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Why it is important?. Do you know your “nyms” ?  Synonym - same  Antonym - opposite  Autoantonym – means two things that are opposites  Capitonym.

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Presentation on theme: "Why it is important?. Do you know your “nyms” ?  Synonym - same  Antonym - opposite  Autoantonym – means two things that are opposites  Capitonym."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why it is important?

2 Do you know your “nyms” ?

3  Synonym - same  Antonym - opposite  Autoantonym – means two things that are opposites  Capitonym – means something different when capitalized  Eponym – a word derived from a name  Heteronym – spelled the same, pronounced different, has a different meaning  Hyponym – a word with a more specific meaning than another  Mononym – a one word name  Meronym

4 Hyponym – Waterfall A-1 Toponym - Capital of Turkey B-1 Heteronym – To give deference Used w/a Violin C-1 Eponym – A scheme to defraud D-1 Antonym – Cacophony A-2 Heteronym - To Actively Place (v) Golf term B-2 Capitonym – Country or Bird C-2 Autoantonym – Murderous Cheerfully optimistic D-2 Mononym – Mrs. Sonny Bono A-3 Eponym El Salvador B-3 Synonym – Extraneous C-3 Meronym – Concave & Convex D-3 Autoantonym – To adhere To cut apart A-4 Capitonym - Liturgical Function or Physical property of matter B-4 Antonym - Surreptitious C-4 Hyponym – Syntax D-4 Meronym - Past & Future A-5 Synonym – Inept B-5 Mononym – Eva Braun’s Husband C-5 Toponym - Effervescent Wine From France D-5

5 Hyponym – Niagara Falls Bridal Veil Falls Toponym - Ankara - Angora Heteronym - Bow Eponym - Ponzy Scheme Antonym - Quite, peaceful Heteronym - putting Capitonym - Turkey Autoantonym – sanguine Mononym - Cher Eponym - The Savior, Christ Synonym - Irrelevant Meronym - Flat Autoantonym – Cleave Capitonym - Mass mass Antonym – Clandestine Sneaky Hyponym - Grammar, Intonation Meronym - Present Synonym – Incompetent Clumsy Mononym – Hitler Toponym - Champagne

6  Every communication situation has at least eight components: A TRANSACTION in which a (1) sendersender  (2) encodes aencodes  (3) message in somemessage  (5) context and sends it through acontext  (4) channel to achannel  (6) receiver whoreceiver  (7) decodes it and reactsdecodes  (8 effect).

7  Sender ◦ Source  The person who communicates with another person through symbolic actions ◦ Written ◦ Spoken ◦ Signs ◦ Gestures

8  Encoding  the process of creating a discourse or text that another person will later decode.

9  Message  a string of symbols with a beginning and an end

10  Context  the experiences, past or present, that provide the circumstances in which events (including symbolic actions) occur ◦ Contexts are the experiences, physical or virtual, past or present, which the author and audience need to share for communication to be effective along with the times and places that inform communicative situations.

11  Channels ◦ Spoken ◦ Written  Others?

12  Decode  the process of interpreting a discourse or text that another person has encoded

13  Effect  effect is the result of all eight components combined because they are "embedded" in the message

14  Frames ◦ Perspectives ◦ Topography of your mind ◦ Reference points ◦ Mutually Shared?

15  Mind Mapping – ◦ A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks, or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea.

16  Mind Mapping – ◦ A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks, or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea. DOG

17  Mind Mapping – ◦ A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks, or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea. DOG Pavlov Hunting Pet Working sheds Breed Meat Police dog Retriever Dirty Lab Animal Cultural Poodle Guide dog SPCA BBQTrained

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20  Idioms ◦ An idiom is a phrase whose meaning cannot be determined by the literal definition of the phrase itself, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only through common use.

21  Idioms ◦ An idiom is a phrase whose meaning cannot be determined by the literal definition of the phrase itself, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only through common use. ◦ An idiom is generally a colloquial metaphor— a term which requires some foundational knowledge, information, or experience, to use only within a culture where parties must have common reference.

22  Idioms ◦ An idiom is a phrase whose meaning cannot be determined by the literal definition of the phrase itself, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only through common use. ◦ An idiom is generally a colloquial metaphor— a term which requires some foundational knowledge, information, or experience, to use only within a culture where parties must have common reference. ◦ Idioms are part of the language, more importantly they are part of the culture.

23 English Idiom – Equivalent TranslationPashto Idiom د يو چا پښه پۀ پايڅه کې بندېدل پرپزه مچ نۀ پرېښودل اوبۀ پۀ ډانګ بېلول لور پۀ لوټه تېرۀ کول لۀ مړې خيټې غږېدل پۀ غوړيو کې خولۍ غورځېدل ښکر پۀ ښکر کېدل اوبۀ لۀ سره تېرېدل

24 English Idiom – Equivalent TranslationPashto Idiom One’s own foot is stuck in one’s pants [to be busy with one’s own problems] د يو چا پښه پۀ پايڅه کې بندېدل Not to let a fly on one’s nose [to get angry quickly; not to tolerate anything] پرپزه مچ نۀ پرېښودل To separate water with a bat [to attempt to do something impossible] اوبۀ پۀ ډانګ بېلول To sharpen the sickle with a mud crumbles [to make up false excuses in order to get out of an obligation] لور پۀ لوټه تېرۀ کول To talk with full stomach [not to have empathy; to be detached from the reality] لۀ مړې خيټې غږېدل One’s hat falls into oil [to hit a fortune] پۀ غوړيو کې خولۍ غورځېدل To become horn to horn [to engage in a fight] ښکر پۀ ښکر کېدل Water rises above one’s head [to be too late to (take action)] اوبۀ لۀ سره تېرېدل

25 English Idiom – Equivalent TranslationPashto Idiom Go it alone One’s own foot is stuck in one’s pants [to be busy with one’s own problems] د يو چا پښه پۀ پايڅه کې بندېدل Fly off the handle, blew his top, Not to let a fly on one’s nose [to get angry quickly; not to tolerate anything] پرپزه مچ نۀ پرېښودل Thread a camel through the eye of a needle, make a silk purse out of a sows ear, get blood from a turnip To separate water with a bat [to attempt to do something impossible] اوبۀ پۀ ډانګ بېلول Talk in circles, To sharpen the sickle with a mud crumbles [to make up false excuses in order to get out of an obligation] لور پۀ لوټه تېرۀ کول Heart of stone, To talk with full stomach [not to have empathy; to be detached from the reality] لۀ مړې خيټې غږېدل Hit the jackpot, sitting pretty, the world is my oyster, One’s hat falls into oil [to hit a fortune] پۀ غوړيو کې خولۍ غورځېدل Lock horns, duke it out, lay into them, catch a fade, To become horn to horn [to engage in a fight] ښکر پۀ ښکر کېدل Put it on ice, string them along, Water rises above one’s head [to be too late to (take action)] اوبۀ لۀ سره تېرېدل

26  Resources:  Communication as a Cognitive Science Project   English Idioms Beginning with ‘A’  ms/a.html


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