2 A. Imperialism – intentional control by an industrial developed nation over a less developed region or nation. This control is usually political, economic, social, or cultural.B. Old Imperialism ( )1. Took place during the Age ofExploration2. European countries, companies, and private individuals established trade routes to obtain resources, acquire land, and as an effect subjugate indigenous populations.3. Took place mainly in North America, South America, and the Caribbean Region.
3 C. New Imperialism (1850 – 1952)1. Carried out mainly by governments as official policy in Africa and Asia2. Similar to goals of Old Imperialism except there was also an interest in creating markets and places worthy of financial investments.3. Aspects of Imperialisma. Economic Reasonsi. Nations wanted to find and sustain new markets indefinitely for the growing number of goods produced because of the Industrial Revolution.ii. Sought out rich regions for their raw natural materials, that would be turned into finished, manufactured products.iii. Rise of wealthy businessmen and companies (They expected their governments to send soldiers to protect their investments from other imperialistic nations and from indigenous populations)
4 a. Nations want to gain prestige and power 4. Political Reasonsa. Nations want to gain prestige and powerb. Germany and Italy want to catch up with long time Imperial powers France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands.c. Leaders engaged in jingoism - nationalism marked by an aggressive foreign policy.d. Wanted places for military bases and coal stations.e. Potential source of man-power for Europeanarmies.
5 5 . Social Reasonsa) European nations thought their way of life was superior (ethnocentrism) and that it was their obligation and right to spread their culture.b) exemplified by Kipling in poem “White Man’s Burden”i.) Social Darwinism – biased idea of racial superiority “survival of the fittest”ii.) Thought it was natural for stronger societies to conquer weak societiesc. Christian missionaries want to convertindigenous populations to Christianity andimprove health and living conditions.d. Some doctors, engineers, educators, and scientists went for humanitarian purposes.
7 Forms of Imperialism Colony – foreign power directly controls area Protectorate – indigenous government kept as long as long as it did what the foreign power wantedPuppet governmentSphere of Influence – foreign power rules through exclusive trade agreementsConcession- foreign nation obtaining special priviledgesMandate – region is placed under contemporary control by an international organization
8 North Africa French involvement Algeria Tunisia – taken in 1881 Starting in 1830’s it takes France over 10 years and 100,000 soldiers to control AlgeriaOpposed by Abd al QadirTunisia – taken in 1881Morocco – sticking point, but taken by 19051,000,000 French in North Africa by 1905
11 North Africa British Involvement Egypt – Suez Canal finished in 1869 Egyptian government sells land to England to pay for debt.People don’t like this and revolt against Egyptian governmentEngland seizes Suez CanalSudan – taken in 1889French claim it too – compromise: British will recognize French claim to Morocco and keep Sudan
19 Sub-Saharan Africa Independent States Liberia Ethiopia Founded in 1822 by James MonroeFreedmen could return to AfricaProtected by USAEthiopiaAttacked by ItalyKing Menelik unites tribes and crushes ItaliansNo other country tries
21 South Africa First settled by Dutch Afrikaners – Dutch settlersBoers – Dutch farmersBecame English possession after Napoleonic WarsOutlaw slavery – Boers are NOT happyAfrikaners move inland – Orange Free State and Transvaal
23 South Africa Boer War of 1899 1910 – Union of South Africa formed English defeat the AfrikanersBan slavery, but state that indigenous population can not participate in government1910 – Union of South Africa formedUnites all the territoriesApartheid is put in placeAfrican National Congress (ANC) starts in 1912Nelson Mandela leads movement against apartheid (1961)Imprisoned for 26 years on Robben Island ( )Released and becomes first indigenous president of South Africa ( )
24 Latin America Remember “Conquistadors”? Mostly Economic Imperialism United Fruit CompanyStarted by Minor KeithControls the rail-lines and therefore the banana trade in several countriesUse these resources to convince, with USA governmental support, Latin American governments