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 Behavior & Classroom Management Week 9 – Function-Based Interventions; Introduction to BSP J Geurts, M.S. Special Education Portland State University.

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Presentation on theme: " Behavior & Classroom Management Week 9 – Function-Based Interventions; Introduction to BSP J Geurts, M.S. Special Education Portland State University."— Presentation transcript:

1  Behavior & Classroom Management Week 9 – Function-Based Interventions; Introduction to BSP J Geurts, M.S. Special Education Portland State University Adapted from slides by Chris Borgmeier

2  Proactive v. Reactive - REVIEW PBS v. Aversive approach

3 PBS v. Aversive Model (ABC) ABC PBS (Positive Behavior Support) – Proactive Interventions to prevent problem behavior Explicitly Teach Alternate and Desired behavior Reinforcement of Alternate and Desired behavior Traditional Aversive/Punitive Model - Reactive approach Limited focus on Antecedent Interventions Little focus on teaching behavior Emphasis on punitive response to problem behavior

4 Competencies Council for Exceptional Children: Initial Special Education Teachers of Individuals with Exceptional Learning Needs with Emotional and Behavior Disorders SStandard 5: Learning Environments/Social Interactions *** MModify the learning environment to manage behavior UUse effective and varied behavior management strategies SStandard 7: Instructional Planning *** PPrepare individuals to exhibit self-enhancing behavior in response to societal attitudes and actions PPlan and implement individualized reinforcement systems and environmental modifications at the levels equal to the intensity of the behavior

5 Traditional / Punitive Approach ABC Traditional Aversive Model - Reactive approach No intervention: repeatedly ask student to do problem on board; “should be able to do it just like everyone else” No focus on teaching: student “would have learned it if he was paying attention in class or tried harder” Find punitive response: send student to hallway, Behavior Intervention Center, or office Student Situation & what the student has learned Asked to do math problem at the board, in front of the whole class 1 st time…tried to do the problem and struggled Peers laughed and said “that one’s easy”. Ever since…student refuses loudly and/or is silly at the board Teacher sends student out & calls on someone else to do the problem.

6 PBS Approach (ABC) ABC PBS (Positive Behavior Support) – Proactive approach Set up Success: 1.Provide problem in advance (and help if needed) 2.Tell student when they’ll be called up Teach & Practice: 1.How to politely request a “pass” 2.Math skills needed to tackle that problem Reinforce student for 1.Politely requesting a “pass”. 2.Attempting the math problem (at desk or at board) Student Situation & what the student has learned Asked to do math problem at the board, in front of the whole class 1 st time…tried to do the problem and struggled Peers laughed and said “that one’s easy”. Ever since…student refuses loudly and/or is silly at the board Teacher sends student out & calls on someone else to do the problem.

7 PBS v. Aversive Model (ABC) ABC PBS (Positive Behavior Support) – Proactive Interventions to prevent problem behavior Explicitly Teach Alternate and Desired behavior Reinforcement of Alternate and Desired behavior Traditional Aversive/Punitive Model - Reactive approach Limited focus on Antecedent Interventions Little focus on teaching behavior Emphasis on punitive response to problem behavior

8  Function Based Interventions

9 Activity 1: Function Based Interventions  2 copies of the Pre-Test  Complete 1 (be sure your name is on it).  Keep 1 for your notes/today’s activities.  You may want to transcribe your answer from the “turn-in” copy to the “keep” copy.  Turn in Pre-Test

10 Behavior Support Planning FBA  BSP TThe most important outcomes/characteristics of FBA: IIdentify the function of the problem behavior IIdentify the variables that predict (A) and maintain (C) the problem behavior DDevelop a Behavior Support Plan that addresses the function of the problem behavior OOf these, the MOST IMPORTANT….and the reason for FBA: DDevelop a Behavior Support Plan that addresses the function of the problem behavior

11 Steps in Behavior Support Planning  Step 1: Develop Competing Behavior Pathway  Step 2: Develop Behavior Support Plan  Step 3: Implementation Plan  Step 4: Evaluation Plan  Step 5: Follow-up Meetings to Review Progress Next 3 classes

12 Function-Based Interventions  Start with FBA results = Summary of Behavior  Summary of Behavior should include a detailed and specific description of:  Targeted Routine  Antecedents triggering behavior  Problem Behavior  Consequence/Outcome of Problem Behavior  Function of Behavior

13 Analyzing the Summary of Behavior  Read over the Summary of Behavior, but pay special attention to the Function identified for the problem behavior  The Function of Behavior will be central to identifying effective interventions to address:  Antecedents  Behaviors to Teach &  Consequences/outComes

14 PBS v. Aversive Model (ABC) ABC PBS (Positive Behavior Support) – Proactive Interventions to prevent problem behavior Explicitly Teach Alternate and Desired behavior Reinforcement of Alternate and Desired behavior Traditional Aversive/Punitive Model - Reactive approach Limited focus on Antecedent Interventions Little focus on teaching behavior Emphasis on punitive response to problem behavior

15 Start w/ Summary of Behavior from FBA Maintaining Consequence & Function Problem Behavior Antecedent Targeted Routine

16 FBA: Summary of Behavior Maintaining Consequence & Function Problem Behavior Antecedent FUNCTION FUNCTION is where student behavior intersects with the environment Function = Learning Student learns…. When (A), if I (B), then (C)… Function = how I benefit so I keep doing B Targeted Routine

17  Competing Behavior Pathway

18 Summary of Behavior Adapted by C. Borgmeier (2002) from multiple sources: M. Bergstrom and D. Crone (2000); March, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, Brown, Crone & Todd (1999); O’Neill, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Story, & Newton (1997); Palmer & Sugai (2000); and Sprick, Sprick, & Garrison (1993); Martin, Hagan- Burke, & Sugai (2000) Setting Events: Antecedent: Current Behavior:Currency/outCome: This information comes from your FBA Summary Statement

19 !!!Function-Based Planning!!! (Interventions at SE, A, B, and C) SETTING EVENTSANTECENDENTBEHAVIORCURRENCY Describe: Makes student’s day worse. Outside the environment you control. Prevent: Change the environment to prevent known trigger from setting off problem behavior. Teach Alternate: Immediate replacement behavior you will teach the student. How and when will you teach; review? Reinforce alternate behavior: Contingent response to alternate behavior. Reinforces student use of replacement behavior you taught. Minimize: You can’t change…but you can minimize the effects. Ex: Hungry  food; Conflict  check in; Forgot supplies  offer extras. Prompt alternate behavior: Cue the alternate behavior before a behavior choice has been made by the student. Teach Desired: Behavior you will eventually teach the student to improve upon the immediate replacement/alternate behavior. Correct misbehavior: How will you respond if the problem behavior occurs? Adapted by C. Borgmeier (2002) from multiple sources: M. Bergstrom and D. Crone (2000); March, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, Brown, Crone & Todd (1999); O’Neill, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Story, & Newton (1997); Palmer & Sugai (2000); and Sprick, Sprick, & Garrison (1993); Martin, Hagan- Burke, & Sugai (2000)

20 Competing Behavior Pathway Adapted by C. Borgmeier (2002) from multiple sources: M. Bergstrom and D. Crone (2000); March, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, Brown, Crone & Todd (1999); O’Neill, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Story, & Newton (1997); Palmer & Sugai (2000); and Sprick, Sprick, & Garrison (1993); Martin, Hagan- Burke, & Sugai (2000) Setting Events: Antecedent: Alternate Behavior: Current Behavior: Desired Behavior: Future outCome: Currency/outCome:

21 Competing Behavior Pathway Completed from FBA

22 So this is what we want…. Maintaining Consequence & Function Problem Behavior Alternate Behavior Antecedent Targeted Routine Desired Behavior Natural Consequence But… Why can’t we go right to the Desired Behavior?

23 Understanding Desired Behavior  Long-term goal = to follow regular classrooms routines and norms, as independently as possible (w/ supports reduced or eliminated) and looking as similar as possible to peers  Often requires a sustained, focused teaching effort to build missing skills  Academic deficits (often related to Avoiding difficult tasks)  Example: student avoids reading because 3 grade levels behind in reading… requires intensive reading instruction to close gap  Social Skills deficits (often related to seeking attention)  Example: student seeks negative attention due to isolation from peers and adults resulting from aggressive behavior and limited social skills… requires sustained, targeted social skill instruction generalized to natural context  Communication deficit  Example: student screams and rocks vigorously back and forth due to limited communication skills which might result in getting a snack… requires teaching communication skills (PECS, sign language, etc.)  Organizational/school skills deficits  Example: student doesn’t complete homework due to limited scheduling and organization strategies which might result in (a) task avoidance due to limited background knowledge or (b) avoiding negative interactions with teacher because homework is frequently not done… requires teaching school skills

24 Why the Alternate Behavior? Success, another problem Sent back to table (escape task) Complete math problem Throws a Tantrum Raise hand & ask for break Given double digit addn problems None identified 1. This is what we’re asking the student to do. 2. This is what the student wants now. 3. Look how different this is from what’s happening now 4. The student is going to need to gain the math skills before being able to do this like peers 5. So… in the meantime we use the alternate behavior

25 Function Based Interventions Maintaining Consequence & Function Problem Behavior Antecedent FUNCTION Function should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & C Targeted Routine And we work B-A-C wards

26 Understanding Alternate/ Replacement Behaviors  Alternate Behaviors are:  an immediate attempt to reduce disruption & potentially dangerous behavior in the classroom  Take some of the pressure off the teacher  designed to actively begin breaking the student’s habit of using problem behavior to meet their needs, by replacing it with a more acceptable alternate behavior

27 Essential Characteristics of Replacement / Alternate Behavior  An appropriate Alternate/Replacement Behavior: 1. Serves the same function as the problem behavior 2. Is easier to do and more efficient than the problem behavior  Alternate Behaviors require less physical effort & provide quicker, more reliable access to desired outcome/response than problem behavior 3. Is more socially acceptable than the current (problem) behavior

28 Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors?  Leslie is 12, has severe intellectual disabilities, does not use words, and hits her head. Head hitting is maintained by adult attention during work periods.  Which is the best Replacement Behavior  hide under her desk and be ignored  sign for “more” to another student  take completed work up to show the teacher  move to sit by another student  Use picture communication system to request teacher help Start w/ the Function 1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult attn? 2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior? 3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?

29 Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors?  Jason is nine and cries when asked to do difficult tasks. The crying is maintained by avoiding or escaping difficult tasks.  Possible Replacement Behaviors:  More rewards for doing tasks  Asking for an easier task/ worksheet  Asking to play w/ his Gameboy  Requesting adult attention  Asking to have soda after tasks are done Start w/ the Function 1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult attn? 2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior? 3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?

30 Competing Behavior Pathway: Alternative Behavior  Example: Jason (from previous example) Antecedent Problem Behavior Consequence Avoid/Escape Difficult Task Crying Asking for an easier task/ worksheet Asked to do difficult tasks NOTE: This antecedent is not specific enough

31 Identifying the Alternate Behavior 1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult attn? 2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior? 3. Is Behavior socially acceptable? Yes or No? Why? What are the critical features of an Alternate Behavior?

32 Competing Behavior Pathway

33 Activity 2  With a partner go through each of the Competing Behavior Pathway options in Pre-Test #2  Yes or No & Why

34 BREAK 5 minutes

35  Identify an appropriate REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR:  Same function as problem behavior  Easier to do than problem behavior  More socially appropriate than problem behavior  BEHAVIOR: Scribbles all over, then tears up math paper.  FUNCTION: Avoid math work.  MY ANSWER: Cross out odds or evens. ALTERNATE/REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR Practice #1

36  Identify an appropriate REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR:  Same function as problem behavior  Easier to do than problem behavior  More socially appropriate than problem behavior  BEHAVIOR: Gets out Reading HW when time to do planner.  FUNCTION: Gain adult attention.  MY ANSWER: Signal (cue card, hand signal) for adult to watch him/her write in planner. ALTERNATE/REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR Practice #2

37  Identify an appropriate REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR:  Same function as problem behavior  Easier to do than problem behavior  More socially appropriate than problem behavior  BEHAVIOR: Head down, refusing to follow directions.  FUNCTION: Avoid adult attention.  MY ANSWER: 5 minutes head down coupon. ALTERNATE/REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR Practice #3

38  Identify an appropriate REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR:  Same function as problem behavior  Easier to do than problem behavior  More socially appropriate than problem behavior  BEHAVIOR: Blurting out jokes during quiet work time.  FUNCTION: Gain peer attention.  MY ANSWER: Student reads assignment directions to whole class. ALTERNATE/REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR Practice #4

39  Developing Function-Based Interventions

40 Behavior Support Planning Identify a range of interventions that address prevention (A), teaching (B) & consequences (C) You may not use them all, but it is good to identify multiple interventions options across A, B & C

41 !!!Function-Based Planning!!! (Interventions at SE, A, B, and C) SETTING EVENTSANTECENDENTBEHAVIORCURRENCY Describe: Makes student’s day worse. Outside the environment you control. Prevent: Change the environment to prevent known trigger from setting off problem behavior. Teach Alternate: Immediate replacement behavior you will teach the student. How and when will you teach; review? Reinforce alternate behavior: Contingent response to alternate behavior. Reinforces student use of replacement behavior you taught. Minimize: You can’t change…but you can minimize the effects. Ex: Hungry  food; Conflict  check in; Forgot supplies  offer extras. Prompt alternate behavior: Cue the alternate behavior before a behavior choice has been made by the student. Teach Desired: Behavior you will eventually teach the student to improve upon the immediate replacement/alternate behavior. Correct misbehavior: How will you respond if the problem behavior occurs? Adapted by C. Borgmeier (2002) from multiple sources: M. Bergstrom and D. Crone (2000); March, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, Brown, Crone & Todd (1999); O’Neill, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Story, & Newton (1997); Palmer & Sugai (2000); and Sprick, Sprick, & Garrison (1993); Martin, Hagan- Burke, & Sugai (2000)


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