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Counting Computer Science as both a Mathematics and Science credit in Wisconsin Andy Kuemmel and Joe Kmoch akuemmel@madison.k12.wi.us joe@jkmoch.com 9/10/2012

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Takeaways Goal: that we begin the process to allow computer science to count for both mathematics and science Basis: Computer Science should be part of the core curriculum all students should take in Wisconsin Why???

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Computing and mathematics is one of the TOP 10 fastest growing major occupational groups 2010-2020. 150,000+ job openings in computing annually. 1 in every 2 STEM jobs will be in computing in 2020. Quick Facts about Computing Jobs Though 2020 Sources: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections 2010-2020, available at http://www.bls.gov/emp/. Educational levels are calculated from BLS Occupational Projections Data, Employment 2010-2020, available at http://data.bls.gov/oep/ and the BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook 2010-2020, available at http://bls.gov/ooh/. http://www.bls.gov/emp/http://data.bls.gov/oep/http://bls.gov/ooh/

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Not nearly enough to fill yearly projections in CS Annual STEM Degrees (2009) and Annual STEM Job Openings (2010-2020) Sources: Degree data are calculated from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Science and Engineering Indicators 2012, available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/appendix.htm. Annual jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections 2010-2020, available at http://www.bls.gov/emp/. STEM is defined here to include non-medical degrees and occupations. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/appendix.htmhttp://www.bls.gov/emp/

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Huge Opportunities for Computing Careers Top 10 STEM Occupations by Total Employment in 2020 Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections 2010-2020, available at http://www.bls.gov/emp/. STEM is defined here to include non-medical occupations. http://www.bls.gov/emp/

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Computing Careers are Family Supporting Top 10 Major Occupational Groups 2010-2020 and Average Salaries in May 2011 Sources: Jobs data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections 2010-2020, available at http://www.bls.gov/emp/. Salary data are from BLS Occupational Employment Statistics, May 2011, available at http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_nat.htm.http://www.bls.gov/emp/http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_nat.htm Major Occupational Group % Growth 2010-2020 2011 Average Annual Salary 1Healthcare Support Occupations35%$27,370 2Personal Care and Service Occupations27%$24,620 3Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations26%$72,730 4Community and Social Service Occupations24%$43,830 5Construction and Extraction Occupations22%$44,630 6Computer and Mathematical Occupations22%$78,730 7Business and Financial Operations Occupations17%$68,740 8Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations16%$67,470 9 Education, Training, and Library Occupations15%$50,870 10 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations15%$33,200

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Current Situation in WI In Madison area it’s 48% (meaning we can’t fill 52% of computing jobs) and only 27% in SE Wisconsin (http://www.ncwit.org/edjobsmap)

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Relationship between CS, the sciences and mathematics CS is becoming required knowledge in any STEM field. – For example, biology and physics heavily depend on computer science CS grew out of applied math and has a high correlation with discrete math topics CS encourages students to learn how to solve problems, use abstraction, and create detailed algorithms; all necessary in math and the sciences Barbara Ericson, Georgia Tech

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Computer Science and STEM CS is explicitly in STEMCS is explicitly in STEM. The Department of Education has recognized computer science as a science part of STEM. This is important for applying for funds related to STEM. http://www.acm.org/public- policy/RTTT_i3_Funding_Memo_v2.pdf 9

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Computer Science and CCSS Mathematics Incorporate CS in the Math Common Core StandardIncorporate CS in the Math Common Core Standard. This article with a statement by John White, then President of ACM, relates to the inclusion of computer science in the set of mathematics standards then being developed by Council of Chief State School Officers and the National Governors Association for use by all states. < http://www.drdobbs.com/move-to-incorporate-computing-in-math- cu/224200056. Actual ACM Press Release http://www.acm.org/press-room/news-releases/2010/common-core-standards- statement/ Cameron Wilson, Director of Public Policy for ACM, wrote a longer blog post with more context as to what this means. http://cacm.acm.org/blogs/blog-cacm/80686-computing-and-the- common-core/fulltext 10

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CS and CCSS Modeling Standards From CCSS, “Modeling is best interpreted not as a collection of isolated topics but rather in relation to other standards.” In Computer Science, modeling and simulation is a core concept in AP CS courses

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Comparing CT Core Concepts and CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice CCSS Standards for Math PracticeComputational Thinking core concepts 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them Data collection, analysis, representation Problem Decomposition/Analysis 2. Reason abstractly and quantitativelyAbstraction 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others Algorithms and Procedures 4. Model with mathematicsModeling & Simulation 5. Use appropriate tools strategicallyAutomation 6. Attend to precisionData collection, analysis, representation 7. Look for and make use of structureParallelization Algorithms & Procedures 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning Algorithms & Procedures

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Comparing CT Core Dispositions and CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice CCSS Standards for Math PracticeComputational Thinking core dispositions 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them Confidence with complexity Persistence in working through problems 2. Reason abstractly and quantitativelyAbility to deal with open ended problems 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others Ability to communicate and collaborate to achieve a common goal 4. Model with mathematicsTolerance for ambiguity 5. Use appropriate tools strategicallyAbility to communicate and collaborate to achieve a common goal 6. Attend to precisionPersistence in working through problems 7. Look for and make use of structureAbility to deal with open-ended problems 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning Ability to deal with open-ended problems

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Comparing K-12 Science Framework with Computer Science Scientific and Engineering PracticesComputational Thinking core concepts & dispositions Asking questionsProblem decomposition and analysis Developing and using modelsModeling and simulation Planning and carrying out investigationsAlgorithms and procedures Automation Analyzing and interpreting dataData collection, analysis, representation Using mathematics and computational thinking All 7 core concepts Constructing explanationsAlgorithms and procedures Engaging in argument from evidenceAlgorithms and procedures Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information Disposition: Ability to Communicate and Collaborate… 14

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CS, Math Stds and Science Framework The CT core concepts and dispositions, clearly support the Standards for Mathematical Practice and the Framework for K-12 Science Education, the basis for the Next Generation Science Standards These CT core concepts are part of the CSTA CS Standards, the Next Generation Science Standards, are deeply embedded in the proposed new APCS Principles Course and deeply embedded in standards and curricula in a growing number of countries including Britain, New Zealand, Australia, etc. A collaboration of efforts between mathematics, the sciences and computer science would better achieve both the CCSS Standards and the Science Framework.

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Good Range of CS Courses Exploring Computer Science – http://exploringcs.com http://exploringcs.com – Los Angeles, Chicago, elsewhere AP Computer Science Principles – In pilot stage including Madison West HS AP Computer Science A – Most recently revised in 2004 (began in 1983)

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CS counts for graduation credit in these states Georgia counts CS as a science credit These states count it as math: Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, Virginia http://www.acm.org/runningonempty/fullrep ort.pdf (table 2 page 7) http://www.acm.org/runningonempty/fullrep ort.pdf

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Georgia Counts CS as Science The reference for AP CS A counting as a science for graduation from high school is at http://public.doe.k12.ga.us/DMGetDocument. aspx/guidancefor4thscience_courses.pdf?p=6 CC6799F8C1371F6E06D9968A92F08FDD1C22 72A3A9A9793096E96376DC7C4CE&Type=D. http://public.doe.k12.ga.us/DMGetDocument. aspx/guidancefor4thscience_courses.pdf?p=6 CC6799F8C1371F6E06D9968A92F08FDD1C22 72A3A9A9793096E96376DC7C4CE&Type=D.

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Drivers of CS in K-12 http://csta.acm.org http://computinginthecore.org

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Commitment Wisconsin CS teachers are committed – To seeing CS become part of the core curriculum – To having it count as both math and science – To working toward revised CS certification standards and approaches – To developing our partnerships with CS Departments at UW-Madison, Marquette, and UW-LaCrosse

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