Presentation on theme: "Behavior & Classroom Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Behavior & Classroom Management Week 6 – Academic InstructionJ Geurts, M.S. Special EducationPortland State University
2Positive Reinforcement vs. Negative Reinforcement REVIEW
3VOCABULARY Copy the following definitions into your notes: CONSEQUENCE = what happens immediately after a BehaviorREINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur.POSITIVE = mathematical term indicating ADDITIONNEGATIVE = mathematical term indicating SUBTRACTIONNow, let’s put it all together
4MORE VOCABULARYCopy the definitions into your notes, including the blank lines:POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by ADDING something _____________ or _____________.NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by SUBTRACTING something _______________ or ____________.
5Compare and contrast Positive & Negative Reinforcement Add somethingNEGATIVE:Subtract somethingREINFORCEMENT:Increases likelihood the behavior will re-occurADD WHAT THEY WANTSUBTRACT WHAT THEY DON’T WANT
6MORE VOCABULARY Add the BLUE words to the definitions you wrote: POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by ADDING something DESIRABLE or PREFERREDNEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by SUBTRACTING something UNDESIRABLE or UNPLEASANT
7Active Engagement of Students: Opportunities to RespondThe practice we are focusing on today is giving students Multiple Opportunities to Respond (OTR). Using this technique is one way to keep students actively engaged with instruction.When students are productively engaged in their work there is less chance of problem behavior (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)On the other hand, when students are required to sit for long periods of time without the opportunity to respond or participate, it increase the likelihood that problems will occur- especially for at-risk and high-risk students (Colvin, 2009, p.48).One research based, effective practice for keeping students actively engaged is providing multiple opportunities for response.
8Multiple Opportunities to Respond An instructional question, statement or gesture made by the teacher seeking an academic response from students (Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale 2006)btw – it works for behavioral responses too! A teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a student response (Simonsen et al, 2008)Reading aloudWriting answers to a problemVerbally answering a questionResponding to a teacher’s cueOpportunities to Respond occur when a teacher seeks a response from students.Student’s can respond to teacher statements or questions in a variety of ways. Examples include… Reading aloud, writing answers to a problem, verbally answering a question or giving a motor response or gesture to a cue.
9Opportunities to Respond (OTR) OTR in terms of ABC model of behavior progression….ANTECEDENTTeacher Provides:Verbal QuestionsPromptsCuesBEHAVIORStudent Responses:WrittenChoral VerbalMotorCONSEQUENCETeacher Provides: Specific, Positive FeedbackWe can think about OTR in terms of the traditional ABC model of behavior (antecedents, behavior and consequences).The teacher provides a question, prompt or cue that sets the occasion for students to respond (this is the antecedent). The student response may be written, choral, verbal or a motor (this is the behavior).If the teacher provides an antecedent or question that brings a correct response or answer, this allows a chance to provide specific, positive feedback as a consequence.Providing frequent opportunities to respond sets the occasion for students to receive high rates of feedback and experience high rates of success. This tends to increase academic engagement and decrease problem behavior.
10Opportunities to Respond: Example ANTECEDENTTeacher says, “When I give the signal everyone answer this question:What is 5 times 6?”Teacher waits a few seconds and gives signal.BEHAVIORStudents chorally respond, “30”CONSEQUENCETeacher says, “Yes! The correct answer is 30”.Consider this as an example.The antecedent is the teacher saying“When I give the signal, everyone answer this question: What is 5 times 6?”The teacher waits and then gives the signal for students to answer.This sets the occasion for the desired behavior… all students responding in chorus, “30”.Students responding with a correct answer gives the teacher a chance to say “Yes! The correct answer is 30”.The process is then repeated with several other different questions.
11Why Provide Multiple Opportunities to Respond? Behavioral Outcomes:Increases student engagement with instructionAllows for high rates of positive, specific feedbackLimits student time for engaging in inappropriate behaviorIs an efficient use of instructional time(Heward, 1994)Here are a few reasons why providing opportunities to respond is recommended. Opportunities to respond are associated with:Students who are more engaged in instruction.The more we ask students to respond, the more likely they are to be engaged in the academic material presented.High rates of feedback.If the teacher sets up the prompts or questions well, the students will respond with the correct answer. When students respond accurately the teacher can then give specific, positive feedback.Decreases in problem behavior.When students are engaged in academic responding, they have fewer opportunities to misbehave. Providing many opportunities for students to respond correctly sets a brisk pace during teacher led instruction and decreases time for problems to occur .Finally, allowing multiple opportunities for student response is an efficient use of instructional time.Setting up group or whole class responses allows more students to be involved compared with the traditional method of the teacher asking a question and allowing one student to respond.
12Why Provide Multiple Opportunities to Respond? Academic Outcomes:Improved Reading Performance:increased percentage of reading responses,mastery of reading words,rates of words read correctly anddecreased rates of words read incorrectly.(Carnine, 1976; Skinner, Smith & McLean, 1994)Improved Math Performance:percentage of problems calculated correctly per minutes,number of problems completed andactive correct responses. (Skinner, Belfior, Mace, Williams-Wilson, & Johns, 1997)In addition research has shown increasing the rate of student responses specifically led to improved reading and math performance.
13Rate of Opportunities to Respond New Material:4 – 6 student responses per minute with80 % accuracyPractice Work:9 – 12 student responses per minute with90% accuracy(CEC, 1987; Gunter, Hummel & Venn, 1998)These are the recommended rates of opportunities to respond.When introducing new material, the goal is the have students responding at a rate of 4-6 responses per minute with 80% accuracy.When reviewing previously learned material, a quicker pace of 9-12 responses per minute with 90% accuracy is the goal.
14Strategies to Increase Opportunities to Respond Track Students Called OnGuided NotesResponse CardsThink-Pair-ShareDirect InstructionChoral RespondingThis is a list of strategies teachers can use to increase the opportunities for students to respond.The first three strategies require little preparation(tracking, guided notes and response cards).The last three strategies may be dependent on availability of equipment and/or require more information before implementing.(computer assisted instruction, classwide peer tutoring and direct instruction)
15A. Track Students Called On Are all students called on?Use a seating chart & mark off when a student is called on to answer an academic question.Draw students’ names from a jarOther strategies you have used???The first strategy is to systematically keep track of which students have been called on. Using a tracking strategy may help a teacher consider whether students are being asked to respond equally. Using a strategy to track which students are called on also helps to monitor students who have not participated and increases the chance they will be called on.Two simple strategies are listed here:1) The teacher can use a seating chart and check a name off each time a student a student responds. Or…2) Consider drawing students’ names from a jar.However, it is important that students experience high rates of success. Think about whether a student can correctly answer the question before calling on him or her.Are there other strategies you have used or can think of to keep track of which students are called on?
16B. Guided Notes How to develop Guided Notes: Examine existing lecture outlines, worksheets, assignments, and/or testsDelete key facts, concepts, and/or relationshipsWhen applicable, insert concept maps, graphs, charts, diagramsProvide formatting cues (blank lines, numbers, bullets, etc)Do Not Require Students Write Too Much!These are suggestions about how to develop guided notes.
17GUIDED NOTES: An example from FLMS Used with a video about SEASONS
18B. Guided Notes: OTROpportunity to Respond: an instructional question, statement or gesture made by the teacher seeking an academic ______________.Rate of OTR for New Material: ___ - 6 responses from students per minute with ___ % accuracyRate of OTR for Practice Work: 9 - ___ opportunities with ___ % accuracyThree common strategies to increase OTR are:Tracking students called onGuided _____________________ Cardsresponse4809012Guided Notes are a second strategy to encourage student responding.Guided Notes are teacher-prepared hand-outs that outline lectures, but leave "blank" space for key concepts, facts or definitions. As the lecture progresses, the learner fills in the spaces with content information.Guided notes are a way of involving students during a lecture. Added benefits of guided notes include organizing and highlighting the important points of a lecture and guided notes provide students with an accurate summary of information they can use to study for tests.This strategy may be used with most grades, but may be more applicable in secondary grades where lectures are frequently used to share new material.This slide shows an example based on our “lecture” today.notesresponse
19B. Guided Notes: Reinforcement REMEMBER THIS ACTIVITY….Copy the definitions into your notes, including the blank lines:POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by ADDING something _____________ or _____________.NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by SUBTRACTING something _______________ or ____________.
20B. Guided Notes: Reinforcement Add the BLUE words to the definitions you wrote:POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by ADDING something DESIRABLE or PREFERREDNEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by SUBTRACTING something UNDESIRABLE or UNPLEASANT
21C. Response CardsCards, Signs, or Items Simultaneously Held up By All Students to Display Their ResponsesTypes of Response Cards:Preprinted Cards: Yes/No, True/False, Agree/Disagree,Preprinted Cards with Multiple Answers: Letters, Numbers, Parts of Speech, Characters in a StoryWrite-On Cards: Dry-Erase MarkersBack side of recycled paperEasy to Manipulate, Display, and SeeResponse cards are another a powerful way to engage all students when asking questions. Response cards are signs, or items simultaneously held up by all students to display their responses.The types of response cards are as varied as a teacher’s imagination. Preprinted cards can be used, and reused, with yes/no or true/false printed on both side. Students raise the card on the side that is their response to a question.Preprinted cards with multiple answers may also be used when a student has more than two responses to choose from. With a paper clip or clothes pin a student can indicate their answer.Write-on cards can be made from 4 by 8 foot sheets of laminated bathroom board, cut into 9 X 12 inch response cards that each student can use. Dry-erase markers and paper towel can be used to write and erase answers.Many schools and classrooms have a recycle bin of paper that has been used only on one side. Reusing paper makes an inexpensive and recyclable way for students to record answers.Whatever is used, the response cards should be easy to manipulate, display and see by the teacher.
22C. Response Cards Teach, Model, and Practice the Routine 1. Question Cue to Show2. Think Hold up Card3. Decide Answer Put Down Card4. Wait Prepare for Next Question.Maintain lively pace with a short time between questionsGive clear cues for each step in the routineOK to look at classmates’ cardsSpecific, positive feedback for correct answers and use of cardsUsing response cards takes a little planning.The teacher should identify and teach the routine she/he will have when asking students to use their response cards. Specific behavioral expectations about how to hold, respond, clean and prepare for the next question need to be planned, taught, modeled, and practiced so students are fluent in the use of the response cards.Maintaining a lively pace of questions, responses, and clean up with short periods of time between questions is important for keeping students on task.Teacher should use clear and consistent cues about holding up and putting down cards so students can keep up the brisk pace.Using response cards is not a test. Rather it is a way to review and relearn material. Encourage students to look at each others’ cards to get the correct answer.And of course, it is critically important for the teacher to recognize students who give correct answers and use their cards appropriately. Specific, positive feedback will increase the likelihood the students will remember the answer and repeat the behavior in the future.
23C. Response Cards: Reinforcement Basic Assumption: the Consequence in each example is Reinforcing (it will increase the likelihood the behavior will re-occur).Your Job: show me (without talking) whether it the Consequence isPOSITIVE REINFORCEMENT (plus sign) orNEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT (minus sign)Example #1 – Immediately following the behavior, the student is given a sticker.Example #2 – Immediately following the behavior, the student has 2 math problems crossed out.POSITIVE: ADD STICKERNEGATIVE: SUBTRACT 2 PROBLEMS
24C. Response Cards: Reinforcement NEGATIVE: SUBTRACT 5 MIN OF READINGExample #3 – Immediately following the behavior, the student can put head down for 5 minutes instead of silent reading. Example #4 – Immediately following the behavior, the student gets to do a job for the class. Example #5 – Immediately following the behavior, the student takes a break in the hallway while the rest of the class continues working. Example #6 – Immediately following the behavior, the student gets to tell a joke to his/her group. Example #7 – Immediately following the behavior, the student can work at his/her desk instead of working with a partner.POSITIVE: ADD JOB/MOTOR ACTIVITYNEGATIVE: SUBTRACT WORK TIMEPOSITIVE: ADD PEER INTERACTIONNEGATIVE: PEER INTERACTION
25D. Think – Pair – Share: Reinforcement Read the sentence to yourself, filling in the blanks with the correct choice from the list following each blank. When you are sure of your answers, read the completed sentence to your neighbor. Use your notes if you need to.POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = _____________ (Antecendent, Behavior, Consequence) which increases the likelihood a Behavior will re-occur by _________ (adding, subtracting, multiplying) something DESIRABLE or ____________ (undesirable, preferred, edible).NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which ____________ (decreases, eliminates, increases) the likelihood a _____________ (Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence) will re-occur by SUBTRACTING something _______________ (undesirable, preferred, edible) or UNPLEASANT.CONSEQUENCEADDINGPREFERREDINCREASESBEHAVIORUNDESIRABLE
26E. Direct InstructionDirect Instruction (DI) is a teaching model that emphasizes carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments with clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks.It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminates misinterpretations and can greatly improve and accelerate learning. (NIFDI website)Examples:Read 180, System 44, Distar Reading, SRA ReadingDistar Math, Saxon MathDirect instruction is the next strategy to increase opportunities to respond. Direct Instruction (DI) is an instructional design and teaching methodology originally developed by Siegfried Engelmann and the late Wesley C. Becker from the University of Oregon.Examples:Distar Reading, Soar to Success Reading, SRA ReadingDistar Math, Saxxon Math
27E. Direct InstructionCharacteristics:Explicit, systematic instruction based on scripted lesson plans.Ability grouping.Emphasis on pace and efficiency of instruction.Frequent (formative) assessment.Quick pace helps keep students on task.New material is worked on in highly interactive formatFeatures of direct instruction include:Direct Instruction is explicit, systematic and based on scripted lesson plans. Lessons are a sequence of short, quick-paced exercises.Students are ability grouped and re-grouped based on their rate of progress through the program.There is emphasis on pace and efficiency of instruction. DI programs are meant to accelerate the performance of students; therefore, lessons are designed to bring students to mastery as quickly as possible.Direct instruction involves frequent assessment. Curriculum-based assessments help place students in ability groups and identify students who require additional intervention.The fast pacing of DI instruction achieves the highest level of student responses within a finite amount of time. With a fast pace, students are actively engaged in the lesson, remain on task, and remain focused on the skills being taught. Also, because there is a short amount of time between when students learn information and when they have the opportunity to use it, their retention is higher.Source:
28F. Choral Responding – Reinforcement When the teacher gives the signal, say the missing word:CONSEQUENCE = what happens immediately _____ a BehaviorREINFORCEMENT = Consequence which _________ the likelihood a Behavior will re-occurPOSITIVE = mathematical term indicating ____________N___________ = mathematical term indicating SUBTRACTION
29F. Choral Responding – Reinforcement When the teacher signals, read the sentence and fill in the missing word(s): Remember….you read = by saying “means”CONSEQUENCE = what happens i___________ after a BehaviorREINFORCEMENT = Consequence which increases the likelihood a B__________ will re-occur.P__________ = mathematical term indicating ADDITIONNEGATIVE = __________ ______ (2 words) indicating SUBTRACTION
30F. Choral Responding – Reinforcement When the teacher signals, read the sentence and fill in the missing word(s): Remember….you read = by saying “means”NEGATIVE = mathematical term indicating S_________REINFORCEMENT = Consequence which _________ the likelihood a ___________ will re-occur.POSITIVE = ______________ term indicating ___________CONSEQUENCE = what ______ immediately ______ a Behavior
31Observing Opportunities to Respond BREAK…Then Assignment #2
32Observing Opportunities to Respond Classroom: FrequencyObserver tallies the number of instructional questions, statements or gestures made by the teacher seeking an academic response (OTR).Students: Rate of Academic EngagementObserver Records “+” symbol for on-task/engaged behavior and “-” indicates off-task behavior.To assess the rate of opportunities to respond, data can be collected during a classroom or student observation.To record the frequency of opportunities to respond in a particular classroom, an observer can tally the number of questions, statements or gestures made by the teacher to seek an academic response.In addition, students can be observed to record their rate of academic engagement. During an observation period the recorder marks “+” for on-task or engaged student behavior and “-” for off-task behavior observed during regular intervals, such as every 5 seconds.It is important to clarify teacher and recorder definitions of on-task versus off-task behavior before beginning the data collection process.
33Positive/Negative Interactions: Ratings: make sure to preview so you know what to look forPositive/Negative Interactions:Observation: Oppty to Respond & Rate of Correct Responses
34Positive v. Corrective – Interactions Positive Interactionany attention a teacher gives to a student when he or she is doing something well or following rules and behavioral expectationsCorrective Interactionany attention a teacher gives to a student when he or she is doing something incorrect or that does not follow behavioral expectations
35Coding BEHAVIOR Responses Positive to Negative Interactions Tally positive v. negative interactionsSpecific vs. General statementsCode positive & negativeS = Specific = Nice job getting your folders and quickly finding your seatsG = General = Good job
36Coding BEHAVIOR Responses: Positive to Negative Interactions Place an “+” next to each student for positive interaction & “-” for each negative interactionPlace an “+” next to teacher for each group positive interaction & “-” for each negative interactionAfter Scoring transfer scores to front page of observation form
37Practice Coding BEHAVIOR Responses Positive to Negative Ratio Draw this mapWatch the Video & Code (MS SPED Rdg Group)Watch the first 6:30
38Practice Positive to Negative Ratio Observed for 6:30Positive = 9Negative = 10Ratio = 9 to 10< 1:1If we include academic respondingPositive = 13Negative = 16Ratio = 13 to 16< 1:1
39Coding Responses Opportunities to Respond Can do a simple TallyPartnerAny activity in which student is working with 1 or more peers (e.g. Think-Pair-Share)GroupAny activity in which the entire class responds in unison (choral response) or group physical response (e.g. response cards, thumbs up)Individual
40Coding Responses Opportunities to Respond Can do a simple TallyCorrectMark a tally in the “Correct” box when an individual, pair of students, or group make a correct responseIncorrectMark a tally in the “Incorrect” box when an individual, pair of students, or group make an incorrect response
41Coding Responses Opportunities to Respond Place an “I” next to each student for incorrect response & “C” for correct responsePlace an “I” next to teacher for each incorrect group response & “C” for correct responseNot always Correct/Incorrect -- May put an “N” for neutral or “Q” for questionAfter Scoring transfer scores to front page of observation form
42Practice Opportunities to Response Draw this mapWatch the Video & Code (MS SPED Reading Group)Re-Watch the first 6:30
43Practice Positive to Negative Ratio Observed for 6:30Partner = 0Group = 0Individ = 10% grp & part = 0%% CorrectCorrect = 4Incorrect = 6% Correct = 4/10 40%Responses/Min10 resp/6:30< 2 resp/min
44Observation Ratings Based on what you say… What do you think?
51ActivityWith a Partner: Based on this observation & the data you collected:Use the data you collected to identify your top 3 targets for improvementProvide specific feedback and strategies for improvementPractice providing the feedback to your partner
53Assignment #2 Conduct a peer observation Debrief following observation Use your observation data to identify suggestionsWrite out recommendations so clearly that it is easy to understand what to do
54Academic Learning Time: Typical School 1170 School Year (6.5 hours x 180 days) - 65 Absenteeism (1 day/month x 10 months) = 1105 Attendance Time (Time in School) Non-instructional time (1.5 hrs./day for recess, lunch, etc) = 835 Allocated Time (Time scheduled for teaching) (25% of allocated time for administration, transition, discipline-15 minutes/hour) = 626 Instructional time (time actually teaching) Time off task (Engaged 75% of time) = 469 Engaged Time (On task) - 94 Unsuccessful Engaged Time (Success Rate 80%) = 375 Academic Learning TimeEfficiency Rating = 32%Education Resources Inc., 2005
55Academic Learning Time: Effective School 1170 School Year (6.5 hours x 180 days) - 65 Absenteeism (1 day/month x 10 months) = 1105 Attendance Time (Time in School) Non-instructional time (1.5 hrs./day for recess, lunch, etc) = 835 Allocated Time (Time scheduled for teaching) (15% of allocated time for administration, transition, discipline-9 minutes/hour) = 710 Instructional time (actually teaching-710 vs. 626) - 71 Time off task (Engaged 90% of time) = 639 Engaged Time (639 vs. 469 On task) - 64 Unsuccessful Engaged Time (Success Rate 90%) = 575 Academic Learning TimeEfficiency Rating = 49%Education Resources Inc., 2005
56The Difference: Typical vs. Effective Schools Unallocated Non-Instructional Time75% vs. 85% = 84 more hoursDifference in 15 minutes vs. 9 minutes/hourTeaching expectations, teaching transitions, managing appropriate and inappropriate behavior efficientlyEngagement Rate75% vs. 90% = 86 more hoursManagement of groups, pacingSuccess Rate80% vs. 90% = 30 more hoursAppropriate placement, effective teachingSo what?200 hours more academic learning time (575 vs. 375)53% more ALT95 more days in school (4-5 more months of school!)Education Resources Inc., 2005
58Linking Behavior & Instruction Avoiding Difficult Tasks is one of most common functions of student problem behaviorResponsesProvide the most effective instructionProvide instruction/ activities to meet/match students’ varying skill levelsCollect data to Monitor student work and error patterns to identify what needs re-teachingReview, review, reviewBe active in scanning work to catch student errors early to prevent frustration and practice of misrules
59Linking Behavior & Instruction Good instruction of academic content is the best and most important Behavior Management tool you have!!Academic success is the most frequent reinforcer available to students in the classroomStudents should experience at least a 90% success rateTo be successful students need 2 things:Effective Instruction with frequent reviewHigh rates of success with questions and assignments
61PBS v. Aversive Model (ABC) PBS (Positive Behavior Support) – ProactiveEmphasis on Interventions to prevent problem behaviorEmphasis on explicitly Teaching Alternate, Desired BehaviorEmphasis on Positive Reinforcement of desired behaviorTraditional Aversive Model - Reactive approachLimited focus on Antecedent InterventionsLittle focus on teaching behaviorEmphasis on punitive response to negative behavior
62PBS v. Aversive Intervention Vignette Alex gets into a (B) yelling match that turns into shoving and kicking the kickball across the yard when (A) another student told him he had to wait to join the game until their team played the field in the next inning. Meanwhile, supervision staff were huddled together talking right next to the school and didn’t respond until the boy who was shoved to the ground went in tears to tell on Alex.What would be a traditional v. PBS approach to this situation?
63Interventions for Vignette PBS v. Aversive CA-B-C sequenceAlex wants in kickball game now, and peer says wait until inning is overAlex yells at peer, shoves him to ground and kicks ball across yardDesired: Alex wanted to get in game right awayReal: Alex didn’t get in game and game delayedPBS approachIncrease supervision, in the future make sure there is supervision around studentTeach Rules w/ opportunities to practiceHow to waitHow to ask nicely to enter gameVerbally praise student or provide corrective feedbackGet to play in game if ask approp’lyTrad’l AversiveNothing – keep chatting w/ colleague by schoolNo emphasis on teaching – assume student should have the skillsSent to office –no recess next day & can’t play kickball for a week
64Good Instruction as a Behavior Management Tool Provide fast-paced, interactive, engaging instructionMust be interactive & engaging for ALL students, not just the best studentsStructure activities from time students enter until they leave classroom“idle hands (or idle time) = devil’s workbench”Provide clear questions/instruction, and directionsToo often I’ve been doing an observation & I find that I’m confused about what students are supposed to be doing at a certain timeInvolve all students in instruction/ classroom activities
65Appropriate Instructional Placement Placement in the appropriate level of instruction as a determining factor in student behaviorIdentify specific skill deficitsTeach simple strategies or misunderstandings to clarify problemCan Do v. Will Do problemImpact of reading deficits on success in content areas
66Interactive & Engaging Requires high levels of participation for all students in instruction/ classroom activitiesWays to get Everyone involved:Use Chorale Responding – clear signal w/ think time to increase respondingBe Careful of relying too much on volunteersWhen reading aloud do not always go sequentially around the roomUse a random selection technique (i.e. choose from popsicle sticks with student names on them)Provide effective instruction & ask clear questions based on instruction that students can answer with high rates of successEstablish consistent routines/ways of asking questions or prompting responses and teach/practice to fluency
67Independent WorkDefine & Teach Expectations & Routines during Independent WorkHigh rates of reinforcement for early practice and independent workPractice at first with non-work activitiesMight want to link with a tangible reinforcer at firstActive Movement & Scanning w/ frequent Precorrection, Reinforcement, & SupportProvide independent work that students can be successful with independently (90% accurate)
68Independent WorkBreak long, multi-step tasks into smaller parts with opportunities for participationInstead of waiting 15 minutes to complete & present a multi-step task, break task into portions & have students present progress on smaller steps in 5 minute intervalsActive Movement & Scanning w/ frequent Reinforcement & Support if struggling
69Managing Volume & Talking Identify your expectationsRoutines & Volume levelsMay use signs, signals or cues to identify different requirements &/or Volume Levels (5-Level system)Use an attention signalExplicitly teach expectation with practiceGive students something to do
70During & After Instruction Evaluate work to identify specific error patternsIn class this can be done through monitoring and looking at workLook for common mistakes across students, which may signal the need for clearer, more explicit instructionLook for individual student mistakes & provide 1:1 support while class during individual seatwork timeWe don’t want students practicing misrules
71Can Do v. Will Do Problem Skill Deficit v. Motivation Problem How can we tell the difference?Try giving the student easier tasks that you know they are capable of doing fluently and see how they respond… if they will do itA task that students are 93+ % successfulA task that is not so easy that it’s boringAntecedent manipulationAntecedent = Difficult Taskmanipulate it to make an easier task
72Can Do v. Will Do Problem Skill Deficit v. Motivation Problem For skill deficits we can:Provide more instruction or support to alleviate specific skill deficit orProvide the student with easier questions or assignments to increase participationFor motivation problems we can:Find incentives to motivate the student to engage in the academic task
75Instructional Classroom Management The nature, structure, and demands of a task can set the stage for serious problem behaviorWhat can I do to change task presentation to make the student more likely to engage in the instructional task and less likely to avoid task/misbehaveDepending on challenge of task, may also need to alter/increase amount of reinforcement provided for some students
76Dimensions of Instructional Classroom Management HistoryResponse formModalityComplexityScheduleVariation
77Manipulating Task Dimensions We can manipulate aspects of tasks (see arrows ) and/or the way we seek student responses to increase the chances that students will be successful with the taskLikelihood of Failure with TaskDecreased Increased (task made easier) (task made more difficult)Likelihood of Problem Behavior/Refusal
78 (more familiar/reviewed items) (newer material) Task HistoryStatus of the task and extent that the task has been taught before and the likelihood that the learner will be familiar with itNew v. familiar tasksLikelihood of Failure with TaskDecreased (easier task) (more difficult) Increased (more familiar/reviewed items) (newer material)Decreased IncreasedLikelihood of Problem Behavior/Refusal
79Task Dimensions of Instructional Classroom Management Task HistoryNew v. familiar tasksTask Response formYes or No/Choice from List/ProductionProduction: write in/finish the sentence/write a sentence+Task Modalityoral/motor/writtenTask ComplexityEasy v. DifficultTask ScheduleAbbreviated v. extendedVariationVaried v. unvaried
80Small Group Activity Break into teams Assign a Task Dimension to each teamCome up with an academic task & show how to use your task dimension to modify the task to make it easierReference Darch & Kameenui pp.51-59Each team will present their example to the class