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CS 150 lecture 2

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Review Reasons for studying programming languages Language evaluation criteria –Readability Simplicity? Orthogonality? –Writability Influences on language design Language design trade offs Implementation methods

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“those that forget their history are doomed to repeat it.”

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Thanks to Google images…

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Plankakul Konrad Zuse Why did this come to be?

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Speedcoding John Backus

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Univac Compiling System Grace Murray Hooper

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Von Neumann Machines

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Fortran John Backus and group

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LISP 1958 (defun append (L M) (cond ((null L) M) (T (cons (car l) (append (cdr L) M)) ))) John McCarthy

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ML (Meta Language) 1980’s Robin Milner fun size Empty = 0 (* size of b_tree = # nodes *) | size (Node (lft, _, rht)) = 1 + size lft + size rht;

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Peter Naur : ACM and GAMM ALGOL ALGOL 58 Program // the main program, calculate the mean of // some numbers begin integer N; Read Int(N); begin real array Data[1:N]; real sum, avg; integer i; sum:=0; for i:=1 step 1 until N do begin real val; Read Real(val); Data[i]:=if val<0 then -val else val end; for i:=1 step 1 until N do sum:=sum Data[i]; avg:=sum/N; Print Real(avg) end end

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Grace Murray Hopper, again COBOL 1959 PROCEDURE DIVISION. MAIN-PARAGRAPH. MOVE X TO Y IF Y > Z THEN ADD Z TO X MOVE X TO Z ELSE DISPLAY END-IF STOP RUN.

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John Kemeny of Dartmouth BASIC Dartmouth 1960’s LET X=5 DIM INTLIST(99) INPUT LISTLEN

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PL/I Because of?

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Ken Iverson --APL 1960

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Ralph Griswold SNOBOL 1960’s String pattern matching

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SIMULA 1967 Basic idea of class Nygaard and Dahl

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Niklaus Wirth Pascal Simplicity by design Then Modula Then Oberon

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Ada 1970’s to 1983 What is ADA for?

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Alan Kay : Smalltalk OOP Xerox Parc

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C Dennis Ritchie Based on the language B At Bell labs – used in the UNIX project

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C++ Bjarne Stroustrup

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Bertran Meyer : Eiffel hybrid

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Jame Gosling : Java SUN

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C# Anders Hejlsberg Designer of Turbo Pascal Microsoft product

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For all you Linux buffs

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Class discussion Continuation of evolution? What would be the ideal programming language today?

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Assignment How/In what terms did the speaker discuss evolution in the video? Is he an advocate of functional programming languages or no?

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