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Ch. 18.1 The Ottomans.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 18.1 The Ottomans."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch The Ottomans

2 Essential Questions Who were the Ottoman Turks?
Why were they important relative to the development of European and Asian worlds?

3 The Ottoman Empire

4 Turks move into Byzantium
From first semester, what does Byzantium sound like? Ghazis – warriors for Islam Formed military societies under an emir Emir – chief Lived on the frontiers of the Byzantine Empire

5 Review Who were the ghazis? What was the emir?

6 Osman Ghazi or Othman The most successful Emir was Osman or Othman
His followers were called Ottomans Ottoman military success was largely based on the use of gunpowder

7 Orkhan I Declared himself Sultan Muslims served in the military
“Overlord” or “One with Power” Muslims served in the military Non-Muslims did not but had to pay a tax

8 Review What leader’s name gives itself to the Ottomans?
What does sultan mean?

9 Tamerlane/Timur the Lame – Ottoman Enemy!
Got nickname because he was injured by an arrow in the leg Burned the city of Bagdad and crushed the Ottoman forces

10 Mehmed II Conquered Constantinople in 1451
Now the Ottoman Turks controlled the waterways between Europe and Asia Used cannons One was 26ft long and fired 1,200 pound boulders!



13 Who is this supposed to be?


15 Review What did Tamerlane do?
Why was Constantinople an important location?

16 Ottomans conquer more! Mecca and Medina Egypt Syria and Persia

17 Suleyman the Lawgiver The Ottoman Empire peaked under Suleyman
Started to infringe upon Central Europe Created a law code to handle both Civil and Criminal matters What is the difference between Civil and Criminal law?

18 Suleyman the Magnificant

19 Ottoman Slave System Devshirme Janissaries
Under this system the Ottoman Turks captured young boys from conquered territories, converted them to Islam, trained them, then made them soldiers Janissaries Trained them to be loyal to the Sultan; heart of the Ottoman war machine

20 Decline Slowly declined due to dynastic violence
Each new Sultan would have his brother strangled and kept his sons in prison Produced a long line of weak sultans

21 Ticket Out!!! What leader were the Ottoman Turks named for?
What was the greatest accomplishment of the Ottoman Turks? How did they do it? Why was Suleyman important?

22 Chapter 18.2 The Safavid Empire

23 Essential Questions Who were the Safavids?
What were the patterns of cultural blending and why were they important?

24 The Safavid Empire Shi’ite Muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia between the 16th and 18th Centuries Do you remember the difference between Shi’ite and Sunni Muslims? What the name of Persia now? Culturally diverse empire

25 Cultural Blending Prompted by one or more of the following: Migration
Pursuit of religious freedom Trade Conquest

26 Results of Cultural Blending
Language Religion/ethics Government Racial/Ethnic blending Arts/architecture

27 Review What branch of Islam were the Safavids?
What events/actions contribute to cultural blending? What are the outcomes of cultural blending?

28 Back to the Safavids Isma’il conquers what is most of Iran/Persia
12 years old To celebrate, he made himself the Shah = King Brutal ruler – destroyed the Sunni population


30 Safavid Golden Age Shah Abbas – Abbas the Great
Created a culture that blended Ottoman, Persian, and Arab worlds Reformed government Religious tolerance Built new capital at Esfahan Persian rugs became in high demand

31 Review Who started the Safavids? What was the name of the territory?
What country is it today? Name one contribution of Shah Abba?

32 Sum it up! Write down: 3 things you learned
2 things you want to learn more about 1 question you have

33 18.3 The Mughals Essential Questions Who were the Mughals?
What is their cultural legacy in India and the World?


35 Setting the Stage By the 400’s, the Gupta Empire had crumbled
Then Muslim Turks and Afghans invaded Descendents of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane They called themselves Mughals (Means Mongols)

36 Babur In 1494, an 11 year old boy inherited a Kingdom in Central Asia – His name was Babur He invaded and swept down through India He laid the foundations for the Mughal Empire


38 Review – get with an elbow partner – 30 seconds!!!!
What does “Mughal” mean? Who was the “first” Mughal? What country?

39 Akbar Babur’s grandson was named Akbar Military conqueror
Liberal ruler Practiced religious tolerance Married Hindu princesses Blended cultures Art and architecture flourished

40 What is this building called?


42 Taj Mahal Facts Built by Shah Jahan to honor his wife
The construction of this monument took a time period of 22 years. A workforce of 20,000 laborers was brought from here and there for building the Taj Mahal. People say that Shah Jahan ordered that the hands of the craftsmen and architect be chopped off after building Taj Mahal, as he did not want them to build another grand monument as this one.

43 More Taj Mahal Facts It is said that Shah Jahan had planned to build another Taj Mahal in black marble as his own tomb. The Taj Mahal is considered to be the seventh wonder of the world. The walls and dome of Taj Mahal were covered with semi precious stones and gems that were later plundered in successive wars.

44 Decline of Empire Rulers drained Empire of resources
Central power weakened opening the door for European control

45 Review What were some of the characteristics of Akbar?
Who built the Taj Mahal? Why?

46 Review Summaries in one word!

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