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1 Lecture 7: Stability & Control Jason Mickey For AE 440 A/C Lecture September 2009

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2 S&C Responsibilities Select/design/size all control surfaces, e.g. horizontal tail, vertical tail, etc. (sizes to aerodynamics & configuration Determine/Ensure static margin range for all flight conditions Evaluate longitudinal and lateral stability (suggest needed changes to configuration) Specify avionics and any digital control system (weight/size to internal configuration) Evaluate dynamic stability (phugoid & short period) and evaluate flying qualities (e.g. with a flight simulator)

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3 Control Surface Sizing Horizontal tail, elevator Vertical tail, rudder Ailerons

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4 Longitudinal Moments Raymer, Fig. 16.3

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5 Types of Tails Raymer, Fig. 4.30

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6 Tail and Control Surface Sizing (Raymer)

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7 Neutral Point (Raymer) Find such that for all a

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8 Elevator to Trim Find such that Raymer, Fig. 16.18

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9 Yaw and Roll Moments

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10 Stability and Handling Qualities Static stability Dynamic stability Handling qualities

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11 Stability

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12 Cooper-Harper Scale

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13 Avionics

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14 Samples of Stability and Control from Previous PDRs

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15 Tail and Control Surface Sizing Table 5.2.1 Horizontal Tail Dimensions ConfigurationArea (ft 2 )Span (ft)Mean Chord (ft) Pusher26.7510.72.5 Tractor22.839.132.5 Twin-Boom19.417.312.5 Table 5.2.2 Vertical Tail Dimensions ConfigurationArea (ft 2 )Span (ft)Mean Chord (ft) Pusher12.845.142.5 Tractor13.75.552.5 Twin-Boom15.074.382.5

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16 Tail and Control Surface Sizing

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17 Static Margin Table 5.41 Power-Off Static Margin (%) Configuration1 Pilot2 Pilots Pusher1.939.60 Tractor3.336.98 Twin-Boom4.175.99

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18 Suggestions for CR Determine tail-type(s) Finish sizing tail and control surfaces Determine elevator reqt. for takeoff & landing Determine trim points Determine static margin range Investigate static stability Trade studies, e.g. tail size/location vs. trim elevator deflection

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© 2009 Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Pilot’s Manual – Ground School Aerodynamics Chapter 2 Stability and Control.

© 2009 Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Pilot’s Manual – Ground School Aerodynamics Chapter 2 Stability and Control.

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