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CP Chemistry – January 23, 2007 1) Welcome! Please choose any seat with a green sheet. 2) Complete the student information sheet on your desk.

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Presentation on theme: "CP Chemistry – January 23, 2007 1) Welcome! Please choose any seat with a green sheet. 2) Complete the student information sheet on your desk."— Presentation transcript:


2 CP Chemistry – January 23, 2007 1) Welcome! Please choose any seat with a green sheet. 2) Complete the student information sheet on your desk.

3 CP Chemistry – January 23, 2007 1) Complete Student Information Sheet 2) Review Course Syllabus 3) Notes: Introduction to chemistry 4) Activity: Expectations for course 5) Complete Textbook Questionnaire 6) Homework: Syllabus Quiz & Interviews

4 CP Chemistry Spring 2007

5 Chemistry January 25, 2007 1) Notes on Chemistry & Branches 2)

6 Introduction to Chemistry Chemistry is the study of the composition of matter and the changes they undergo

7 Opportunities for Chemists Chemists are involved in a variety of different jobs that include the following: a. Textiles b. Cosmetics c. Development of new medicines such as AZT d. Research e. Analysis of Substances’ Compositions

8 Branches of Chemistry Chemistry has 5 main branches: a. Organic Chemistry: study of substances that contain carbon b. Inorganic Chemistry: study of substances that do NOT contain carbon

9 Branches of Chemistry Cont c. Physical Chemistry: deals with the applications of theories and experiments to describe the behavior of substances d. Analytical Chemistry: deals with the composition of substances e. Biochemistry: study of the chemistry of living things

10 Practicality of Chemistry Chemistry is practical in that it can be applied to improving the lives of humans Technology is the application of scientific knowledge to improve the quality of life for humans

11 Homework Assignment You are to interview three (3) individuals who had taken high school Chemistry previously. Record their responses to the following questions: 1. Describe your high school Chemistry experience. (What did you learn? How do you remember it?) 2. Describe the relevance of Chemistry to your daily life. In other words, describe situations where Chemistry improves your life

12 Review Questions Determine which field of chemistry would most likely do the following: a. Predict how a liquid will react as it is cooled to absolute zero b. Study the nutritional value of vitamin E in the body c. Determine the percentage of Calcium ions in ocean water d. Study the compounds of nitrogen

13 Early History of Chemistry Science is a continuously changing process Early pioneers in chemistry were called alchemists Alchemists first appeared with the Taoists in China and Pythagoreans in Greece after the 6th century BCE

14 Alchemists Alchemists sought to transmute (or change) one substance into another –usually they tried to turn lead into gold Early alchemists developed many techniques still used today such as distillation as well as specially shaped bottles such as flasks

15 History of Chemistry Continued Chemistry is derived from an Arabic word meaning “gold cooking” Alchemy declined in the late 1400s as the field of medicine began to grow

16 Growth of Chemistry From Alchemy In 1606, King Charles II formed the “Royal Society of London.” This group used the scientific method to study matter in addition to what alchemists had learned

17 Matter and Properties Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space Matter makes up everything

18 Matter and Properties There are four states of matter: Solid Liquid Gas Plasma

19 Solids Solids have definite shape and volume The particles are tightly packed together Examples of Solids: Coal, Sugar, Gold

20 Liquids Liquids have a fixed volume but change shape The particles are NOT as tightly packed together as a solid Examples: Water, Milk

21 Gases Gases do NOT have a definite shape or volume The particles are very loosely packed together Examples: Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide Liquids and Gases both take the shape of their containers

22 Plasma Plasma is the most common state of matter in the universe It is not commonly found on Earth Plasma is a gaseous mixture of electrons and positive ions

23 Plasma Examples: Fluorescent and Neon Lights The Sun Plasma is produced by heating a gas to an extremely high temperature

24 Classwork Activity Arrange the four states of matter in order of a. The closeness of the molecules to each other b. Provide examples of each type of matter

25 Wiki – Phases of Matter Address:

26 Physical Properties Physical Properties are properties that can be measured without changing the substance’s composition Examples: Color, Mass, Melting Point

27 Physical Change Physical Changes are any changes to a substance that still causes the substance to retain its original properties that it had before Examples: Melting, Boiling, Cutting, Sublimation

28 Activity Determine which of the following represents a physical change: a. The freezing of water to form ice cubes b. The generation of carbon dioxide from Alka Seltzer tablets c. The cutting of wood

29 Chemical Properties Chemical Properties are the ability of different substances to undergo chemical reactions and form new substances Examples: The burning of wood Milk turning sour Leaves changing color in the fall

30 Chemical Changes A chemical change occurs when a substance undergoes a change in composition New substances are always formed during a chemical change Example: the combustion of methane (CH 4 ) to form H 2 O and CO 2

31 Chemical Changes Continued Chemical Changes usually require or release energy Evidences of a chemical reaction: a. Evolution of Light and Heat b. Production of a gas c. Formation of a solid

32 Classifying Substances Substances can be classified into the following three groups: a. Mixtures b. Elements c. Compounds

33 Matter Can the substance be separated by ordinary physical means? YES NO Mixture Element or Compound

34 Elements Elements are composed solely of one type of substance Examples: –Fe, Iron; O 2, Oxygen; Ca, Calcium Elements cannot be broken down further

35 Compounds Compounds are composed of two or more elements Compounds can only be chemical broken down into component elements Examples: CO 2 and H 2 O

36 Mixtures Mixtures are a combination of two or more different types of matter The different types of matter are not chemical mixed together

37 Mixtures Mixtures can be separated through physical means There are two types of mixtures: a. Homogeneous Mixtures b. Heterogeneous Mixtures

38 Homogeneous Mixtures Homogeneous Mixtures appear to be composed of only one form They are uniform in composition Examples: Coffee & Salt Water A solution is another name for a homogeneous mixture

39 Heterogeneous Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixtures are composed of two or more different forms They are NOT uniform in composition Examples: Sand and Spaghetti Sauce with Meatballs


41 Homework Find 5 substances at home and classify them as to element, compound, heterogeneous, and homogeneous mixture. You must find one substance the represents each category of classification

42 Practice Classify each of the following as element, compound, heterogeneous mixture or homogeneous mixture a. Chlorine b. Water c. Soil d. Sugar Water e. Oxygen f. Carbon Dioxide g. Rocky Road Ice Cream h. Alcohol i. Pure Air j. iron

43 Chemical Symbols A chemical symbol is a short hand abbreviation for each element Examples: Hydrogen  H Iron  Fe The symbols come from the English or Latin name for the element

44 Chemical Reactions In a chemical reaction, one or more substances change into a new substance Reactants are the original substances present in a chemical reaction Products are the new substances produced

45 Chemical Reactions Continued Chemical reactions are always written in the following manner: Reactants Products

46 Practice: Identify the reactants and products in the following: 1. H 2 + O 2  H 2 O 2. Mg + O 2  MgO 3. HgCl 2  Hg + Cl 2 4. Fe(OH) 3 + HCl  H 2 O +FeCl 3

47 Law of Conservation of Mass Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass is neither created or destroyed in a chemical reaction If 5 g of Na reacts with 10 g of Oxygen completely, what mass of NaO is produced?

48 Law of Conservation of Mass Cont 1) 45 g of hydrogen reacts with 60 g of oxygen. How much H 2 O is formed? 2) If 500 g of KClO 3 decomposes and produces 303 g of KCl, how many grams of O 2 are produced? 2 KClO 3  2 KCl + 3 O 2

49 Law of Conservation of Mass Continued 3. How much CO 2 is produced from 200 g of CaCO 3 decomposing if 112 g of CaO are produced? CaCO 3  CaO + CO 2

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