Presentation on theme: "Content Enhancement Planning, Teaching and Assessing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Content Enhancement Planning, Teaching and Assessing with Integrated Sets ofContent Enhancement RoutinesJanis Bulgren, Ph.D.
2 Unit ALL MOST SOME Content: Facts, Concepts, Definitions, Propositions ManipulationMOSTGeneralization &Problem SolvingSOME
3 What are the PRINCIPLES of Content Enhancements? Teacher is expert mediator of learning.The integrity of the content must be maintained.Understandings are interactively co-constructed with all students.The needs of all students are met.
4 Compatible with other planning guidelines SMARTER PlanningWith a focus onINTEGRATION ofCONTENT ENHANCEMENTSCompatible with other planning guidelines
10 Universal Design Graphics Explicit instruction Technology What will you do to ensure that all students learn critical information and processes?GraphicsExplicit instructionTechnologyFocus on the Big Picture
13 Unit ALL MOST SOME Content: Facts, Concepts, Definitions, Propositions ManipulationMOSTSOME
14 The SMARTER Planning Process Shape the Critical Questions.Map the Critical Content.Analyze DifficultiesReach Enhancement Decisions.Teach StrategicallyEvaluate MasteryReevaluate Critical Questions
15 Shape the critical questions. “What would be three or four questions that represent the heart and soul of this unit? If students could answer these, you could say that they would do well on the test.”AND “What are the embedded demands and scaffolds that need to be integrated to help answer those questions?”
16 Planning for What is Critical Learning for ALL Students 1) What is the structure of a typical cell?2) Why is it important to understand the function of each cell part?3) How do green plants get their food?4) How is energy released from stored food?
18 UNIT SELF-TEST QUESTIONS The Unit OrganizerNAME4BIGGER PICTUREBiologyDATE2LAST UNIT/Experience1CURRENT UNITCURRENT UNIT3NEXT UNIT/ExperienceMolecular Form and FunctionThe Flow of Energy Through SystemsMeiosis and Mitosis8UNIT SCHEDULE5UNIT MAPis about...10/1IntroductionLife processes in organismswhich are carried out at the cellular level bywhich are fueled byorganellesppenergy10/5Create cell projectwhich are suspended infrom stored food made through the process ofcytoplasmreleased through the process of10/8Group project duethat is surrounded by the10/9Vocabulary quizphotosynthesiscellularrespirationplasma membrane & cell wall (in plants)10/11Test review10/12Test1) What is the structure of a typical cell?2) Why is it important to understand the function of each cell part?3) How do green plants get their food?4) How is energy released from stored food?6compare/contrastsequencedescriptionUNIT SELF-TEST QUESTIONSUNIT RELATIONSHIPS7Figure 2. Example Unit Organizer for the unit “The Flow of Energy Through Systems.”
19 Analyze difficulties“What would make this unit hard for some, most, or all of my students?”“Do students need help with facts & concepts, manipulations, or generalization, e.g., what manipulations such as compare and contract, sequence, describe, causation were noted on the Unit Organizer?”
20 Comparison Table CELL STRUCTURE Animal cell structure C Communicate targeted conceptsO Obtain the Overall ConceptM Make lists of known characteristicsP Pin down Like CharacteristicsA Assemble Like CategoriesR Record Unlike CharacteristicsI Identify Unlike CategoriesN Nail down a summaryG Go beyond the basicsComparison TableCELL STRUCTURE2Overall Concept1Concept1ConceptAnimal cell structurePlant cell structureCharacteristicsCharacteristicsHas plasma membrane surrounding cytoplasmHas organelles suspended in cytoplasmHas no cell wallHas small vacuoleHas no chloroplasts3Has plasma membrane surrounding cytoplasmHas organelles suspended in cytoplasmHas cell wallHas large vacuoleHas chloroplasts3Extensions94Like Characteristics5Like CategoriesCompare nerve cells andmuscle cells in animals.Has plasma membrane surrounding cytoplasmHas organelles in cytoplasmThe layer around cytoplasmThe location of organellesHas no cell wallHas small vacuoleHas no chloroplasts6Unlike CharacteristicsUnlike CategoriesHas cell wallHas large vacuoleHas chloroplastsThe cell boundariesThe size of the vacuoleThe presence of chloroplasts7Both animal cells and plant cells have a plasma membrane that surrounds cytoplasm in which organelles aresuspended. However, only plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts. Also, the vacuoles in plant cells arelarger than the vacuoles in animal cells.Summary8Figure 5. Example Concept Comparison Table for the concepts “animal cell structure” and “plant cell structure.”
21 Multiple-Concept Comparison Table, p. 1 2Overall Concept1Concept3CharacteristicsMultiple-Concept Comparison Table, p. 1Steps 1-3 of the Concept Comparison RoutineStep 1: Communicate Targeted ConceptsStep 2: Obtain the Overall ConceptStep 3: Make lists of Known Characteristics
22 Multiple-Concept Comparison Table, p. 2 4Like CharacteristicsMultiple-Concept Comparison Table, p. 2Steps 4 -9 of the Concept Comparison RoutineStep 4: Pin down Like CharacteristicsStep 5: Assemble Like CategoriesStep 6: Record Unlike CharacteristicsStep 7: Identify Unlike CategoriesStep 8: Nail down a SummaryStep 9: Go beyond the Basics5Like Categories6Unlike Characteristics7Unlike Categories9Extensions8Summary
23 This unit would be hard because: Some students have the background knowledge.Students are required to frequently compare, conclude, find causes, evaluate, etc.Many students have poor question exploration skills.Some students have difficulty identifying important from unimportant information.Major concepts are very abstract, and students need a concrete way to understand them.
24 Anchoring Table PASS THROUGHS CONTROL CENTER Unit:Name: Date:KnownInformationonBlackboard32Known Concept1New ConceptWork areas & machines within a fast food restaurantOrganelles within the plasma membrane of a cell4Characteristics of Known Concept6Characteristics Shared5Characteristics of New Conceptwalls have special windows that regulate what goes in & out of the restaurantPASS THROUGHSplasma membrane regulates the transport of materials in & out of cellmanager’s office runs the restaurantCONTROL CENTERnucleus controls cell activitiesSMALL MACHINES TO MAKE PRODUCTSsmall ice cream machine makes special products to stay in restaurant or to send-outribosomes are very small particles that make proteins for use in the cell or to send out of the cellgenerator supplies the power for the whole restaurant and its machinesENERGY PROVIDERmitochondria contain ATP, which is the main energy source for the work of the cellendoplasmic reticulum (ER system), a maze of membranes arranged as tubes & sacs, produces a variety of molecules & packages them for later useworkers’ table provides the work space for preparing and packaging the foodASSEMBLY LINEGolgi apparatus looks like a stack of flattened sacs, one side receives products that are modified and sent to other side to be distributed to parts of cell or to other places outside the cellcounter server puts together the final order (ketchup w/ fries, dressing for salad, etc.) and gives to “eat in” or “to go” customersSERVERlysosomes are small membrane-bound sacs filled with enzymes used to break down food (to be re-used by cell)a container is used for recycling paper, plastic, aluminum, glassRECYCLING BINcabinet is used for storing suppliesvacuole stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, carbohydratesSTORAGE7Understanding of the New Concept:Within the plasma membrane of a typical cell are organelles: a nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and vacuoles.Fig. 3. Example Concept Anchoring Table for the Concept “Organelles Within the Plasma Membrane of a Cell.”
25 Reach enhancement decisions “How can I enhance the critical content and reduce the difficulty of learning the information in this unit?”AND “What are the few, critical pieces of information that ALL students must know?”
26 CONCEPT DIAGRAM À Â Á À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ + + cell membrane cell component Key WordsCONVEY CONCEPTÀÁÁOFFER OVERALLcell membranecell componentCONCEPTboundarybarrierphospholipidbilayernon-restrictiveÂNOTE KEY WORDSÃCLASSIFYCHARACTERISTICSAlways PresentSometimes PresentNever Presentis a thin, flexible coveringcontains cholesterol (animals only)is rigidis composed of phospholipid bilayer & proteinsis impassiveacts as a boundary and barrier++is non-restrictiveregulates transport of substances in and out of the cellorganelleis in plant and animal cellsÄExamples:EXPLORE EXAMPLESNonexamples:plasma membranecell wallmembranes around cell organellessmall intestineheart valveÅPRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLEÆThe cell membrane, a thin flexible covering composed of a phospholipid bilayer & proteins, is a cellcomponent that acts as a boundary and barrier and regulates the transport of substances inand out of plant and animal cells.TIE DOWN ADEFINITIONFigure 4. Example Concept Diagram for the concept “cell membrane.”
30 Teaching Routines POWERFUL Teaching Devices EXPLICIT Linking Steps Focus on helping a teacher inform, guide, and involve students in ways that will promote content learning through the use ofPOWERFUL Teaching DevicesEXPLICIT Linking StepsSTRUCTURED Cue-Do-Review Sequence
31 “Are my enhancements working?” Evaluate Mastery“Are my enhancements working?”
32 Create tests around the critical questions. And….. If they fail to answer the questions….Either reteach the contentorrevise your questions
33 Question Exploration Guide Morgan WellesText ReferenceName:CourseLessonUnitThe Flow of Energy Through Systems6CriticalQuestion #:3Title10/9Date:1What is the Critical Question?How do green plants get their food?2What are the Key Terms and explanations?What are chloroplasts?Chloroplasts are structures in the cells of green plants.What is chlorophyll?Chlorophyll is the green pigment located in the chloroplasts.3What are the Supporting Questions and answers?1) Where do plants get the food they need?2) How do plants make sugar?3) Where is sugar made in plants?4) What is so special about a chloroplast?5) What is the process of sugar-making in plantscalled?6) Other than sugar, are there other products?1) Plants make their own food (sugar).2) Plants make sugar by taking energy from sunlight and combining it with water andcarbon dioxide.3) Sugar is made in small bodies in the plant cells called chloroplasts.4) Chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll. Chlorophyll helps the plant make sugar.5) The process is called photosynthesis.6) As part of the process, oxygen is released into the air.Green plants use a process called photosynthesis to make their food (sugar).5How can we use the main idea?6Is there an Overall Idea? Is there a real-world use?Explain what happens to sugar production duringthe winter when daylight is short and the weatheris drier.Our atmosphere is, in many ways, a result of theprocess of photosynthesis. How are current humanactivities affecting our atmosphere?Figure 6. Example Question Exploration Guide for the Critical Question “How do green plants get their food?”