Presentation on theme: "The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning Content Enhancement Planning, Teaching and Assessing with Integrated Sets of Content Enhancement."— Presentation transcript:
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning Content Enhancement Planning, Teaching and Assessing with Integrated Sets of Content Enhancement Routines Janis Bulgren, Ph.D.
Unit ALL MOST SOME Generalization & Problem Solving Content Manipulation Content: Facts, Concepts, Definitions, Propositions
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning What are the PRINCIPLES of Content Enhancements? Teacher is expert mediator of learning. The integrity of the content must be maintained. Understandings are interactively co- constructed with all students. The needs of all students are met.
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning PLANNING SMARTER Planning With a focus on INTEGRATION of CONTENT ENHANCEMENTS Compatible with other planning guidelines
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
Backward Design and Essential Learning What is sufficient evidence of understanding of critical content?
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning Start with the end in mind Start with unit/lesson questions and benchmarks. Design assessment procedures. Construct activities to meet assessment criteria.
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
Universal Design What will you do to ensure that all students learn critical information and processes? Graphics Explicit instruction Technology Focus on the Big Picture
Unit ALL MOST SOME Content: Facts, Concepts, Definitions, Propositions
Unit ALL MOST SOME Content Manipulation Content: Facts, Concepts, Definitions, Propositions
Shape the Critical Questions. Map the Critical Content. Analyze Difficulties Reach Enhancement Decisions. Teach Strategically Evaluate Mastery Reevaluate Critical Questions The SMARTER Planning Process
Shape the critical questions. “What would be three or four questions that represent the heart and soul of this unit? If students could answer these, you could say that they would do well on the test.” AND “What are the embedded demands and scaffolds that need to be integrated to help answer those questions?”
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning Planning for What is Critical Learning for ALL Students 1) What is the structure of a typical cell? 2) Why is it important to understand the function of each cell part? 3) How do green plants get their food? 4) How is energy released from stored food?
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
which are carried out at the cellular level by NAME DATE The Unit Organizer BIGGER PICTURE LAST UNIT/Experience CURRENT UNIT NEXT UNIT/Experience UNIT SELF-TEST QUESTIONS is about... UNIT RELATIONSHIPS UNIT SCHEDULEUNIT MAP CURRENT UNIT Biology Molecular Form and Function The Flow of Energy Through Systems Meiosis and Mitosis 10/ 1 10/8 10/5 10/1 1 10/9 10/1 2 Introduction Create cell project Group project due Vocabulary quiz Test review Test Life processes in organisms pp organelle s cytoplas m plasma membrane & cell wall (in plants) which are suspended in that is surrounded by the energy photosynthesis cellular respiration which are fueled by from stored food made through the process of released through the process of 1) What is the structure of a typical cell? 2) Why is it important to understand the function of each cell part? 3) How do green plants get their food? 4) How is energy released from stored food? compare/contrast sequence description Figure 2. Example Unit Organizer for the unit “The Flow of Energy Through Systems.”
Analyze difficulties “What would make this unit hard for some, most, or all of my students?” “Do students need help with facts & concepts, manipulations, or generalization, e.g., what manipulations such as compare and contract, sequence, describe, causation were noted on the Unit Organizer?”
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning Concept Comparison Table 2 Overall Concept 1 3 Characteristics 3 9 Extensions 4 Like Characteristics 6 Unlike Characteristics 8 Summary 5 Like Categories 7 Unlike Categories 1 Concept CCommunicate targeted concepts OObtain the Overall Concept MMake lists of known characteristics PPin down Like Characteristics AAssemble Like Categories RRecord Unlike Characteristics IIdentify Unlike Categories NNail down a summary GGo beyond the basics CELL STRUCTURE Animal cell structurePlant cell structure Has plasma membrane surrounding cytoplasm Has organelles suspended in cytoplasm Has no cell wall Has small vacuole Has no chloroplasts Has plasma membrane surrounding cytoplasm Has organelles suspended in cytoplasm Has cell wall Has large vacuole Has chloroplasts Compare nerve cells and muscle cells in animals. Has plasma membrane surrounding cytoplasm Has organelles in cytoplasm The layer around cytoplasm The location of organelles Has no cell wall Has small vacuole Has no chloroplasts Has cell wall Has large vacuole Has chloroplasts The cell boundaries The size of the vacuole The presence of chloroplasts Both animal cells and plant cells have a plasma membrane that surrounds cytoplasm in which organelles are suspended. However, only plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts. Also, the vacuoles in plant cells are larger than the vacuoles in animal cells. Figure 5. Example Concept Comparison Table for the concepts “animal cell structure” and “plant cell structure.”
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2 Overall Concept 1 Concept Characteristics Multiple-Concept Comparison Table, p. 1 Steps 1-3 of the Concept Comparison Routine Step 1: Communicate Targeted ConceptsStep 2: Obtain the Overall ConceptStep 3: Make lists of Known Characteristics
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning Concept 4 Like Characteristics Multiple-Concept Comparison Table, p. 2 Steps 4 -9 of the Concept Comparison Routine Step 4: Pin down Like Characteristics Step 5: Assemble Like Categories Step 6: Record Unlike Characteristics Step 7: Identify Unlike Categories Step 8: Nail down a Summary Step 9: Go beyond the Basics Concept 4 Like Characteristics Like Categories 6 Unlike Characteristics 7 Unlike Categories 6 Unlike Characteristics Extensions 8 Summary Concept
This unit would be hard because: Some students have the background knowledge. Students are required to frequently compare, conclude, find causes, evaluate, etc. Many students have poor question exploration skills. Some students have difficulty identifying important from unimportant information. Major concepts are very abstract, and students need a concrete way to understand them.
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning Golgi apparatus looks like a stack of flattened sacs, one side receives products that are modified and sent to other side to be distributed to parts of cell or to other places outside the cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER system), a maze of membranes arranged as tubes & sacs, produces a variety of molecules & packages them for later use vacuole stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, carbohydrates ribosomes are very small particles that make proteins for use in the cell or to send out of the cell Name: Date: Anchoring Table 6 Characteristics of Known Concept Characteristics of New ConceptCharacteristics Shared Known Concept New Concept Understanding of the New Concept: Unit: Work areas & machines within a fast food restaurant Organelles within the plasma membrane of a cell walls have special windows that regulate what goes in & out of the restaurant manager’s office runs the restaurant small ice cream machine makes special products to stay in restaurant or to send-out generator supplies the power for the whole restaurant and its machines workers’ table provides the work space for preparing and packaging the food counter server puts together the final order (ketchup w/ fries, dressing for salad, etc.) and gives to “eat in” or “to go” customers a container is used for recycling paper, plastic, aluminum, glass cabinet is used for storing supplies plasma membrane regulates the transport of materials in & out of cell lysosomes are small membrane-bound sacs filled with enzymes used to break down food (to be re-used by cell) mitochondria contain ATP, which is the main energy source for the work of the cell nucleus controls cell activities PASS THROUGHS CONTROL CENTER SMALL MACHINES TO MAKE PRODUCTS ENERGY PROVIDER ASSEMBLY LINE SERVER RECYCLING BIN STORAGE Within the plasma membrane of a typical cell are organelles: a nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and vacuoles. Fig. 3. Example Concept Anchoring Table for the Concept “Organelles Within the Plasma Membrane of a Cell.” 3 Known Information on Blackboard
Reach enhancement decisions “How can I enhance the critical content and reduce the difficulty of learning the information in this unit?” AND “What are the few, critical pieces of information that ALL students must know?”
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning CONCEPT DIAGRAM Always Present Sometimes Present Never Present Examples: Nonexamples: TIE DOWN A DEFINITION EXPLORE EXAMPLES Key Words Å PRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLE NOTE KEY WORDS OFFER OVERALL CONCEPT CLASSIFY CHARACTERISTICS Æ Ä À Á Â Ã À Á Â cell membrane cell component boundary barrier phospholipid bilayer non-restrictive is a thin, flexible covering is composed of phospholipid bilayer & proteins acts as a boundary and barrier regulates transport of substances in and out of the cell is in plant and animal cells plasma membrane membranes around cell organelles contains cholesterol (animals only) is rigid is impassive is non-restrictive 0 + cell wall small intestine heart valve The cell membrane, a thin flexible covering composed of a phospholipid bilayer & proteins, is a cell component that acts as a boundary and barrier and regulates the transport of substances in and out of plant and animal cells. Figure 4. Example Concept Diagram for the concept “cell membrane.” 0 organelle CONVEY CONCEPT
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning CONCEPT DIAGRAM CONVEY CONCEPT NOTE KEY WORDS OFFER OVERALL CONCEPT CLASSIFY CHARACTERISTICS Always Present Sometimes Present Never Present Examples: TIE DOWN A DEFINITION EXPLORE EXAMPLES Key Words PRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLE Nonexamples:
Teach Strategically “ How can I provide more informed and explicit instruction?”
Teaching Routines Focus on helping a teacher inform, guide, and involve students in ways that will promote content learning through the use of POWERFUL Teaching Devices EXPLICIT Linking Steps STRUCTURED Cue-Do-Review Sequence
Evaluate Mastery “Are my enhancements working?”
Create tests around the critical questions. And….. If they fail to answer the questions…. Either reteach the content or revise your questions
The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning Question Exploration Guide Date: Title Critical Question #: Name:Text Reference Course Lesson Unit How can we use the main idea? 5 Is there an Overall Idea? Is there a real-world use? 6 What is the Critical Question? What are the Key Terms and explanations? 3 What are the Supporting Questions and answers? The Flow of Energy Through Systems How do green plants get their food? What are chloroplasts? What is chlorophyll? Chloroplasts are structures in the cells of green plants. Chlorophyll is the green pigment located in the chloroplasts. 1) Where do plants get the food they need? 2) How do plants make sugar? 3) Where is sugar made in plants? 4) What is so special about a chloroplast? 5) What is the process of sugar-making in plants called? 6) Other than sugar, are there other products? 1) Plants make their own food (sugar). 2) Plants make sugar by taking energy from sunlight and combining it with water and carbon dioxide. 3) Sugar is made in small bodies in the plant cells called chloroplasts. 4) Chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll. Chlorophyll helps the plant make sugar. 5) The process is called photosynthesis. 6) As part of the process, oxygen is released into the air. Green plants use a process called photosynthesis to make their food (sugar). Explain what happens to sugar production during the winter when daylight is short and the weather is drier. Our atmosphere is, in many ways, a result of the process of photosynthesis. How are current human activities affecting our atmosphere? 3 Figure 6. Example Question Exploration Guide for the Critical Question “How do green plants get their food?” 6 Morgan Welles 10/9 1 2