11FluidsHave the ability to flowAre liquids or gases
12States of matter and the Particle Theory. The five major points of the particle theory of matter are:Copy the points down from your textbook on page 111
13Substances are made up of particles Substances are made up of particles. The state of the substance depends on the arrangement of the particles.The Three States of MatterGasNo attraction between particlesFar apartRandom arrangementVibrateMove quickly in all directionsSolidParticles held tightlyVery close togetherRegular arrangementVibrateCan’t move from place to placeLiquidParticles held weaklyVery close togetherRandom arrangementVibrateConstantly move past each other
14States of Matter: Solid Liquid Gas Definite Shape Definite volume Ex.:LiquidNo Definite shapeEx. :GasNo definite shapeNo definite volume
15Changes of State Gas Solid Liquid condensation sublimation vaporizationsublimationmeltingSolidLiquidfreezing
16Two examples of vaporization are Evaporation ( slow vaporization)Boiling (rapid vaporization)What is the difference between vapor and gas? vapor is a liquid at room temperature. gas is a gas at room temperature.An example of sublimation is frozen carbon dioxide. ( Dry ice)
17Assignment: Look and skim through Pg. 110-116 BLM 4-1, 4-3,4-9 Use the particle theory to explain why ice cubes form in your freezer.p. 110 At Home Activity (BLM 4-4)
18Viscosity lab reminders Time 1:30:16 1 minute, seconds 60 s s = sec.Flow rate cm/sec 10cm ÷ sec = cm/s( use 3 decimal places)Average Sum of trials / number of trials( ) ÷ 2 = cm/sRanking flow rate : 1-fastest slowestviscosity : 1- thickest 4- thinnest.
19Flow Rate and Viscosity. Flow rate : How fast a fluid flows from one point to another. It’s measured in cm/s.Viscosity: resistance to flowA fluid with a high flow rate (runs quickly) has a low viscosity. (thin)
20Flow RateA liquid with a low flow rate (runs slowly) has a high viscosity. (thick)This is an inverse relationship. ( )
21Viscosity Viscosity: resistance to flow High viscosity is thick Low viscosity is thinViscosity affects the value of products (ex.medicine, food, paints)(Read this section in your text! pg )
22Factors that affect Viscosity: In liquids:Size and shape of particles (bulkiness) affect viscosity. Larger and bulkier particles will increase viscosity.
23Factors that affect Viscosity: Internal friction (particles rubbing on each other) affects viscosity.Ex. Water particles move past each other easily but honey particles have more internal friction and do not move past each other as easily as water.
24Factors that affect Viscosity Temperature:Viscosity decreases as a fluid is heated and viscosity increases as the fluid is cooled.This is an indirect relationship.
25Factors that affect viscosity Continued… In gases:Size and shape of particles:Larger and bulkier particles increase viscosity.
26Temperature and Internal friction High temperatures increase internal friction because the particles speed up and collide more frequently-therefore increase viscosityCool temperatures keep internal friction and viscosity low.
27TranslationFor gases,Viscosity increases as temperature increases and viscosity decreases as temperature decreases.It is a direct relationship.