Presentation on theme: "RAH Day 21 Agenda Goal – To understand the Women’s Liberation Movement, the new left and counter-culture and the environmental movements Review Packet."— Presentation transcript:
1 RAH Day 21 AgendaGoal – To understand the Women’s Liberation Movement, the new left and counter-culture and the environmental movementsReview Packet p 24 – review of civil rightsRead packet 30– re: women in the workplace – answer the following questions –What did congresswoman Chisholm think were some commonly accepted assumptions about women in society?What specific reason did she cite for supporting passage of the ERA?How did she think prejudice against women compared with prejudice against African Americans?Review differences between counterculture and New LeftRead packet p 29 “The New Left” – answer the attached questions 1 and 2 and then answerWould you want to belong to the “New” New Left today? Why or why not?Questions from homework?Read reading #’s 1, 5 and 6 on pp 31-33What is the difference between early SDS goals and methods and the later SDS goals and methods?How did conservative America perceive members of SDS and the New Left generally?Complete p 35 to review the environmental movement
2 Korean Leaders Meet in Pyongyang October 3, 2007By CHOE SANG-HUNSEOUL, South Korea, Oct. 3 — Leaders of North and South Korea, both compelled by urgent yet different motives to make high-risk wagers, sat down face-to-face today in the first summit meeting between the two Koreas in seven years.
3 Women’s fight for equality 1 - Experience at workWage and job discrimination made women mad and feel inferior. Women were also less able to care for themselves and their children if they were single, or unable to leave a bad marriage because they earned less.2. Experience w/ activismWork for racial justice awakened in women the desire to end their own socio-economic inferiority3. Consciousness raisingHelped individual women become aware that they were not alone in feeling dissatisfied with their lot in life4. feminismProvided theory for the movement – women should be treated the same as men socially, economically and politically
4 Women’s fight for equality 5. Feminine Mystique5. Opened eyes of women to be aware of their situation and to act to improve their lives – the key to early consciousness-raising6. Civil Rights Act ’646. Provided legal tools and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to use the power of the federal government to sue in court for equality7. National Organization for Women (NOW)7. National Organization for Women created to organize action to achieve goals of socio-economic and political equality8. MS. Magazine8. Information about and voice of the women’s movement9. Congress9. CRA, Education Act ’72, ERA proposed, EEOC stronger, tax breaks for child care10. Supreme CourtRoe v Wade (’73), Griswold v Connecticut (’65), Nashville Gas v Satty (‘77)
5 Pg 26 On Working Mothers - Questions to think about What did Dr. Spock believe to be the ideal situation for rearing children? What risk did he think working mothers ran?What was the solution to the child care dilemma, according to Gerzon?How did Betty Friedan view the studies on the effects of working mothers on their children?Explain the dilemma of the letter-writer to Ms. Magazine. Is there a legal or social solution to her problem? Explain.ideal to have mom stay at home to take care of children because a mother is best able to take care of children. However, sometimes circumstances require mom to work, therefore, loving, quality time is very important. Risked maladjusted/neglected kidsSociety, the workplace and gov’t policy all had to change to address social changes – businesses need flex time, dads need to pick up some of the slack and in some cases more gov’t funded day care,She claims that there is no evidence that children are hurt by working mothers. Actually the studies show that many women are happier working, and that delinquency is not shown to be caused by working mothers.Gov’t needs to change the tax rules, change how it views the value of in-home work, and society needs to change how it values women in the workforce
6 Culture and counterculture participantsBeliefs about American societyGoals for societyMovement centersAttitudes & activitiesViolenceImpact on artsImpact on musicLongterm impactYoung middle class white and educated – called hippiesCold, conformist, materialist, cruel and selfishPeace, harmony, tolerance, self-awareness, idealistic, less materialSan Francisco haight-ashbury, NYC – Greenwich VillageRock’n’Roll, drugs, communes, weird cloths, beards, sexDrug OD’s, Stones concert, MansonPop Art, Jeans, Music, Color, CasualRock, Hendrix, Beatles, WoodstockSex, casual, conservative backlash, Nixon, permissive and tolerant
7 Issues at the Root of 60-’s Activism Social IssuesConformityConservatismMaterialismMoralismPolitical IssuesInjusticeRacismDiscriminationPovertyWar in ‘NamClose ties b/t business and schoolsdraft
8 New Left v Counter-culture New Left – a political movementChange gov’t to be more liberal to help poor, minorities, cities, women to improve their livesMotivate activist grass-roots political action to improve schools, neighborhoods, community servicesEnd draft and war in ‘NamLimit business and gov’t influence in univerisitiesCivil rightsCounter-culture – a social movementChange society from materialism, conformity and intoleranceDecrease closed-mindedness, injustice, racism, sexismDrugs, sex, rock ’n roll, communal, “freaky” long hair, beards, clothes, no bras
9 New Left v Counter-culture Major difference –organized political movement versus social movementAmerican mainstream and conservative responseThe Conservative response to these two leftist-like movements was one of anger and disapproval.Conservatives got support from mainstream Americans because the reality was that most Americans were not in favor of the activist, militant methods of the New Left, nor were most Americans supporters of the way of life promoted by the counter-culture. Most Americans, even in 1969 were quietly trying to live the American Dream.President Nixon referred to these mainstream Americans, those trying to live the American dream as the non-shouters, the non-demonstrators, the SILENT MAJORITY. It is these who brought Nixon the the presidency
10 Women’s cases and lawsThe second wave of the woman's movement dates from the passage of Civil Rights Act of Here is a list of just a few of the landmark Supreme Court ruling to come from the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and similar, later laws. The Equal Pay Act (1963) mandated that men and women performing the same jobs be paid the same.In US ex. rel. v. Robinson (1968), the Federal District Court struck down as unconstitutional a Connecticut statute requiring longer prison sentences for women than for men.In 1969, the US Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the EEOC Guidelines prohibiting sex-segregated help wanted ads and denied the appeal of the Newspaper Publishers Association. 3Women gained a limited right to public accommodations in Seidenberg v. McSorley's Old Ale House (1969). Previously, women trying to eat alone in restaurants were assumed to be prostitutes soliciting customers and could be denied service.By 9-0, in a landmark decision in Reed v. Reed (1971), the US Supreme Court found an Idaho law giving arbitrary preference to men as executors of estates could not to be allowed to "stand in the face of the 14th amendment" and was unconstitutional. For the first time the US Supreme Court struck down a state statute as unconstitutional due to discrimination on account of sex.Mandatory pregnancy leave statutes, regulations, and policies were successfully challenged in Doe v. Osteopathic Hospital of Wichita, Inc, Bravo v. Board of Education, Heath v, Websterville Board of Education, LaFleur v. Cleveland Board of Education, Pocklington v. Duval County School, Williams v. San Francisco Unified School District, and Robinson v. Rand. (1972) p. 63In Roe v. Wade (1973) and Doe v. Bolton (1973), the US Supreme Court struck down state laws restricting women's access to abortion.In Frontiero v Richardson (1973) the US Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional discrimination to deny benefits to husbands of military servicewomen.After a 5 campaign and 3 1/2 years of litigation, the US Supreme Court prohibited sex-segregated employment advertisements. (1973)In 1974, the Fair Housing Act of 1968 was extended to prohibit discrimination based on sex.The Equal Credit Opportunity Act of 1974 required financial institutions to consider women's income or savings in the same manner in which men's earnings are considered. Credit histories of "family accounts" had to be extended to women as well as menIn Taylor v. Louisiana (1975), by an 8-1 vote, the US Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional for states to deny women equal opportunity for jury service, voiding a Louisiana statute that automatically excluded any woman from jury service unless she applied for it in writing. Only five years earlier, opinions issued by the New York courts upheld the exemption of women from jury duty as a reasonable practice.In 1970 the Ohio Supreme Court held that a wife was "at most a superior servant to her husband. . . only chattel with no personality, no property, and no legally recognized feelings or rights." The 1974 Georgia legislature approved a statute that defined the husband as "head of the family" with the "wife subject to him; her legal existence merged in the husband, except as so far as the law recognizes her separately, either for her own protection, her own benefit, or for the preservation of the public order." Until the early 1980s, a Louisiana statute gave husbands exclusive control over the disposition of jointly owned community property.In 1975 a Utah law requiring divorces fathers to support a son until age 21 but to support a daughter only until the age of 18 was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.In Weinberger v Weisenfeld (1975), the US Supreme Court held that a Social Security provision giving benefits to widows with minor children and denying benefits to widowers with children was unconstitutional.An equally divided US Supreme Court upheld a decision approving of sexually separate schools for academically superior boys and girls in Vorcjeimer v Philadelphia (1977).In Satty v Nashville Gas (1977), the US Supreme Court held that pregnant employees could be denied sick pay. The court ruled that seniority rights could not be taken away from a woman on leave to give birth.The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 reversed the Supreme Court decisions in Gilbert v GE (1976), which denied "pregnant people" disability benefits, and Satty v Nashville Gas (1977), which denied women the use of sick leave during child birth.In Continental Can v Minnesota (1983), the Minnesota Supreme Court handed down a landmark decision which held employers responsible for the sexual harassment of female employees by their male co-workers. The Supreme Court strongly affirmed the right of women workers every where to be free of sexual harassment in the work place, whether by boss, supervisor, or co-worker.In 1984, a Federal judge ruled that the government must pay women in the US Civil Service system the same as men with the same duties and responsibilities, regardless of where they are located.
11 Environmentalism – “Crying Indian” Ad Silent Spring (1962)Greatly increase awareness of environmental issues, specifically brought attention and called for solution related to pesticides specifically DDT. Shocked people to participate in gov’t to protect the environmentFirst Earth Day,Highlighted environmental problems through the country and got people involved in solving environmental problemsEPA – 1970Showed our support for protecting our environment and is the chief law enforcement agency for enforcing environmental protection laws. Sets rules for pollution, toxic waste, etc.Clean Air Act – 1970Forced industry and cars to clean up emissions such that cars are much cleaner and no longer spew lead. Resulted in more laws being passed and the air to be cleanerThree Mile Island – 1979Debate over nuclear power led NRC to greatly increase precautions and rules to prevent other accidents, no new nuclear reactors were begun after 1990.