Presentation on theme: "Fitness Concepts PEAC 1621 Kirk Evanson. Physical Activity and Health Published by the U.S. Surgeon General in 1996 People of all ages benefit from."— Presentation transcript:
Physical Activity and Health Published by the U.S. Surgeon General in 1996 People of all ages benefit from regular physical activity People can obtain significnat health benefits by including a moderate amount of physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week. A modest increase in daily activity can result in an improvement in overall health and quality of life. Additional health benefits can be obtained through greater amounts of physical activity.
Physical Activity Any movement that requires energy. Exercise Type of physical activity- planned, structured physical movement designed to improve or maintain physical fitness. Physical Fitness A set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt to the demands of physical stress The body will adapt to the stresses placed upon it.
Many organizations have position stands regarding physical activity (CDC, AHA, ADA, etc.) Anywhere from 30-60 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day.
Cardiorespiratory Endurance The ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity. Dependent on total lung capacity, cardiac function, the nervous system, and blood vessels (to name a few). Muscular Strength The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort. Dependent on nervous system and muscle cell function. Muscular Endurance The ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension.
Flexibility The ability to move the joints through their full range of motion. Body Composition The proportion of fat and fat-free mass in the body Skill-Related Components of Fitness Speed: The ability to perform a movement in a short period of time Power: The ability to exert force rapidly, based on a combination of strength and speed Agility: The ability to change the position of the body quickly and accurately
Skill-Related Components of Fitness Balance: The ability to maintain equilibrium while moving or while stationary Coordination: The ability to perform motor tasks accurately and smoothly using body movements and the senses Reaction Time: The ability to respond or react quickly to a stimulus
Specificity Exercises should pertain to the component of interest For example, a leg press exercise would be more beneficial than a 1-mile run for someone who wants to increase quadricep strength Progressive Overload The body adapts to the demands of exercise by improving its function. Frequency Intensity Volume Type of exercise
Reversibility Unfortunately, the body will adapt to the lack of stress placed upon it Individual Differences (genetic profile) Genetic make-up responsible for a large part of physical characteristics (muscle mass, fat deposition, etc.) http://www.treehugger.com/arnold-schwarzenegger-body-building.jpg
Purposeful training Train regularly Start slowly and then build Adhere to fundamental fitness practices Warm-up Exercise safely Protective equipment/appropriate clothing (e.g. wearing a helmet when biking, keep alert when walking or jogging near a street or crossing an intersection)
Fundamental fitness practices (cont.) Listen to your body- get adequate rest and nutrition Cycle the volume and intensity of workouts Periodization Vary types of exercises and/or activities Track progress Goal setting is a great way to maintain focus and continuity with an exercise regimen DailyBurn project
Cardiorespiratory system Heart Atria, ventricles Blood vessels Arteries and veins Capillaries and venules Respiratory system Lungs (alveoli) Supplies oxygen to the body and removes carbon dioxide http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/images/heart_interior.gif http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/images/vessel.gif
CR at rest and during exercise Rest Heart rate (50-90 beats/min) Breathing (12-20 breaths/min) Blood pressure (120/80) Exercise HR increases up to 170-210 beats/min Stroke volume increases Cardiac output increases BP increases Systolic increases while diastolic holds or drops slightly And much, much more
Energy comes from Sugars (glucose), fats (lipids), and protein (amino acids) Energy from protein is negligible for the most part Cells will metabolize these nutrients to ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Exercise utilizes different metabolic pathways to provide energy http://abdominus.com/images/weight-training-for-weight-loss.jpg http://www.fitnesshealthzone.com/wp- content/uploads/2007/08/jogging.jpg
Immediate ATP/PCr Provides energy rapidly but for only a short period of time 10 seconds or less Nonoxidative Sugars (glycolysis) Provides energy for short-term, high intensity exercise 10 seconds to 2 minutes e.g. 400 meter run
Nonoxidative (cont.) 2 limiting factors Energy supply Acidosis (biochemical changes) Oxidative (O2) Provides energy for activities lasting longer than 2 minutes Slower rate of energy production, but the overall process is efficient Exercise intensity can influence the choice of nutrient used (sugar or fat)
Oxidative (cont.) Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) Limiting factors Cardiac output (max heart rate and stroke volume) Physical make-up (muscle mass, etc.) Systems can improve and adapt Most activities place demands on all three systems Basketball, golf, tennis http://www.cbc.ca/canada/british- columbia/features/athletesblog/images/tread mill.jpg
Improved CR function Maintaining or increasing heart’s blood supply Increase in heart performance Strengthens heart contraction Increases ventricular volume Together can influence HR (decrease in HR) Increases blood volume Reduces blood pressure
Improved cellular metabolism Increase in number of capillaries and arterial diameter Improves the delivery of O2 and nutrients Increases energy producing sites within the cell Mitochondria Increases the storage of nutrients (fats and sugars) Triglyceride and glycogen
Reduced risk of chronic disease Cardiovascular disease CR endurance exercise lowers CV disease risk through the following: Promotes a healthy balance of fats in the blood (LDL/HDL ratio) Reduces blood pressure Reduces inflammation Enhances endothelial cell function Improves insulin sensitivity Thereby decreasing the risk of type 2 diabetes
Reduced risk of chronic disease (cont.) Cancer Evidence is unclear, but there is a relationship between exercise and cancer In general, those who exercise regularly are less likely to develop some types of cancer Pancreatic, prostate, and breast cancers to name a few Type 2 diabetes Non-insulin dependent- the body makes insulin, but the cells have problems using it because of excess fat Exercise burns calories, utilizes fat, and insulin sensitivity improves
Reduced risk of chronic disease (cont.) Osteoporosis Wolff’s law- the body will adapt to the stresses placed upon it Exercise works muscles, which pulls on bone. Bone will respond to the increase in stress by increasing bone deposition. The result is an increase in bone mineral density and a decreased risk in developing osteopenia and osteoporosis Reduced risk of osteoporosis reduces the likelihood of hip and spinal fractures thus improving or preserving quality of life with age
Better control of body fat Require more calories to perform exercise Lessens fat deposition Improve immune function Exercise generally improves immune function although overtraining can hinder immune processes Improved psychological and emotional well- being http://daisyfae.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/mullet1.jpg
1-mile walk test Estimates CR fitness based on the amount of time it takes to complete a 1-mile walk along with the HR A fast time and a low heart rate indicate a high level of CR endurance Good for untrained, sedentary individuals 1.5-mile run-walk test The amount of time required for this test is used to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2Max) More advanced assessment- greater intensity
3-minute step test Measure the rate at which the pulse returns to normal after exercise Not intended for individuals who are at-risk of injury (obese, elderly, those who suffer from previous musculoskeletal injury) http://www.rippehealth.com/rippelifestyle/studies/images/car dio_step.jpg
1.5-Mile Run-Walk Test and 1-Mile Walk Test We will do both Bring your wrist watch (if you have one)