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Chapter 6 NEWTON’S 2 ND LAW Unbalanced Force Causes Acceleration

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Newton’s 2 nd Law Unbalanced force means a net force greater than zero F net > 0 The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to and in the same direction as the unbalanced force causing it Acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass of the object

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Formulas a ~ F a ~ 1/m a = F /m or F = ma Acceleration in m/s 2 Mass in kilograms (kg) Force in Newtons (N) N = kg m /s 2

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Examples of Forces Mechanical push or pull Gravity Friction Electric Magnetic Nuclear

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Friction Friction is a force that opposes motion Negative force Causes deceleration Generates heat (energy lost from system) Rolling friction is less than sliding friction

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Weight & Falling Weight is force Weight is a product of mass and the acceleration of gravity F g = m g g = 10 m/s 2 (Earth) Weight is measured in Newtons (N) 4.5N = 1 lb When falling through the air weight pulls down but air drag pushes up Net force is difference between weight and drag If weight = drag acceleration is zero (terminal velocity )

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Pressure Pressure is force over an area Pressure = Force / Area (P = F/A) Measured in Newtons / square meter (N/m 2 = pascal) Pounds / square inch (psi)

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Newton’s Second Law of Motion – Force & Acceleration

Newton’s Second Law of Motion – Force & Acceleration

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