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 Behavior & Classroom Management Week 2 – Context for Understanding Behavior J Geurts, M.S. Special Education Portland State University

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Presentation on theme: " Behavior & Classroom Management Week 2 – Context for Understanding Behavior J Geurts, M.S. Special Education Portland State University"— Presentation transcript:

1  Behavior & Classroom Management Week 2 – Context for Understanding Behavior J Geurts, M.S. Special Education Portland State University

2 Readings  Patterson, DeBaryshe & Ramsey  Development of Antisocial Behavior  Simonsen et al., 2008  How to best serve students who exhibit anti-social behavior  Dodge, Dishion & Lansford  Why grouping doesn’t work  Cartledge & Kourea  Cultural responsiveness  Questions now? We’ll review at end of class, time permitting.

3  Learning & Behavior

4 Applied Behavior Analysis  Developed from Science of Human Behavior (Behaviorism)  Demands evidence of behavior change as result of intervention  Relies on single-subject design  Emphasis on application in the real world  Socially significant  Critical to success in school, home, community  Assumptions of ABA:  Past learning/biological makeup affect current behavior  All voluntary behavior is governed by the same principles  Behavior serves a purpose  Behavior is related to the environment in which it occurs

5 Why Do People Behave? Modeling? Accident? Instinct? Condition?? Why Do People Continue Behaving? IT WORKS!

6 Understanding Chronic Misbehavior  If a student repeatedly engages in a problem behavior, he/she is most likely doing it for a reason; because it is paying off (it works) for the student  The behavior is functional or serves a purpose (it works)  Behavior is a form of communication, unfortunately some students learn that Problem Behavior is the best way for them to get their needs met (it works)

7 Understanding Chronic Misbehavior RRecognize that recurring misbehavior occurs for a reason, and take this into account when determining how to respond to misbehavior. WWe can understand how to intervene most effectively with a student by identifying the function (or purpose) of their behavior GOAL: Link intervention to the function of behavior… But how??

8 ABC’s of Understanding Chronic Behavior Patterns WWhat happens before (A or antecedent) the behavior occurs ? TTrigger = stimulus that triggers the occurrence of the focus behavior WWhat is the behavior (B)? WWhat happens -- defined in observable & measurable terms (so that someone else could go into the room and both of you could “count” the behavior with little variation) WWhat happens after (C or consequence) the behavior occurs? CContingent response that follows the behavior MMay increase or decrease the behavior A  B  C

9 Antecedents: What triggers the behavior?  What happens immediately preceding the problem/target behavior?  What triggers the behavior, be specific...  What activity?  What peers?  What tasks?  Describe in detail  If you wanted to set up the student to engage in the problem behavior, what would you do?

10 Consequence: What is the response to the behavior?  What happens immediately following the behavior?  How do peers respond?  How do the adults respond?  What are the Consequences/outComes for the student?  How many times out of 10 do each of these responses occur following the problem behavior?  What is the student gaining/avoiding as a result of engaging in the behavior?  How is it paying off for the student? (Currency)

11 Learning Antecedent: Behavior: Consequence/outCome: Student Learns through repeated experience…. that under these specific A ntecedent conditions, if I engage in this B ehavior, I can expect this C onsequence

12 Learning & A  B  C ABC Student is asked to do a math problem in front of the class Student tries to do the problem at the board, but struggles Peers laugh at student and one says aloud, “that one is so easy” NEXT DAY Student is asked to do a math problem in front of the class What happens today???

13 Reinforcing Consequence Antecedent: Behavior:Consequence/outCome: If the consequence is rewarding/desirable, the subject learns the behavior is functional for getting what they want Behavior Increases in the Future Avoid undesirable Gain desirable behavior

14 Punishing Consequence Antecedent: Behavior:Consequence/outCome: If the consequence is punishing/undesired, the subject learns the behavior is not functional for getting what they want Behavior Decreases in the Future Gain undesirable Lose desirable behavior

15  SUMMARY STATEMENTS

16 Summary Statement  Based on several observations  Identifies predictable relationships between environmental variables and behavior During When student will because therefore the function of the behavior is to access /escape/avoid (choose one) (some A ntecedent condition occurs) (engage in a specific B ehavior) (a predictable out C ome will occur) (something in the environment) (some routine)

17 Summary Statement  Based on several observations  Identifies predictable relationships between environmental variables and behavior During When student will because therefore the function of the behavior is to access /escape/avoid (choose one) (some A ntecedent condition occurs) (engage in a specific B ehavior) (a predictable out C ome will occur) (something in the environment) (some routine)Science or Social Studies asked to read out loud in class Verbally refuse, disrespect teacher his teacher calls on someone else oral reading

18 Sample Summary Statement Susan calls Brenda a “creep face” and laughs at her Brenda punches Susan on the arm Susan stops laughing and walks away BRENDA HITS OTHER STUDENTS - WHY WOULD SHE DO THIS? Antecedents A group of students at recess call Brenda fat Brenda kicks several of them The students run away Brenda spells a word incorrectly during an oral review and the child behind her laughs Brenda pulls the child’s hair Brenda is sent to the office Brenda is playing blocks with Ben. Ben takes a block from Brenda Brenda hits Ben over the head with another block Ben puts the block down and runs away BehaviorConsequences Summary Statement WHEN ANTECEDENT, BEHAVIOR BECAUSE CONSEQUENCE BRENDA HURTS THEMTHEY GO AWAY OTHER STUDENTS CALL HER NAMES OR TEASE HER

19 Think about the Function of Behavior  When understanding behavior, you are the investigator  You need to understand from the student perspective…  You need to find the pattern…  You need to be convinced…

20 Most Common Functions of Behavior To Obtain: ppeer attention aadult attention ddesired activity ddesired item/task ssensory experience To Avoid/ Escape: ppeer aadult nnon-preferred activity ddifficult task ssensory experience

21 Functional, not Good/Bad  Functional = Reinforced – it pays off  Behavior being reinforced may be “good” or “bad”, but it’s functional (useful) for the individual engaging in it  Non-functional = Not Reinforced – didn’t pay off  In a sense it’s being punished  Behaviors not reinforced may be “good” or “bad”, but it doesn’t matter because it wasn’t functional (useful) for the individual engaging in it

22 Learning New Skills Antecedent: Behavior: Consequence/outCome: Student Learns through repeated experience…. that under these specific A ntecedent conditions, if I engage in this B ehavior, I can expect this C onsequence Consistent Responding is the Key!!!

23  Tracy Video: ABC Summary Statement Practice

24 Learning & A  B  C -- An example  (A) When sitting at the lunch table with group of ‘cool’ peers (B) if I try to get their attention appropriately by offering to share (C) peers ignore me and don’t respond – do not get desired attention  Behavior (sharing) is punished (lose/miss something desirable)  Offering to share is less likely to occur in future  (A) When ‘unlucky girl’ comes to table with ‘cool’ peers and student wants attention (B) if I make fun of ‘unlucky girl’ (C) peers will laugh and give me attention  Behavior was rewarded ((gain something desirable)  Making fun is more likely to occur in the future A  B  C

25 Practice Activity Another girl sits down at table w/ a mean voice - “Who said you could eat at my table…” Peer gives negative look, but no response TRACY MAKES RUDE COMMENTS TO PEERS WHY WOULD SHE DO THIS? Antecedents Negative look/ no response“I thought cows ate grass”Peers giggling – girl ignores Peers giggling at previous comment “don’t you know it’s rude to read at the table?” Girl gives negative look, but says nothing Peers laughExcuse me” throws food at girl Peers laugh loudly, girl laughs, staff intervenes BehaviorConsequences DEVELOP A SUMMARY STATEMENT FOR TRACY WHEN ANTECEDENT, BEHAVIOR BECAUSE CONSEQUENCE Negative look by girl, no response from peers “hello!”, throws bag in girls face Peers laugh girl calls Tracy ‘jackass’ Peers laugh loudly“Man, I’m being punished for cruelty to animals” Peers laugh; Tracy escorted to office by staff

26 Practice Activity -- Answers Another girl sits down at table w/ a mean voice - “Who said you could eat at my table…” Peer gives negative look, but no response TRACY MAKES RUDE COMMENTS TO PEERS WHY WOULD SHE DO THIS? Antecedents Negative look/ no response“I thought cows ate grass”Peers giggling – girl ignores Peers giggling at previous comment “don’t you know it’s rude to read at the table?” Girl gives negative look, but says nothing Peers laughExcuse me” throws food at girl Peers laugh loudly, girl laughs, staff intervenes BehaviorConsequences Summary Statement WHEN ANTECEDENT, BEHAVIOR BECAUSE CONSEQUENCE TRACY MAKES RUDE COMMENTSTHE PEERS LAUGH SITTING WITH COOL PEERS & ‘UNCOOL’ PEER ARRIVES Negative look by girl, no response from peers “hello!”, throws bag in girls face Peers laugh girl calls Tracy ‘jackass’ Peers laugh loudly“Man, I’m being punished for cruelty to animals” Peers laugh; Tracy escorted to office by staff

27 ABC’s of Instruction Across the Continuum of Learners AntecedentBehaviorConsequence InstructionPromptStudent Response Teacher Feedback Mainstream“What is the capital of Sweden?”…. Bueller, Bueller Student thinks “Stockholm” Sporadic verbal praise Student self reinforcement “I got it right!” Direct Instruction Reading Showing card with word “cat” – saying “this word is ‘cat’, what word?” “cat” “c-ar” Yes – that word is cat; No, this word is cat Significant Disabilities “Choosing food at lunch” Most to least prompting -physical guidance (hand over hand) -Physical -Gestural -verbal Student Response Reinforce response -tangible reinforcer -verbal praise -access to natural reinforcer “get lunch” DIFFERENCES across Continuum - # of trials to mastery - explicitness of instruction

28  More about CONSEQUENCE (C)

29 (C) Reinforcement v. Punishment  Reinforcement - a consequence that increases the future occurrence or likelihood of a behavior  Gain something desirable  Avoid something undesirable  Punishment - a consequence that decreases the future occurrence or probability of the behavior  Miss/lose something desirable  Gain something undesirable

30 CONSEQUENCES REINFORCEMENT  Increases the behavior in the future  Impacts both preferred and problem behavior PUNISHMENT  Decreases the behavior in the future  Impacts both preferred and problem behavior

31 Consequences….more specific REINFORCEMENT (  ) Behavior increases PUNISHMENT (  ) Behavior decreases POSITIVE (addition) + Add happy +  Add sad NEGATIVE (removal) -  Remove sad - Remove happy

32 Reinforcer or Punisher?  Suspension  Verbal Reprimand  Spanking  Time Out IT DEPENDS ON THE STUDENT RESPONSE!!  We often assign value to consequences, based on what we think…. BUT…  What we need to look at is the impact on the student behavior

33 Positive Reinforcement  Contingent presentation (giving) the items below are examples of Positive Reinforcement, if they increase the occurrence of the behavior in the future: Increasing (B)ehavior due to (C) presentation of desired stimulus  I respond in class to get verbal praise/ pat on back  Child mows his grandpa’s lawn to get $25  Student studies to get an “A” increases likelihood I will study  Student tells a joke in class to get peer attention  Girl steals to get clothes she wants  These can be and commonly are reinforcers for desired and undesired behaviors

34 Negative Reinforcement  Contingent removal of (or escape from) the following aversive (negative) stimuli are examples of negative reinforcement, if they increase the occurrence of the behavior in the future Increasing (B)ehavior due to (C) Removal of Aversive stimulus  I take the kitchen trash out to the garage to remove (escape from) the awful smell  I go feed the baby to stop it from crying (to escape noise of crying)  I clean up my mess to remove (escape from) wife’s constant harping on me  Boy threatens/hits peer so peer will stop calling him names  Student swears at teacher so they can escape from the staff they don’t like  Dog runs away to avoid the child pulling its ears  These can be and commonly are reinforcers for desired and undesired behaviors

35 Positive v. Negative Reinforcement  Reinforcement – consequence stimulus that increases future occurrence of behavior  Positive Reinforcement = the contingent presentation (to give) of a stimulus that increases the future rate or probability of a behavior  Negative Reinforcement = Contingent removal of an aversive stimulus that results in increased occurrence of behavior in future

36 REINFORCEMENT: increases the occurrence of the target behavior! POSITIVE: student obtains desirable stimulus (add happy) NEGATIVE: student avoids/escapes aversive stimulus (remove sad)

37  Changing Behavior

38 Understanding Behavior  When understanding behavior, we want to learn what function (or purpose) the behavior is serving for the student  We need to understand from the student perspective…  In the student’s eyes, what are they getting (or trying to get) from engaging in this behavior  What is the most important thing that the student wants to gain (or avoid) by using this behavior

39 Power of the Antecedent Stimulus Control  Through repeated exposure and learning the Antecedent becomes a very strong cue triggering the Behavior to occur.  The Behavior will become almost automatic under these Antecedent conditions, because the learning is so ingrained A  B  C

40 Learning Antecedent: Behavior: Consequence/outCome: Student Learns through repeated experience…. that under these specific A ntecedent conditions, if I engage in this B ehavior, I can expect this C onsequence

41 Stimulus Control - example Mr. Green’s class (chaotic class, unengaging, little participation) Students ignore & keep talking Mrs. Brown’s class structured class w/ high engagement) Students quiet down & pay attention  A history of learning based on interactions between child and teacher have created the following predictable routine  Now, not only do these student react differently to these teachers in the classroom… but they are also likely to behave in a similar fashion with each outside of the classroom because the presence of the person (Antecedent) has developed such a strong relationship with a certain behavioral response

42 Next Week’s Quiz!  Know A  B  C (3-term contingency)  Define A and C  Describe role of LEARNING in understanding the relationship between A, B, and C.  Compare and contrast POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT and NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT

43 REVIEW READINGS


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