Presentation on theme: "The Russian Revolution 1917 - 1921. Fall of the Tsar (Czar?) The __________________________ –Russia’s Congress Criticizes the war effort in 1916 Tsar."— Presentation transcript:
The Russian Revolution 1917 - 1921
Fall of the Tsar (Czar?) The __________________________ –Russia’s Congress Criticizes the war effort in 1916 Tsar Nicholas II closes it down
Rasputin –_____________________________ Mystic monk Claimed to be able to heal Alexi’s ____________________________________ Influenced royal couple –Nicholas goes to the front, leaving wife and Rasputin in charge December 29, 1916 –Relatives invite Rasputin to dinner
While at Dinner Relatives poison and shoot Rasputin –HE DOESN’T DIE –Throw his body in the Neva River
Problems Continue _______________________________ –Where’s my Beef Stroganoff? _______________________________ Military told to fire at protestors –won’t fire and join protestors
Tsar Steps Aside March 15, 1917 –Tsar Nicholas II ends the ___________________________ dynasty and steps down Romanovs had been in power for __________________________
Provisional Government Liberals call for elections –Mostly members of the Duma –Saw the need for support from the Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies Socialistic groups –___________________________________________ – moderates –___________________________________________ – radicals Run by Alexander Kerensky –Member of the Petrograd Soviet
Provisional Government (con’t) Does not pull out of __________________________________ –Desertion grows, economy drops –Could not make changes that the Soviets wanted – BIG PROBLEM
Lenin to the rescue
Vladimir Ilyich (Lenin) Lenin’s Big Brother, Alexander Ilyich, tries to kill Tsar Alexander Romanov (Father of Nicholas II) –Alexander fails and is sentenced to hanging by the Tsar Lenin vows to lead revolution against the Romanovs Lenin exiled to prison in Siberia (1895) –Lenin goes to Germany after his release Germany sends Lenin back to Russia after Nicholas abdicates the throne (Why?) –To distract the Tsar from his WWI war efforts
Lenin’s Work Promised “Peace, Land, Bread” –Get Russia out of WWI –Peasants would get land –Everyone gets enough to eat “ALL POWER TO THE SOVIETS” –Soviets (committees) should be the nation’s only government –No other political parties allowed
Karl Marx German philosopher who wrote Communist Manifesto with Englishman Richard Engels –Detailed theory of Historical Materialism All history was a fight between the bourgeise (haves) and the proletariat (have nots) –Proletariat – working peasant class –Bourgeisie – wealthy noble landowner Bourgeisie would never willingly give wealth and power to the Proletariat Proletariate would have to revolt to overthrow the Bourgeisie Largely influenced Lenin and Trotsky
The Revolution Summer 1917 –Gov’t issues warrants for Bolshevik leaders Fall 1917 –Bolsheviks control Petrograd Soviet through elections November 1917 –Storm communication, train, and electric hubs –Turn the guns of the Aurora on the Tsarist palace –Provisional Government surrnders
What Happened Next Elections held –___________________________________ - 420 seats –___________________________________ - 225 seats ________________________________ dissolve gov’t the next day –Seize power under Lenin “_______________________________________” Signs Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany –Russia gives Baltic provinces, Ukraine, and Poland to Germany
Civil War White (Mensheviks) –Opposed Bolsheviks –Could be _________________ – want to restore the Romanovs __________________ – want a capitalistic democracy __________________ – want democracy and state run economy Red –Bolsheviks Begin to call themselves communist Choose red as color of revolution Very __________________ politically No private ownership One party system
Mensheviks get help Allies want to get rid of Bolsheviks –Bring _____________________________ back into WWI with Germany –Give soldiers and money to Mensheviks
Why the Reds Win Leon Trotsky –Reorganized the ___________________________________ Restored discipline Fostered loyalty –Taught soldiers how to read an write Lack of unity on ______________________________________ –Different groups didn’t trust one another Lenin used terror –________________________________________________ – secret police arrests anyone who is “enemy of the revolution”
Leon Trotsky –Returns from ________________________ for Russ. Rev. –Right Hand Man of Lenin Lenin was not anti-semitic –Exiled to Siberia by ______________________ Escapes, moves to Mexico Friends with Frida Kahlo Stalin’s assassins kills him with an ice pick
End of the Romanov Dynasty July 1918 –________________________ orders soldiers to kill the Tsar and his family. Why? Family was exiled in Siberia –Told they were going to get a family portrait –Taken to basement of their home and shot –Ended 300 year rule –_________________ – Still Alive?????
The Royal Family
Lenin and Religion Lenin sees religion as against the revolution –Places sever restrictions on the Russian ______________________________ Church
Ending the Civil War __________________________________ control entire country by 1921 White armies surrender in 1921 due to disorganization, lack of equipment, etc. Lenin and the ____________________________ WINS
Next Up STALIN!!
Stalin (1879–1953) Soviet _____________________ leader, who more than any other individual molded the features that characterized the Soviet regime and shaped the direction of post-World War II Europe. Stalin is considered by some to have been the most _____________________and influential political figure of the 20th century.
Map of Russia – former USSR
Stalin Cont… Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, as he was originally named—he adopted the pseudonym Stalin, meaning “a man of steel,” only about 1910—was born on Dec. 21, 1879, in Gori, now in the _________________________________. Both his parents were Georgian peasants. Neither of them spoke Russian, but Stalin was forced to learn it, as the language of instruction. When he attended the Gori church school in 1888–94. The best pupil in the school, Soso (his schoolboy nickname) earned a full _____________________________ to the Tbilisi Theological Seminary.
Stalin The Revolutionary While studying for the priesthood, Stalin read forbidden literature, including ______________________________ Das Kapital, and soon converted to a new orthodoxy: Russian Marxism. Before graduation he quit the seminary to become a full-time revolutionary. Stalin began his career in the Social-Democratic party in 1899 as a propagandist among Tbilisi railroad workers. The police caught up with him in 1902. Arrested in Batum, he spent more than a year in prison before being exiled to ________________________, from which he escaped in 1904. This became a familiar pattern. Between 1902 and 1913 Stalin was arrested ____________________________________________ times; he was exiled seven times and escaped six times. The government contained him only once; his last exile in 1913 lasted until 1917.
On his return from Siberia in 1904 Stalin married. His first wife, Yekaterina Svanidze, died in 1910. A second wife, Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1902–32), whom he married in 1919, committed suicide in 1932. Their daughter, ___________________________Allilu yeva (born Svetlana Iosifovna Stalina in 1926, in Moscow; married name Lana Peters), defected to the West years later, in 1967. –She became a U.S. citizen and wrote several books, including ___________________________(1967 ), an account of her life as Stalin’s daughter. The HBO movie Stalin is based on this book.
Lenin 1870 -1924 Before his death, Lenin came to regard the _____________________ in Stalin’s personality and conduct as political liabilities. In his political “testament” Lenin doubted whether the party’s general secretary would use his great power with sufficient caution. He also attacked Stalin as being ________________ and called for his removal. Luck and maneuvering enabled Stalin to suppress Lenin’s testament.