Presentation on theme: "Imperialism. A. Imperialism – intentional control by an industrial developed nation over a less developed region or nation. This control is usually political,"— Presentation transcript:
A. Imperialism – intentional control by an industrial developed nation over a less developed region or nation. This control is usually political, economic, social, or cultural. B. Old Imperialism ( ) 1. Took place during the Age of Exploration Exploration 2. European countries, companies, and private individuals established trade routes to obtain resources, acquire land, and as an effect subjugate indigenous populations. 3. Took place mainly in North America, South America, and the Caribbean Region.
C. New Imperialism (1850 – 1952) 1. Carried out mainly by governments as official policy in Africa and Asia 2. Similar to goals of Old Imperialism except there was also an interest in creating markets and places worthy of financial investments. 3. Aspects of Imperialism a. Economic Reasons i. Nations wanted to find and sustain new markets indefinitely for the growing number of goods produced because of the Industrial Revolution. ii. Sought out rich regions for their raw natural materials, that would be turned into finished, manufactured products. iii. Rise of wealthy businessmen and companies (They expected their governments to send soldiers to protect their investments from other imperialistic nations and from indigenous populations)
4. Political Reasons a. Nations want to gain prestige and power b. Germany and Italy want to catch up with long time Imperial powers France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands. c. Leaders engaged in jingoism - nationalism marked by an aggressive foreign policy. d. Wanted places for military bases and coal stations. e. Potential source of man-power for European armies.
5. Social Reasons a) European nations thought their way of life was superior (ethnocentrism) and that it was their obligation and right to spread their culture. b) exemplified by Kipling in poem “White Man’s Burden” i.) Social Darwinism – biased idea of racial superiority “survival of the fittest” ii.) Thought it was natural for stronger societies to conquer weak societies c. Christian missionaries want to convert indigenous populations to Christianity and indigenous populations to Christianity and improve health and living conditions. improve health and living conditions. d. Some doctors, engineers, educators, and scientists went for humanitarian purposes.
Forms of Imperialism 1. Colony – foreign power directly controls area 2. Protectorate – indigenous government kept as long as long as it did what the foreign power wanted a. Puppet government 3. Sphere of Influence – foreign power rules through exclusive trade agreements 4. Concession- foreign nation obtaining special priviledges 5. Mandate – region is placed under contemporary control by an international organization
North Africa French involvement French involvement AlgeriaAlgeria Starting in 1830’s it takes France over 10 years and 100,000 soldiers to control Algeria Starting in 1830’s it takes France over 10 years and 100,000 soldiers to control Algeria Opposed by Abd al QadirOpposed by Abd al Qadir Tunisia – taken in 1881Tunisia – taken in 1881 Morocco – sticking point, but taken by 1905Morocco – sticking point, but taken by ,000,000 French in North Africa by 19051,000,000 French in North Africa by 1905
Abd al Qadir
French in Algeria
North Africa British Involvement British Involvement Egypt – Suez Canal finished in 1869Egypt – Suez Canal finished in 1869 Egyptian government sells land to England to pay for debt. Egyptian government sells land to England to pay for debt. People don’t like this and revolt against Egyptian governmentPeople don’t like this and revolt against Egyptian government England seizes Suez Canal England seizes Suez Canal Sudan – taken in 1889Sudan – taken in 1889 French claim it too – compromise: British will recognize French claim to Morocco and keep Sudan French claim it too – compromise: British will recognize French claim to Morocco and keep Sudan
North Africa Italian Involvement Italian Involvement 1911 – takes Libya from Ottoman Empire1911 – takes Libya from Ottoman Empire Checked with England and France Checked with England and France Not difficult Not difficult Vindication after loss in Ethiopia Vindication after loss in Ethiopia
Sub-Saharan Africa West Africa West Africa Europe trading since 1700’sEurope trading since 1700’s “Triangular Trade” “Triangular Trade” Europeans push inward in 1870’sEuropeans push inward in 1870’s
Berlin Conference of 1884 European Powers break up Africa Conference Resolution
Imperialization of Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa Independent States Independent States LiberiaLiberia Founded in 1822 by James Monroe Founded in 1822 by James Monroe Freedmen could return to AfricaFreedmen could return to Africa Protected by USA Protected by USA EthiopiaEthiopia Attacked by Italy Attacked by Italy King Menelik unites tribes and crushes Italians King Menelik unites tribes and crushes Italians No other country triesNo other country tries
South Africa First settled by Dutch First settled by Dutch Afrikaners – Dutch settlersAfrikaners – Dutch settlers Boers – Dutch farmers Boers – Dutch farmers Became English possession after Napoleonic Wars Became English possession after Napoleonic Wars Outlaw slavery – Boers are NOT happyOutlaw slavery – Boers are NOT happy Afrikaners move inland – Orange Free State and Transvaal Afrikaners move inland – Orange Free State and Transvaal
Boer War of 1899 Boer War of 1899 English defeat the AfrikanersEnglish defeat the Afrikaners Ban slavery, but state that indigenous population can not participate in government Ban slavery, but state that indigenous population can not participate in government 1910 – Union of South Africa formed 1910 – Union of South Africa formed Unites all the territoriesUnites all the territories Apartheid is put in placeApartheid is put in place African National Congress (ANC) starts in 1912 African National Congress (ANC) starts in 1912 Nelson Mandela leads movement against apartheid (1961)Nelson Mandela leads movement against apartheid (1961) Imprisoned for 26 years on Robben Island ( ) Imprisoned for 26 years on Robben Island ( ) Released and becomes first indigenous president of South Africa ( ) Released and becomes first indigenous president of South Africa ( )
Latin America Remember “Conquistadors”? Remember “Conquistadors”? Mostly Economic Imperialism Mostly Economic Imperialism United Fruit CompanyUnited Fruit Company Started by Minor Keith Started by Minor Keith Controls the rail-lines and therefore the banana trade in several countries Controls the rail-lines and therefore the banana trade in several countries Use these resources to convince, with USA governmental support, Latin American governmentsUse these resources to convince, with USA governmental support, Latin American governments
Latin America United Fruit Company United Fruit Company called “El Pulpa”called “El Pulpa” monopolized the banana trade monopolized the banana trade exploited workers exploited workers aided small dictatorships known as “banana republics.” aided small dictatorships known as “banana republics.”
United Fruit Company
Latin America Teddy Roosevelt Teddy Roosevelt Adds corollary to Monroe DoctrineAdds corollary to Monroe Doctrine USA could intervene to stop “chronic wrongdoing” through out the western hemisphere USA could intervene to stop “chronic wrongdoing” through out the western hemisphere Used to meddle in Latin American affairsUsed to meddle in Latin American affairs
Modern Imperialism Does Imperialism exist today? Does Imperialism exist today? Economic?Economic? Cultural?Cultural? Colonialism?Colonialism?