2OverviewTeaching vertebrates in the elementary grades means answering the most basic question, "What is a vertebrate?" Begin by explaining to your students that almost all animals fall under one of two categories: Vertebrates and Invertebrates.
3Before discussing the characteristics for each group of vertebrates, students should have a good understanding of what a vertebrate is, and which animal categories are classified as vertebrates. Simple discussion should be adequate for assessing whether or not students posses the appropriate background knowledge. The teacher should look specifically for answers indicating that Vertebrates are animals possessing a backbone,
4and that there are 5 groups of animals which are considered vertebrates (fish, mammal, bird, amphibian and reptile maintain their body temperature). If the teacher believes the students do not possess adequate understanding of what constitutes a Vertebrate, the class should revisit the previous lessons in this series, which cover each of these topics.
5Students should also understand that when items are sorted into categories, the placement is based on certain characteristics. All members of the same group share similar characteristics. Vertebrates are sorted into categories depending on their skin covering, the type and features of their limbs, how they reproduce and how they maintain their body temperature.
6Classification of Vertebrates FishesReptilesAmphibiansMammalsBirds
7I. Objectives: To introduce what vertebrates is. To identify the characteristics of each of vertebrates and classify them.To learn the 5 groups in which vertebrates are divided and their main characteristics.
8Learning Outcomes Define what a vertebrate is. Recognize and classify the classification of vertebrates.Learn that vertebrates are divided into 5 classification.
9II. Subject Matter Topic: Vertebrates Values: Appreciation to animals Love and respect to animalsRealizing that animals are also God’s creation.
10What is Vertebrates? What are the Five classification of Vertebrates? IntroductionWhat is Vertebrates?What are the Five classification ofVertebrates?
11Vertebrates are animals with backbones, usually it has an exoskeleton What is Vertebrates?Vertebrates are animals with backbones, usually it has an exoskeleton
13AmphibiansThey always live the earliest part of their life cycle in water.They are warm blooded animalsMost lay eggs (a few salamanders and frogs give birth to live young)As adults, they breathe oxygen with lungs and also through skin.Most go through metamorphosis
14Birds They are warm-blooded vertebrates. They have feather, wings, and beaks.Most birds feed their young.All birds hatch from eggs, and most birds build nests for the eggs. Some birds deposit their eggs in other birds’ nests (like the cowbird)Many birds have a crop (a sac at the bottom of the esophagus), where stores undigested food before it enters the stomach.
15Fishes They are warm blooded animals. They live in the water. Most fish have gills and scales.Most fish lay eggs, though there are live-bearers such as the aquarium fish guppies and swordtails.
16Mammals Mammary glands – produce milk to feed young. Sweat glands – only mammals perspire (in order to maintain body temperature)Breathe with lungs, diaphragm assists with this (mammals only animal to have diaphragm)Care for their young.Very developed brains.
17Reptiles They are cold-blooded vertebrates. They breathe through lungs.They all have scales (or plates, in the case of turtles) that prevent them from losing moisture through their skins and protects against injury. Scales are made up of keratin, the same material found in fingernails.Reptiles can go a long time without eating because they don’t require the energy (which comes from food) to maintain a constant body temperature.
18Developmental Activities Presentation of theLesson.First Instruction Activity.Discussion of the FirstInstruction
19Presentation of the Lesson Title: (Interview with the Vertebrates)
20First Instruction: Group Activity After watching the “Interview with vertebrates” video the teacher will give brief introduction on vertebrates.Then the teacher will divide the class in 5 groups with 5 to 7 members.The pupils are instructed to gather information about the different classification of vertebrates and its main characteristics.
21Guide Questions What are vertebrates? What are the five classification of vertebrates?Where do vertebrates live?What do vertebrates eat?Why are vertebrates important to the environment?What are the 5 main vertebrates groups?What are other types of vertebrates?(The teacher will gather collect the information the student gathered)
22Discussion of First Instruction Title: (VERTEBRATES: Introduction to the unit)
24Second Instruction: Collage Making Each group will asked to create a collage with a short information about the animal and its unique characteristic.One collage output for each classification of vertebrates.The idea it hang the collage in the wall they can review the information on it.
25Possible output for Amphibians Classification of Vertebrates: _______________Short information: _______________
26Possible output for Birds: Classification of Vertebrates: ___________Short Information: ______________
27Possible output of Fishes Classification of Vertebrate: ____________Short information: ____________
28Possible output for Reptiles Classification of Vertebrates: ____________Short information: ____________
29Possible output for Mammals Classification of Vertebrates: ____________Short Information: ____________
31Third Instruction: Values Infusion Lastly, the teacher will tell the pupils to make a poem, short skit, or a song that will show appreciation and respect to animals.Each members of each group will cooperate.Use the animals according to the classification the members are included.
36Fish Crosswords 4. A very small fish 5. The biggest fish. (Hint: It's a shark).7. A dangerous meat-eating fish from the Amazon River.9. ________-blooded.11. A fish that lives in an anemone.13. A place where fish live (freshwater).14. Fish need these to breathe.15. A very long fish that looks like a snake.16. A place where fish live with fast, flowing water (freshwater).17. A place where fish live with frogs and lily pads (freshwater).Across1. A fish with whiskers.6. A fish that is born in a river, grows up in a sea for several years, and then goes back to the river to lay eggs.8. A group of fish.10. A fish that people eat out of cans.12. An orange fish that is often kept as a pet.14. A large ferocious shark.18. A place where fish live (saltwater).Down2. Fish use these to swim.3. Fish have these on their skin.
38Reptile Riddles Reptiles have this to protect their skin. 1Reptiles have this to protect their skin.2Reptile babies come from these.3Many snakes have this in their fangs, which can kill they prey. It begins with letter V.4This lizard can change the color of its skin.5This reptile lives in the Nile River with long mouth with many teeth.
39Generalization:Vertebrates are animals with backbones and usually has an exoskeleton.There are 5 classification of vertebrates namely: Amphibians, Birds, Fishes, Mammals, and Reptiles.
40Evaluation Classify each animals using the following abbreviation. A – amphibiansB- birdsF- fishesM- mammalsR- reptiles