Presentation on theme: "Pedigrees, Gender and X- Linked Traits. Lesson Objectives Minds ON Success Criteria from last week Friday’s Recap Pedigrees, Gender and X-Linked Traits."— Presentation transcript:
Pedigrees, Gender and X- Linked Traits
Lesson Objectives Minds ON Success Criteria from last week Friday’s Recap Pedigrees, Gender and X-Linked Traits Quiz Take Up Disputed Maternity Case Homework REMINDERS: Quiz – tomorrow after lesson Wednesday/Thursday: Group presentations Thursday: Unit Review Friday: Unit Test---bring other work to do in case you get finished early!!
Minds ON genetics/1aih9s3qn genetics/1aih9s3qn Correlative relationship vs. Causal relationship: discuss….
Success Criteria Last Week’s Learning Goals are posted. What are some of the things we need to know about or how to do in order to be successful on a quiz or to know that we have had a full understanding of the material?
Friday’s Recap Types of Dominance: Complete Dominance: Occurs when a dominant trait completely masks the recessive allele. Incomplete Dominance: Occurs when neither gene is dominant or recessive; the gene effect is mixed; we use 2 different letters for the homologous pair since neither is dominant. Co-Dominance: Co-Dominance: Occurs when neither gene is dominant or recessive; gene effects are NOT mixed; therefore, both genes are expressed at the same time!
Autosomal Traits autosomal traits We have been looking at autosomal traits so far: autosomal Refers to a trait passed on through the autosomal (non-sex) chromosomes Autosomal dominant: One or two copies of the trait was passed from one or both parents to cause the trait to appear Autosomal recessive: Two copies of the recessive trait must be passed on from both the parents in order for it to appear
Predicting Gender Two sex chromosomes determine gender: X and Y Female Genotype: XX Male Genotype: XY Predict the probability of a couple having a boy using a Punnett Square
Predicting Gender 50% chance of a boy 50% chance of a girl
X-Linked Traits All genes found on the ‘X’ chromosome are “linked”. Many of the genes on the ‘X’ are not on the ‘Y’. The ‘X’ is larger and has many genes that are not related to gender… (i.e. colour vision, blood clotting etc.)
Are You Colour Blind? Can you see something in the dots?
X-Linked Traits Refers to a trait that is passed on through the X (female sex)chromosome If a recessive gene is on the ‘X’: -In males it will always be expressed since there is no homologous pair on the ‘Y’. -Therefore (sorry guys) recessive, X-linked diseases are much more common in males!
An Example of an X-Linked Disorder Hemophilia: Inability to Stop Bleeding
Pedigrees Presentation of family information that is easy to read; can show genetic patterns of disease Circles = females; Squares = males; Diamond = unknown gender Deceased = diagonal line through Unaffected = Clear/white; Affected = filled in/black; Carrier = shaded Marriage = Individuals attached side by side Children = Vertical line down Siblings = Individuals coming down off shared horizontal line
Seeing Genetic Patterns of Disease Using a Pedigree Chart Autosomal Disorders are disorders that are passed through the non- sex chromosomes (autosomes) one parent Autosomal Dominant: If a disease is autosomal dominant, it means you only need to get the abnormal gene from one parent in order for you to inherit the disease. One of the parents may often have the disease two copies Autosomal Recessive: An autosomal recessive disorder means two copies of an abnormal gene must be present in order for the disease or trait to develop X/Y-Linked Disorders are disorders that are passed through sex chromosomes (X / Y chromosomes)
An Example of X-Linked Traits Using a Pedigrees Muscular Dystrophy is a disease that causes weakening of the muscular- skeletal system, inhibiting those affected from locomotion. There are many forms of this disease. The Duchenne form of this disease is caused by a mutation on the X chromosome. It is an X-linked recessive disorder. It is more severe than the Becker form of the disease. This means that substantially more boys than girls are going to be affected by this disease
Muscular Dystrophy Pedigree
Try it… Sally and Brian got married and had 3 daughters, Brianna, Roxanne and Racheal. Sally learned that she is a carrier of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Brianna got married to Mike and had two sons, Will and Ryan. Mike appears to be healthy; however Will has muscular dystrophy but Ryan does not. Draw a pedigree.
Muscular Dystrophy Pedigree
A Case of Mistaken Maternity We will read the first part together, then in groups work on it together. We will take it up.
Homework Pedigree Charts Hemophilia sheet Mistaken Maternity sheets Any other sheets we have done