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The Endocrine System Chapter 36. ENDOCRINE GLANDS.

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Presentation on theme: "The Endocrine System Chapter 36. ENDOCRINE GLANDS."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Endocrine System Chapter 36

2 ENDOCRINE GLANDS

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5 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: Set of hormone secreting glands within an animal’s body ENDOCRINE GLAND: Is a ductless gland that makes & secretes specific chemical messengers (hormones) into the blood

6 EXOCRINE GLAND: Secretes their chemicals into ducts that carry them to their destination eg sweat gland, salivary gland, gastric gland HORMONE: Is a chemical messenger secreted by an endocrine gland into the blood which distributes it through out the body altering the activity of specific target tissues

7 GLANDHORMONEFUNCTION pituitaryADH Anti diuretic hormone Growth hormone Thyroid stimulation hormone TSH Increases H 2 O absorption in the kidney Speeds up growth Causes thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine increasing cell metabolism

8 GLANDHORMONEFUNCTION Pituitary Thyroid Gonad stimulating hormone GSH Thyroxine Stimulates gonads (ovaries & testes) to secrete sex hormones Regulates metabolism, growth & development

9 GLANDHORMONEFUNCTION Adrenal Pineal Pancreas Adrenaline Melatonin insulin Prepares the body for emergency responses Controls body rhythms Regulates the amount of sugar in the blood

10 GLANDHORMONEFUNCTION Thymus Ovaries Testes Parathroids Thymosine Oestrogen & progesterone Testosterone Parathorome Matures WBC Controls sexual development Controls release of Ca from bones into blood plasma

11 Differences between endocrine & nervous systems NERVOUS SYSTEMENDOCRINE SYSTEM Electrical – chemical message Chemical message Carried by nervesCarried by blood Impulses target specific sites Messages can be sent to many regions in the body Response is fast acting Response is slow acting Effects are short term Effects are long term

12 Growth Hormone  Deficiency Symptoms: Lower than normal height, immature face  Excess symptoms: Over enlargement of body tissue including bones in hands, feet, face & skull  Corrective measures: (for deficiency) Injections of growth hormone

13 Hormone Supplements– know 2 1. Growth hormone can be used as a body building supplement 2. Oestrogen can be used to regulate the menstrual cycle 3. Insulin in the treatment of diabetes 4. HRT hormone replacement therapy to reduce the effects of the menopause

14 Negative feedback control of thyroxine levels – HIGHER LEVEL ONLY 1. When the level of thyroxine is LOW, thyroid releasing hormone TRH is produced by the hypothalmus 2. This causes the release of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH in the pituitary 3. TSH stimulates the secretion of thyroxine

15 4. When the amount of thyroxine reaches a certain level, the hypothalmus stops secreting TRH 5. When the level of thyroxine falls again the cycle repeats 6. This is an example of a negative feedback mechanism

16 THYROXINE control – Feedback


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