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Fitness Concepts PEAC 1621 Kirk Evanson.  Physical Activity and Health  Published by the U.S. Surgeon General in 1996  People of all ages benefit from.

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Presentation on theme: "Fitness Concepts PEAC 1621 Kirk Evanson.  Physical Activity and Health  Published by the U.S. Surgeon General in 1996  People of all ages benefit from."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fitness Concepts PEAC 1621 Kirk Evanson

2  Physical Activity and Health  Published by the U.S. Surgeon General in 1996  People of all ages benefit from regular physical activity  People can obtain significnat health benefits by including a moderate amount of physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week.  A modest increase in daily activity can result in an improvement in overall health and quality of life.  Additional health benefits can be obtained through greater amounts of physical activity.

3  Physical Activity  Any movement that requires energy.  Exercise  Type of physical activity- planned, structured physical movement designed to improve or maintain physical fitness.  Physical Fitness  A set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt to the demands of physical stress  The body will adapt to the stresses placed upon it.

4  Many organizations have position stands regarding physical activity (CDC, AHA, ADA, etc.)  Anywhere from 30-60 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day.

5  Cardiorespiratory Endurance  The ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity.  Dependent on total lung capacity, cardiac function, the nervous system, and blood vessels (to name a few).  Muscular Strength  The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.  Dependent on nervous system and muscle cell function.  Muscular Endurance  The ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension.

6  Flexibility  The ability to move the joints through their full range of motion.  Body Composition  The proportion of fat and fat-free mass in the body  Skill-Related Components of Fitness  Speed: The ability to perform a movement in a short period of time  Power: The ability to exert force rapidly, based on a combination of strength and speed  Agility: The ability to change the position of the body quickly and accurately

7  Skill-Related Components of Fitness  Balance: The ability to maintain equilibrium while moving or while stationary  Coordination: The ability to perform motor tasks accurately and smoothly using body movements and the senses  Reaction Time: The ability to respond or react quickly to a stimulus

8  Specificity  Exercises should pertain to the component of interest  For example, a leg press exercise would be more beneficial than a 1-mile run for someone who wants to increase quadricep strength  Progressive Overload  The body adapts to the demands of exercise by improving its function.  Frequency  Intensity  Volume  Type of exercise

9  Reversibility  Unfortunately, the body will adapt to the lack of stress placed upon it  Individual Differences (genetic profile)  Genetic make-up responsible for a large part of physical characteristics (muscle mass, fat deposition, etc.)

10  Purposeful training  Train regularly  Start slowly and then build  Adhere to fundamental fitness practices  Warm-up  Exercise safely  Protective equipment/appropriate clothing (e.g. wearing a helmet when biking, keep alert when walking or jogging near a street or crossing an intersection)

11  Fundamental fitness practices (cont.)  Listen to your body- get adequate rest and nutrition  Cycle the volume and intensity of workouts  Periodization  Vary types of exercises and/or activities  Track progress  Goal setting is a great way to maintain focus and continuity with an exercise regimen  DailyBurn project

12  Cardiorespiratory system  Heart  Atria, ventricles  Blood vessels  Arteries and veins  Capillaries and venules  Respiratory system  Lungs (alveoli)  Supplies oxygen to the body and removes carbon dioxide

13  CR at rest and during exercise  Rest  Heart rate (50-90 beats/min)  Breathing (12-20 breaths/min)  Blood pressure (120/80)  Exercise  HR increases up to 170-210 beats/min  Stroke volume increases  Cardiac output increases  BP increases  Systolic increases while diastolic holds or drops slightly  And much, much more

14  Energy comes from  Sugars (glucose), fats (lipids), and protein (amino acids)  Energy from protein is negligible for the most part  Cells will metabolize these nutrients to ATP (adenosine triphosphate)  Exercise utilizes different metabolic pathways to provide energy content/uploads/2007/08/jogging.jpg

15  Immediate  ATP/PCr  Provides energy rapidly but for only a short period of time  10 seconds or less  Nonoxidative  Sugars (glycolysis)  Provides energy for short-term, high intensity exercise  10 seconds to 2 minutes  e.g. 400 meter run

16  Nonoxidative (cont.)  2 limiting factors  Energy supply  Acidosis (biochemical changes)  Oxidative (O2)  Provides energy for activities lasting longer than 2 minutes  Slower rate of energy production, but the overall process is efficient  Exercise intensity can influence the choice of nutrient used (sugar or fat)

17  Oxidative (cont.)  Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)  Limiting factors  Cardiac output (max heart rate and stroke volume)  Physical make-up (muscle mass, etc.)  Systems can improve and adapt  Most activities place demands on all three systems  Basketball, golf, tennis columbia/features/athletesblog/images/tread mill.jpg

18  Improved CR function  Maintaining or increasing heart’s blood supply  Increase in heart performance  Strengthens heart contraction  Increases ventricular volume  Together can influence HR (decrease in HR)  Increases blood volume  Reduces blood pressure

19  Improved cellular metabolism  Increase in number of capillaries and arterial diameter  Improves the delivery of O2 and nutrients  Increases energy producing sites within the cell  Mitochondria  Increases the storage of nutrients (fats and sugars)  Triglyceride and glycogen

20  Reduced risk of chronic disease  Cardiovascular disease  CR endurance exercise lowers CV disease risk through the following:  Promotes a healthy balance of fats in the blood (LDL/HDL ratio)  Reduces blood pressure  Reduces inflammation  Enhances endothelial cell function  Improves insulin sensitivity  Thereby decreasing the risk of type 2 diabetes

21  Reduced risk of chronic disease (cont.)  Cancer  Evidence is unclear, but there is a relationship between exercise and cancer  In general, those who exercise regularly are less likely to develop some types of cancer  Pancreatic, prostate, and breast cancers to name a few  Type 2 diabetes  Non-insulin dependent- the body makes insulin, but the cells have problems using it because of excess fat  Exercise burns calories, utilizes fat, and insulin sensitivity improves

22  Reduced risk of chronic disease (cont.)  Osteoporosis  Wolff’s law- the body will adapt to the stresses placed upon it  Exercise works muscles, which pulls on bone.  Bone will respond to the increase in stress by increasing bone deposition.  The result is an increase in bone mineral density and a decreased risk in developing osteopenia and osteoporosis  Reduced risk of osteoporosis reduces the likelihood of hip and spinal fractures thus improving or preserving quality of life with age

23  Better control of body fat  Require more calories to perform exercise  Lessens fat deposition  Improve immune function  Exercise generally improves immune function although overtraining can hinder immune processes  Improved psychological and emotional well- being

24  1-mile walk test  Estimates CR fitness based on the amount of time it takes to complete a 1-mile walk along with the HR  A fast time and a low heart rate indicate a high level of CR endurance  Good for untrained, sedentary individuals  1.5-mile run-walk test  The amount of time required for this test is used to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2Max)  More advanced assessment- greater intensity

25  3-minute step test  Measure the rate at which the pulse returns to normal after exercise  Not intended for individuals who are at-risk of injury (obese, elderly, those who suffer from previous musculoskeletal injury) dio_step.jpg

26  1.5-Mile Run-Walk Test and 1-Mile Walk Test  We will do both  Bring your wrist watch (if you have one)

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