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Chemistry Unit 2: Scientific Measurement

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1 Chemistry Unit 2: Scientific Measurement
Salisbury High School Spring 2007

2 Chemistry February 12, 2007 1) Begin Unit on Measurements 2) Notes on measurements, accuracy, precision 3) HW: WS 2.1

3 Measurements – Opening Questions
1. What is the purpose of a measurement? 2. Why are measurements important to science?

4 Measurements Measurements are fundamental to science Measurements may be: a. Qualitative b. Quantitative

5 Measurements Qualitative Measurement: is a non-numerical measurement
Example: The solution turned brown when ammonia was added to iron (III) chloride

6 Quantitative Measurements
Quantitative Measurements: consist of two parts a. A number b. A scale (or unit)

7 Quantitative Measurements
Scale (unit) Example: The rock has a mass of 9 kg Number

8 Practice: Classify as qualitative or quantitative
1. Water is a liquid 2. The temperature was 9°C. 3. The book is 12 cm long 4. The mixture contains 5 blue marbles and 12 g of red clay

9 Terms Used for Measurements
In comparing scientific results, the following terms are applied: a. accuracy b. precision

10 Accuracy Accuracy refers to the agreement of one experimental result to the true or accepted value The closer the value is to the true value, the more accurate one is

11 Accuracy Examples of accuracy: kicking a soccer goal hitting a three point shot determining the value of  to be 3.13

12 Practice: Tell if the accuracy is good or poor
a. Finding the percent H2O2 to be 2.9% (the bottle says it contains 3%) b. Finding that a 2 Liter bottle only contains 1.5 Liters of soda c. Filling a 1000 mL volumetric flask with 1050 mL of water

13 Precision Precision refers to how close several different experimental values are to each other

14 Precision Examples: Scoring three goals in a soccer game Shooting an air ball five times Finding the value for  to be 3.12, 3.15, 3.13

15 Precision and Accuracy Problems
Precision problems usually arise from the skill of the person doing the experiment or the division of the measuring instruments

16 Precision and Accuracy Problems
Accuracy problems usually related to the quality of the equipment used to make measurements Precision relates to how consistent the results are; accuracy relates to how correct the results are

17 Describe the accuracy and precision of the following
A student makes the following grades: a. 99, 100, 98, 100 b. 45, 43, 44, 42 c. 100, 23, 60, 89

18 Scientific Notation Occasionally some measurements are really small or exceptionally large 1, 400, 000 km, the distance to the sun , the Universal Gravitation Constant To help you use these, you may express them in scientific notation

19 Scientific Notation Continued
In scientific notation, a number is written as the products of two numbers: a coefficient and some power of 10

20 Scientific Notation Continued
The general form for scientific notation is: M x 10n where M is  1 but < 10 n is an integer and exponent {integers must be a positive or negative whole number}

21 Rules for Scientific Notation
1. Determine “M” by moving the decimal point in the original number to the left or to the right so that only one non-zero digit remains to the left of the decimal

22 Rules for Scientific Notation
2. Determine “n” by counting the number of places that the decimal point was moved. If the decimal was moved to the left, n is positive; if the decimal is moved to the right, n is negative

23 Guided Practice Express the following in scientific notation:
1, 400, 000 km, the distance to the sun , the Universal Gravitational Constant

24 Independent Practice Express the following in scientific notation:
b c d e f

25 Express the following scientific notations in the long form
1. 7 x 104 x 104 3. 7 x 10-5 x 1010 x 105

26 Express the following in scientific notation
B C. 456

27 Rules for Calculations Involving Scientific Notation
1. Addition/Subtraction: In order to add or subtract numbers in scientific notation, the numbers must be expressed in the same exponent or “n”

28 Rules for Calculations Involving Scientific Notation
Example: 6.3 x x 105 1) Convert one number to the same exponent 2) Add the number

29 Solution 6.3 x104 = 0.63 x 105 0.63 x 105 x 105 2.73 x105

30 Rule for Multiplication
2. When multiplying, multiply the coefficients and add the exponents together (they do NOT have to be in the same power)

31 Rule for Multiplication
Example: 4 x 105 * 2 x 102 4 x 105 * 2 x 102 = 8 x 107

32 Rule for Division When dividing, divide the coefficients and subtract the exponents (top exponent minus bottom exponent) Example: (4 x 105) / (2 x 107) Ans: 2 x 10-2

33 Complete the following calculations
1. (2.4 x 10-3) - (1.2 x 10-2) 2. (7.4 x 10-8) / (3.4 x 104) 3. ( 3.45 x 104) * (2.3 x 103)

34 Chemistry February 13, 2007

35 SI System The SI system is a universal system of measurements based on powers of “10” The US and Burma are the only major countries that do not use the SI system

36 SI System The SI system used prefixes “Kilo-” means 1000; symbol is k
“Centi-” means 0.01; symbol is c “Milli-” means 0.001; symbol is m “Deci-” means 0.1; symbol is d

37 Review-Chemistry Copy and complete the chart in your notes:
Name of Prefix Symbol Meaning milli c 1000 deci

38 Length Length is the distance between two points The SI unit of length is the meter (m) Devices used to measure length: Rulers, Tape Measurers, and Meter Sticks

39 Volume Volume is the amount of space an object occupies Volume is length * width * height The SI unit for volume is m3 The liter (L) is also used for volume of liquids

40 Volume Continued Conversions for volume:
1 dm3 (decimeter cubed ) = 1 L 1 cm3 = 1 mL (milliliter) Devices Used to Measure Volume: Ruler, Graduated Cylinder

41 Mass Mass is the amount of matter that an object contains
Mass is measured in kilograms (kg) Grams (g) are also used but are very small

42 Mass and Weight Mass does not change Weight does change Weight is the force that the Earth exhibits on a mass Weight is measured in Newtons (N)

43 Mass & Weight Continued
Question: How much mass does a 60 kg person have on the moon? Answer: 60 kg Question: How much does a 480 N object weigh on the moon? Answer: 80 N

44 Time Time is the interval between two events Unit of time is the second

45 Temperature Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of particles Temperature measures how hot or cold an object is

46 Temperature Temperature is measured in Kelvin in the SI system K = °C Temperature is usually given in °C

47 Convert the following temperatures
°C to K K to °C K to °C °C to K

48 Density Density is the ratio of mass to volume
Units for density include g/cm3, g/mL, or kg/m3 Mathematically:

49 Substances and their densities: Water 1.00 g/mL Table Sugar 1.59 g/mL
Density Continued Substances and their densities: Water g/mL Table Sugar g/mL Gold g/mL Ice g/mL Ethanol g/mL

50 Density 1. What is the density of an object that has a mass of 5 g and a volume of 2.5 cm3? 2. What is the mass of an object with a density of 10 g/mL and a volume of 2 mL?

51 Demonstration of Density
OBJ: to see if different sodas have different densities We will use coke and diet coke to see if the two sodas have different densities Question: Based on what was observed, what can you conclude about the density of coke and diet coke?

52 Review-Copy and Answer in Notes
1. What is density? 2. How much space does 5 g of a substance occupy if it has a density of 7.6 g / mL?

53 Significant Figures Significant Figures (Sig Figs): include all the numbers that are known precisely plus one last digit that is estimated

54 Significant Figures Brainstorm: Think about when you make a measurement. Your reading is based on the instrument that you are using. The last digit in a measurement is an estimate

55 In a measurement, the last digit is uncertain (meaning it is estimated and not known exactly)
Question: What is the value in having the last digit in a measurement estimated? By estimating the last digit, one can obtain additional information about the measurement

56 Activity for Sig Figs Three students measure the length of the board using 3 different meter sticks. One of the meter sticks only measures in units of 1. The second meter stick measures in unit of The third meter stick measures in units of 0.01. Question: How precisely can each student measure the board?

57 Activity for Sig Figs The following measurements are obtained: Student 1: 3.5 m; Student 2: 3.70; Student 3: m

58 Activity for Sig Figs 1. Which student has the most precise measurement? 2. If another student had to repeat the measurements, which ruler should the student use in order to be precise? 3. Why did student 2 report the value as 3.70?

59 Rules for Determining the Amount of Significant Figures
In order to determine the number of significant figures in a measurement: 1. Every non-zero digit is significant. Example (Ex): has 3 sig figs

60 2. Zeros between non-zero digits are significant
Ex: has 4 sig figs (the zero is between non zero digits) 3. Zeros appearing in front of all non-zero digits are NOT significant Ex: has only 2 sig figs

61 4. Zeros at the end of a number and to the right of a decimal point are significant
Example: has 3 sig figs *The zero after a decimal point is significant only if a non-zero digit precedes it

62 5. Zeros at the end of a measurement and to the left of the decimal point are not significant unless the zero was measured Example: 300 has only 1 sig fig 300.0 has 4 sig figs

63 Explain why “300 m” has only 1 sig fig but “300.0 m” has 4 sig figs?
Question Explain why “300 m” has only 1 sig fig but “300.0 m” has 4 sig figs? Consider the precision and what type of ruler may have been used to determine these values

64 Determine the number of sig fig:
a g b mL c kg d cm e mg f m g g a. 3 b. 3 c. 2 d. 4 e. 5 f. 5 g. 1

65 Determine the number of sig figs in: a. 456 b. 4.00 c. 6.090 d. 4000
Review Determine the number of sig figs in: a. 456 b c d e

66 Practice – Sig Figs 1) Visit Sig Fig Link ( 2) Take Quiz at on Sig Figs (individually)

67 Rules for Sig Figs in Caculations
An answer cannot be more precise than the least precise measurement from which it was calculated Basically, if you have to do a calculation with sig figs, your answer cannot be more precise than your least precise measurement

68 Multiplication and Division
Multiplication and Division: The number of significant figures in the answer (result) is the same as the number of significant figures in your least precise measurement

69 Report 6.3 * 6.45 * 8.589 with the correct amount of sig figs
Example Problem Report 6.3 * 6.45 * with the correct amount of sig figs

70 Example Problem 1. Determine the amount of sig figs in each number: 6.3 = 2; = 3; = 4 2. Calculate your answer 3. Report your answer to the correct amount of sig figs

71 Your answer should have 2 sig figs 349.01401
Solution 6.3 * 6.45 * 8.589= Your answer should have 2 sig figs First 2 Sig Figs Ans) 350 or 3.5 x 102

72 Additional Practice a. 2.7 / 5.27 b. 4.5 * 9.56 c. 2 * 5.6

73 Rules for Addition and Subtraction
Addition and Subtraction: The answer (result) has the same number of decimal places as the least precise measurement

74 Example Problem 1. Determine which measurement is least precise 2. Calculate 3. Place in correct number of sig figs Solution: is the least precise = Ans) 31.1

75 Report the following answers with the correct amount of sig figs:
Practice Report the following answers with the correct amount of sig figs:

76 Percent Error (PE) Percent Error is the comparison of the actual (or true) value to the experimental Essentially, it is the “percent off” that you are from the actual answer

77 Experimental Value is what you obtained
Percent Error (PE) Experimental Value is what you obtained True (Actual) Value is what the true value is (correct answer you should have gotten)

78 Percent Error = PE

79 Example Problems 1. You measure the mass of an object to be 5.11 g. The true mass is 5.20 g. What is the percent error? 2. You find the value for  to What is your percent error?

80 Direct Relationship Adsf dsafd

81 Indirect (Inverse) Relationship
Adsf dsafd

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