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 Behavior & Classroom Management Week 6 – Academic Instruction J Geurts, M.S. Special Education Portland State University

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Presentation on theme: " Behavior & Classroom Management Week 6 – Academic Instruction J Geurts, M.S. Special Education Portland State University"— Presentation transcript:

1  Behavior & Classroom Management Week 6 – Academic Instruction J Geurts, M.S. Special Education Portland State University

2 Positive Reinforcement vs. Negative Reinforcement REVIEW

3 VOCABULARY Copy the following definitions into your notes:  CONSEQUENCE = what happens immediately after a Behavior  REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur.  POSITIVE = mathematical term indicating ADDITION  NEGATIVE = mathematical term indicating SUBTRACTION Now, let’s put it all together

4 MORE VOCABULARY Copy the definitions into your notes, including the blank lines:  POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by ADDING something _____________ or _____________.  NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by SUBTRACTING something _______________ or ____________.

5 Compare and contrast Positive & Negative Reinforcement REINFORCEMENT: Increases likelihood the behavior will re-occur POSITIVE: Add something NEGATIVE: Subtract something ADD WHAT THEY WANT SUBTRACT WHAT THEY DON’T WANT

6 MORE VOCABULARY Add the BLUE words to the definitions you wrote:  POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by ADDING something DESIRABLE or PREFERRED  NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by SUBTRACTING something UNDESIRABLE or UNPLEASANT

7  Active Engagement of Students: Opportunities to Respond

8 Multiple Opportunities to Respond  An instructional question, statement or gesture made by the teacher seeking an academic response from students (Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale 2006)  btw – it works for behavioral responses too!  A teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a student response (Simonsen et al, 2008)  Reading aloud  Writing answers to a problem  Verbally answering a question  Responding to a teacher’s cue

9 Opportunities to Respond (OTR) ANTECEDENT Teacher Provides: Verbal Questions Prompts Cues BEHAVIOR Student Responses: Written Choral Verbal Motor CONSEQUENCE Teacher Provides: Specific, Positive Feedback OTR in terms of ABC model of behavior progression….

10 Opportunities to Respond: Example ANTECEDENT Teacher says, “When I give the signal everyone answer this question: What is 5 times 6?” Teacher waits a few seconds and gives signal. BEHAVIOR Students chorally respond, “30” CONSEQUENCE Teacher says, “Yes! The correct answer is 30”.

11 Why Provide Multiple Opportunities to Respond? Behavioral Outcomes:  Increases student engagement with instruction  Allows for high rates of positive, specific feedback  Limits student time for engaging in inappropriate behavior  Is an efficient use of instructional time (Heward, 1994)

12 Why Provide Multiple Opportunities to Respond ? Academic Outcomes:  Improved Reading Performance:  increased percentage of reading responses,  mastery of reading words,  rates of words read correctly and  decreased rates of words read incorrectly. (Carnine, 1976; Skinner, Smith & McLean, 1994)  Improved Math Performance:  percentage of problems calculated correctly per minutes,  number of problems completed and  active correct responses. (Skinner, Belfior, Mace, Williams-Wilson, & Johns, 1997)

13 Rate of Opportunities to Respond  New Material:  4 – 6 student responses per minute with  80 % accuracy  Practice Work:  9 – 12 student responses per minute with  90% accuracy (CEC, 1987; Gunter, Hummel & Venn, 1998)

14 Strategies to Increase Opportunities to Respond A. Track Students Called On B. Guided Notes C. Response Cards D. Think-Pair-Share E. Direct Instruction F. Choral Responding

15 A. Track Students Called On  Are all students called on?  Use a seating chart & mark off when a student is called on to answer an academic question.  Draw students’ names from a jar  Other strategies you have used???

16 B. Guided Notes How to develop Guided Notes: 1. Examine existing lecture outlines, worksheets, assignments, and/or tests 2. Delete key facts, concepts, and/or relationships 3. When applicable, insert concept maps, graphs, charts, diagrams 4. Provide formatting cues (blank lines, numbers, bullets, etc) 5. Do Not Require Students Write Too Much!

17 GUIDED NOTES: An example from FLMS Used with a video about SEASONS

18 B. Guided Notes: OTR 1. Opportunity to Respond: an instructional question, statement or gesture made by the teacher seeking an academic ______________. 2. Rate of OTR for New Material: ___ - 6 responses from students per minute with ___ % accuracy 3. Rate of OTR for Practice Work: 9 - ___ opportunities with ___ % accuracy 4. Three common strategies to increase OTR are: Tracking students called on Guided __________ ___________ Cards response notes response

19 B. Guided Notes: Reinforcement REMEMBER THIS ACTIVITY….Copy the definitions into your notes, including the blank lines:  POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by ADDING something _____________ or _____________.  NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by SUBTRACTING something _______________ or ____________.

20 B. Guided Notes: Reinforcement Add the BLUE words to the definitions you wrote:  POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by ADDING something DESIRABLE or PREFERRED  NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by SUBTRACTING something UNDESIRABLE or UNPLEASANT

21 C. Response Cards  Cards, Signs, or Items Simultaneously Held up By All Students to Display Their Responses  Types of Response Cards:  Preprinted Cards: Yes/No, True/False, Agree/Disagree,  Preprinted Cards with Multiple Answers: Letters, Numbers, Parts of Speech, Characters in a Story  Write-On Cards: Dry-Erase Markers  Back side of recycled paper  Easy to Manipulate, Display, and See

22 C. Response Cards  Teach, Model, and Practice the Routine 1. Question 5. Cue to Show 2. Think 6. Hold up Card 3. Decide Answer 7. Put Down Card 4. Wait 8. Prepare for Next Question.  Maintain lively pace with a short time between questions  Give clear cues for each step in the routine  OK to look at classmates’ cards  Specific, positive feedback for correct answers and use of cards

23 C. Response Cards: Reinforcement Basic Assumption: the Consequence in each example is Reinforcing (it will increase the likelihood the behavior will re-occur). Your Job: show me (without talking) whether it the Consequence is  POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT (plus sign) or  NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT (minus sign) Example #1 – Immediately following the behavior, the student is given a sticker. Example #2 – Immediately following the behavior, the student has 2 math problems crossed out. POSITIVE: ADD STICKER NEGATIVE: SUBTRACT 2 PROBLEMS

24 C. Response Cards: Reinforcement Example #3 – Immediately following the behavior, the student can put head down for 5 minutes instead of silent reading. Example #4 – Immediately following the behavior, the student gets to do a job for the class. Example #5 – Immediately following the behavior, the student takes a break in the hallway while the rest of the class continues working. Example #6 – Immediately following the behavior, the student gets to tell a joke to his/her group. Example #7 – Immediately following the behavior, the student can work at his/her desk instead of working with a partner. POSITIVE: ADD PEER INTERACTION POSITIVE: ADD JOB/MOTOR ACTIVITY NEGATIVE: PEER INTERACTION NEGATIVE: SUBTRACT WORK TIME NEGATIVE: SUBTRACT 5 MIN OF READING

25 D. Think – Pair – Share: Reinforcement Read the sentence to yourself, filling in the blanks with the correct choice from the list following each blank. When you are sure of your answers, read the completed sentence to your neighbor. Use your notes if you need to. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = _____________ (Antecendent, Behavior, Consequence) which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by _________ (adding, subtracting, multiplying) something DESIRABLE or ____________ (undesirable, preferred, edible). NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which ____________ (decreases, eliminates, increases) the likelihood a _____________ (Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence) will re-occur by SUBTRACTING something _______________ (undesirable, preferred, edible) or UNPLEASANT. CONSEQUENCE ADDING PREFERRED INCREASES BEHAVIOR UNDESIRABLE

26 E. Direct Instruction  Direct Instruction (DI) is a teaching model that emphasizes carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments with clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks.  It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminates misinterpretations and can greatly improve and accelerate learning. (NIFDI website)  Examples:  Read 180, System 44, Distar Reading, SRA Reading  Distar Math, Saxon Math

27 E. Direct Instruction Characteristics:  Explicit, systematic instruction based on scripted lesson plans.  Ability grouping.  Emphasis on pace and efficiency of instruction.  Frequent (formative) assessment.  Quick pace helps keep students on task.  New material is worked on in highly interactive format

28 F. Choral Responding – Reinforcement When the teacher gives the signal, say the missing word:  CONSEQUENCE = what happens immediately _____ a Behavior  REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which _________ the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur  POSITIVE = mathematical term indicating ____________  N___________ = mathematical term indicating SUBTRACTION

29 F. Choral Responding – Reinforcement When the teacher signals, read the sentence and fill in the missing word(s): Remember….you read = by saying “means”  CONSEQUENCE = what happens i___________ after a Behavior  REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a B__________ will re-occur.  P__________ = mathematical term indicating ADDITION  NEGATIVE = __________ ______ (2 words) indicating SUBTRACTION

30 F. Choral Responding – Reinforcement When the teacher signals, read the sentence and fill in the missing word(s): Remember….you read = by saying “means”  NEGATIVE = mathematical term indicating S_________  REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which _________ the likelihood a ___________ will re-occur.  POSITIVE = ______________ term indicating ___________  CONSEQUENCE = what ______ immediately ______ a Behavior

31 Observing Opportunities to Respond BREAK…Then Assignment #2

32 Observing Opportunities to Respond  Classroom: Frequency  Observer tallies the number of instructional questions, statements or gestures made by the teacher seeking an academic response (OTR).  Students: Rate of Academic Engagement  Observer Records “+” symbol for on-task/engaged behavior and “-” indicates off-task behavior.

33 Ratings: make sure to preview so you know what to look for Positive/Negative Interactions: Observation: Oppty to Respond & Rate of Correct Responses

34 Positive v. Corrective – Interactions  Positive Interaction  any attention a teacher gives to a student when he or she is doing something well or following rules and behavioral expectations  Corrective Interaction  any attention a teacher gives to a student when he or she is doing something incorrect or that does not follow behavioral expectations

35 Coding BEHAVIOR Responses Positive to Negative Interactions  Tally positive v. negative interactions  Specific vs. General statements  Code positive & negative  S = Specific = Nice job getting your folders and quickly finding your seats  G = General = Good job

36 Coding BEHAVIOR Responses: Positive to Negative Interactions  Place an “+” next to each student for positive interaction & “-” for each negative interaction  Place an “+” next to teacher for each group positive interaction & “-” for each negative interaction After Scoring transfer scores to front page of observation form

37 Practice Coding BEHAVIOR Responses Positive to Negative Ratio  Draw this map  Watch the Video & Code (MS SPED Rdg Group) Watch the first 6:30

38 Practice Positive to Negative Ratio  Observed for 6:30 Positive = 9 Negative = 10 Ratio = 9 to 10 < 1:1 If we include academic responding Positive = 13 Negative = 16 Ratio = 13 to 16 < 1:1

39 Coding Responses Opportunities to Respond  Partner  Any activity in which student is working with 1 or more peers (e.g. Think-Pair-Share)  Group  Any activity in which the entire class responds in unison (choral response) or group physical response (e.g. response cards, thumbs up)  Individual Can do a simple Tally

40 Coding Responses Opportunities to Respond  Correct  Mark a tally in the “Correct” box when an individual, pair of students, or group make a correct response  Incorrect  Mark a tally in the “Incorrect” box when an individual, pair of students, or group make an incorrect response Can do a simple Tally

41 Coding Responses Opportunities to Respond  Place an “I” next to each student for incorrect response & “C” for correct response  Place an “I” next to teacher for each incorrect group response & “C” for correct response  Not always Correct/Incorrect -- May put an “N” for neutral or “Q” for question After Scoring transfer scores to front page of observation form

42 Practice Opportunities to Response  Draw this map  Watch the Video & Code (MS SPED Reading Group) Re-Watch the first 6:30

43 Practice Positive to Negative Ratio  Observed for 6:30 Partner = 0 Group = 0 Individ = 10 % grp & part = 0% % Correct Correct = 4 Incorrect = 6 % Correct = 4/10 40% Responses/Min 10 resp/6:30 < 2 resp/min

44 Observation Ratings Based on what you say… What do you think?

45 Practice Parther = 0 Group = 0 Individ = 10 % grp + part = 0% % Correct Correct = 4 Incorrect = 6 % Correct = 4/10 40% Responses/Min 10 resp/6:30 < 2 resp/min

46 Summarize the Data Start with the Candidate Start with the Positive! Use the Data to inform Targets & provide specific, observable strategies

47 Providing Feeback  Start with the Positive

48 PROVIDING FEEDBACK  Based on Data PRIORITIZE 2-3 Targets  Give specific feedback with tangible, observable strategies  When possible give specific examples from the teaching lesson

49 Using Data to Inform Feedback  Look at Observation Data

50 Using Data to Inform Feedback  Look at Ratings

51 Activity With a Partner: Based on this observation & the data you collected: 1. Use the data you collected to identify your top 3 targets for improvement 2. Provide specific feedback and strategies for improvement 3. Practice providing the feedback to your partner

52 Targets for Continuing Development

53 Assignment #2  Conduct a peer observation  Debrief following observation  Use your observation data to identify suggestions  Write out recommendations so clearly that it is easy to understand what to do

54 Academic Learning Time: Typical School 1170 School Year (6.5 hours x 180 days) - 65 Absenteeism (1 day/month x 10 months) = 1105 Attendance Time (Time in School) Non-instructional time (1.5 hrs./day for recess, lunch, etc) = 835 Allocated Time (Time scheduled for teaching) (25% of allocated time for administration, transition, discipline-15 minutes/hour) = 626 Instructional time (time actually teaching) Time off task (Engaged 75% of time) = 469 Engaged Time (On task) - 94 Unsuccessful Engaged Time (Success Rate 80%) = 375 Academic Learning Time Education Resources Inc., 2005 Efficiency Rating = 32%

55 Academic Learning Time: Effective School 1170 School Year (6.5 hours x 180 days) - 65 Absenteeism (1 day/month x 10 months) = 1105 Attendance Time (Time in School) Non-instructional time (1.5 hrs./day for recess, lunch, etc) = 835 Allocated Time (Time scheduled for teaching) (15% of allocated time for administration, transition, discipline-9 minutes/hour) = 710 Instructional time (actually teaching-710 vs. 626) - 71 Time off task (Engaged 90% of time) = 639 Engaged Time (639 vs. 469 On task) - 64 Unsuccessful Engaged Time (Success Rate 90%) = 575 Academic Learning Time Education Resources Inc., 2005 Efficiency Rating = 49%

56 The Difference: Typical vs. Effective Schools  Unallocated Non-Instructional Time  75% vs. 85% = 84 more hours  Difference in 15 minutes vs. 9 minutes/hour  Teaching expectations, teaching transitions, managing appropriate and inappropriate behavior efficiently  Engagement Rate  75% vs. 90% = 86 more hours  Management of groups, pacing  Success Rate  80% vs. 90% = 30 more hours  Appropriate placement, effective teaching  So what?  200 hours more academic learning time (575 vs. 375)  53% more ALT  95 more days in school (4-5 more months of school!) Education Resources Inc., 2005

57  Good Instruction as a Behavior Management Tool

58 Linking Behavior & Instruction  Avoiding Difficult Tasks is one of most common functions of student problem behavior  Responses  Provide the most effective instruction  Provide instruction/ activities to meet/match students’ varying skill levels  Collect data to Monitor student work and error patterns to identify what needs re-teaching  Review, review, review  Be active in scanning work to catch student errors early to prevent frustration and practice of misrules

59 Linking Behavior & Instruction  Good instruction of academic content is the best and most important Behavior Management tool you have!!  Academic success is the most frequent reinforcer available to students in the classroom  Students should experience at least a 90% success rate  To be successful students need 2 things: 1. Effective Instruction with frequent review 2. High rates of success with questions and assignments

60  PBS v. Traditional Approach to Problem Behavior

61 PBS v. Aversive Model (ABC) ABC PBS (Positive Behavior Support) – Proactive Emphasis on Interventions to prevent problem behavior Emphasis on explicitly Teaching Alternate, Desired Behavior Emphasis on Positive Reinforcement of desired behavior Traditional Aversive Model - Reactive approach Limited focus on Antecedent Interventions Little focus on teaching behavior Emphasis on punitive response to negative behavior

62 PBS v. Aversive Intervention Vignette  Alex gets into a (B) yelling match that turns into shoving and kicking the kickball across the yard when (A) another student told him he had to wait to join the game until their team played the field in the next inning. Meanwhile, supervision staff were huddled together talking right next to the school and didn’t respond until the boy who was shoved to the ground went in tears to tell on Alex.  What would be a traditional v. PBS approach to this situation?

63 Interventions for Vignette PBS v. Aversive A BC A-B-C sequence Alex wants in kickball game now, and peer says wait until inning is over Alex yells at peer, shoves him to ground and kicks ball across yard Desired: Alex wanted to get in game right away Real: Alex didn’t get in game and game delayed PBS approach Increase supervision, in the future make sure there is supervision around student Teach Rules w/ opportunities to practice How to wait How to ask nicely to enter game Verbally praise student or provide corrective feedback Get to play in game if ask approp’ly Trad’l Aversive Nothing – keep chatting w/ colleague by school No emphasis on teaching – assume student should have the skills Sent to office –no recess next day & can’t play kickball for a week

64 Good Instruction as a Behavior Management Tool  Provide fast-paced, interactive, engaging instruction  Must be interactive & engaging for ALL students, not just the best students  Structure activities from time students enter until they leave classroom  “idle hands (or idle time) = devil’s workbench”  Provide clear questions/instruction, and directions  Too often I’ve been doing an observation & I find that I’m confused about what students are supposed to be doing at a certain time  Involve all students in instruction/ classroom activities

65 Appropriate Instructional Placement  Placement in the appropriate level of instruction as a determining factor in student behavior  Identify specific skill deficits  Teach simple strategies or misunderstandings to clarify problem  Can Do v. Will Do problem  Impact of reading deficits on success in content areas

66 Interactive & Engaging  Requires high levels of participation for all students in instruction/ classroom activities Ways to get Everyone involved:  Use Chorale Responding – clear signal w/ think time to increase responding  Be Careful of relying too much on volunteers  When reading aloud do not always go sequentially around the room  Use a random selection technique (i.e. choose from popsicle sticks with student names on them)  Provide effective instruction & ask clear questions based on instruction that students can answer with high rates of success  Establish consistent routines/ways of asking questions or prompting responses and teach/practice to fluency

67 Independent Work  Define & Teach Expectations & Routines during Independent Work  High rates of reinforcement for early practice and independent work  Practice at first with non-work activities  Might want to link with a tangible reinforcer at first  Active Movement & Scanning w/ frequent Precorrection, Reinforcement, & Support  Provide independent work that students can be successful with independently (90% accurate)

68 Independent Work  Break long, multi-step tasks into smaller parts with opportunities for participation  Instead of waiting 15 minutes to complete & present a multi-step task, break task into portions & have students present progress on smaller steps in 5 minute intervals  Active Movement & Scanning w/ frequent Reinforcement & Support if struggling

69 Managing Volume & Talking  Identify your expectations  Routines & Volume levels  May use signs, signals or cues to identify different requirements &/or Volume Levels (5-Level system)  Use an attention signal  Explicitly teach expectation with practice  Give students something to do

70 During & After Instruction  Evaluate work to identify specific error patterns  In class this can be done through monitoring and looking at work  Look for common mistakes across students, which may signal the need for clearer, more explicit instruction  Look for individual student mistakes & provide 1:1 support while class during individual seatwork time  We don’t want students practicing misrules

71 Can Do v. Will Do Problem  Skill Deficit v. Motivation Problem  How can we tell the difference?  Try giving the student easier tasks that you know they are capable of doing fluently and see how they respond… if they will do it  A task that students are 93+ % successful  A task that is not so easy that it’s boring  Antecedent manipulation  Antecedent = Difficult Task  manipulate it to make an easier task

72 Can Do v. Will Do Problem  Skill Deficit v. Motivation Problem  For skill deficits we can:  Provide more instruction or support to alleviate specific skill deficit or  Provide the student with easier questions or assignments to increase participation  For motivation problems we can:  Find incentives to motivate the student to engage in the academic task

73 BREAK

74  Manipulating Academic Tasks

75 Instructional Classroom Management  The nature, structure, and demands of a task can set the stage for serious problem behavior  What can I do to change task presentation to make the student more likely to engage in the instructional task and less likely to avoid task/misbehave  Depending on challenge of task, may also need to alter/increase amount of reinforcement provided for some students

76 Dimensions of Instructional Classroom Management  History  Response form  Modality  Complexity  Schedule  Variation

77 Manipulating Task Dimensions  We can manipulate aspects of tasks (see arrows   ) and/or the way we seek student responses to increase the chances that students will be successful with the task Likelihood of Failure with Task DecreasedIncreased   (task made easier) (task made more difficult) DecreasedIncreased Likelihood of Problem Behavior/Refusal

78 Task History  Status of the task and extent that the task has been taught before and the likelihood that the learner will be familiar with it  New v. familiar tasks Likelihood of Failure with Task Decreased (easier task)(more difficult) Increased   (more familiar/reviewed items) (newer material) DecreasedIncreased Likelihood of Problem Behavior/Refusal

79 Task Dimensions of Instructional Classroom Management  Task History  New v. familiar tasks  Task Response form  Yes or No/Choice from List/Production  Production: write in/finish the sentence/write a sentence+  Task Modality  oral/motor/written  Task Complexity  Easy v. Difficult  Task Schedule  Abbreviated v. extended  Variation  Varied v. unvaried

80 Small Group Activity  Break into teams  Assign a Task Dimension to each team  Come up with an academic task & show how to use your task dimension to modify the task to make it easier  Reference Darch & Kameenui pp  Each team will present their example to the class

81 Reading Review  Kern & Clements – Antecedent Strategies  Pacchiano – Instructional Variables  Moore et al., 2010 – Praise & OTR  Heward et al., 1996 – Everyone participates


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