pressure: Effects of Factors Slide 11.39b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 3. Temperature  Heat has a vasodilation effect  Cold has a vasoconstricting effect 4. Chemicals  Various substances can cause increases or decreases 5. Diet

13 Variations in Blood Pressure Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Human normal range is variable  Normal  120 mm Hg systolic  80 mm Hg diastolic  Hypotension  Low systolic (below 110 mm HG)  Often associated with illness  Hypertension  High systolic (above 140 mm HG)  Can be dangerous if it is chronic

14 Developmental Aspects of the Cardiovascular System Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  A simple “tube heart” develops in the embryo and pumps by the fourth week  The heart becomes a four-chambered organ by the end of seven weeks  Few structural changes occur after the seventh week


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