Presentation on theme: " Who were the Ottoman Turks? Why were they important relative to the development of European and Asian worlds?"— Presentation transcript:
Who were the Ottoman Turks? Why were they important relative to the development of European and Asian worlds?
From first semester, what does Byzantium sound like? Ghazis – warriors for Islam Formed military societies under an emir Emir – chief Lived on the frontiers of the Byzantine Empire
Who were the ghazis? What was the emir?
The most successful Emir was Osman or Othman His followers were called Ottomans Ottoman military success was largely based on the use of gunpowder
Declared himself Sultan “Overlord” or “One with Power” Muslims served in the military Non-Muslims did not but had to pay a tax
What leader’s name gives itself to the Ottomans? What does sultan mean?
Got nickname because he was injured by an arrow in the leg Burned the city of Bagdad and crushed the Ottoman forces
Conquered Constantinople in 1451 Now the Ottoman Turks controlled the waterways between Europe and Asia Used cannons One was 26ft long and fired 1,200 pound boulders!
What did Tamerlane do? Why was Constantinople an important location?
Mecca and Medina Egypt Syria and Persia
The Ottoman Empire peaked under Suleyman Started to infringe upon Central Europe Created a law code to handle both Civil and Criminal matters What is the difference between Civil and Criminal law?
Devshirme Under this system the Ottoman Turks captured young boys from conquered territories, converted them to Islam, trained them, then made them soldiers Janissaries Trained them to be loyal to the Sultan; heart of the Ottoman war machine
Slowly declined due to dynastic violence Each new Sultan would have his brother strangled and kept his sons in prison Produced a long line of weak sultans
What leader were the Ottoman Turks named for? What was the greatest accomplishment of the Ottoman Turks? How did they do it? Why was Suleyman important?
The Safavid Empire
Who were the Safavids? What were the patterns of cultural blending and why were they important?
Shi’ite Muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia between the 16 th and 18 th Centuries Do you remember the difference between Shi’ite and Sunni Muslims? What the name of Persia now? Culturally diverse empire
Prompted by one or more of the following: Migration Pursuit of religious freedom Trade Conquest
Language Religion/ethics Government Racial/Ethnic blending Arts/architecture
What branch of Islam were the Safavids? What events/actions contribute to cultural blending? What are the outcomes of cultural blending?
Isma’il conquers what is most of Iran/Persia 12 years old To celebrate, he made himself the Shah = King Brutal ruler – destroyed the Sunni population
Shah Abbas – Abbas the Great Created a culture that blended Ottoman, Persian, and Arab worlds Reformed government Religious tolerance Built new capital at Esfahan Persian rugs became in high demand
Who started the Safavids? What was the name of the territory? What country is it today? Name one contribution of Shah Abba?
Write down: 3 things you learned 2 things you want to learn more about 1 question you have
Essential Questions Who were the Mughals? What is their cultural legacy in India and the World?
By the 400’s, the Gupta Empire had crumbled Then Muslim Turks and Afghans invaded Descendents of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane They called themselves Mughals (Means Mongols)
In 1494, an 11 year old boy inherited a Kingdom in Central Asia – His name was Babur He invaded and swept down through India He laid the foundations for the Mughal Empire
What does “Mughal” mean? Who was the “first” Mughal? What country?
Babur’s grandson was named Akbar Military conqueror Liberal ruler Practiced religious tolerance Married Hindu princesses Blended cultures Art and architecture flourished
Built by Shah Jahan to honor his wife The construction of this monument took a time period of 22 years. A workforce of 20,000 laborers was brought from here and there for building the Taj Mahal. People say that Shah Jahan ordered that the hands of the craftsmen and architect be chopped off after building Taj Mahal, as he did not want them to build another grand monument as this one.
It is said that Shah Jahan had planned to build another Taj Mahal in black marble as his own tomb. The Taj Mahal is considered to be the seventh wonder of the world. The walls and dome of Taj Mahal were covered with semi precious stones and gems that were later plundered in successive wars.
Rulers drained Empire of resources Central power weakened opening the door for European control
What were some of the characteristics of Akbar? Who built the Taj Mahal? Why?